The parasitic nematode Anguillicola crassus was recently introduced into populations of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla. We investigated, under experimental conditions, the regulation of A. crassus infrapopulations. We tested the effects of (1) the resource-limited habitat of the parasite and (2) the coexistence of several developmental stages in its niche (the swim-bladder) on the composition of the infrapopulations. The results revealed that the respective effects of these factors differed substantially during the course of the infection. Third-stage larvae (L3s) establishment would not be constrained by the size of the swim-bladder. Their moult to fourth-stage larvae (L4s) would be accelerated as the number of L3s increased. The moulting time of L4s to adults would be reduced by males and would be constrained by the size of the swim-bladder. However, the moult of L4s to adults and their further development would be synchronized with those of the opposite sex. At the time of mating, the number of males and the body weight of adults would depend on the size of the swim-bladder. Soon after the laying of eggs, the developmental constraint on the late L3s would decrease. When adults die, constraints would cease and late larval stages would moult to become adults.