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The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) is an 18000 m2 radio telescope located 40 km from Canberra, Australia. Its operating band (820–851 MHz) is partly allocated to telecommunications, making radio astronomy challenging. We describe how the deployment of new digital receivers, Field Programmable Gate Array-based filterbanks, and server-class computers equipped with 43 Graphics Processing Units, has transformed the telescope into a versatile new instrument (UTMOST) for studying the radio sky on millisecond timescales. UTMOST has 10 times the bandwidth and double the field of view compared to the MOST, and voltage record and playback capability has facilitated rapid implementaton of many new observing modes, most of which operate commensally. UTMOST can simultaneously excise interference, make maps, coherently dedisperse pulsars, and perform real-time searches of coherent fan-beams for dispersed single pulses. UTMOST operates as a robotic facility, deciding how to efficiently target pulsars and how long to stay on source via real-time pulsar folding, while searching for single pulse events. Regular timing of over 300 pulsars has yielded seven pulsar glitches and three Fast Radio Bursts during commissioning. UTMOST demonstrates that if sufficient signal processing is applied to voltage streams, innovative science remains possible even in hostile radio frequency environments.
This study estimates the symptomatology of attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult mental health services (AMHS) outpatient clinics.
All consecutive patients attending any of the outpatients’ clinics in Sligo/Leitrim AMHS were invited to participate. Participants completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) self-report. Clinical notes were reviewed to identify those with a pre-existing ADHD diagnosis.
From 822 attending the clinics, 62 did not meet inclusion criteria, 97 declined to participate and 29 had incomplete data in either of the screening scales, leaving 634 (77%) eligible for full study analysis. Mean age was 40.38 (s.d.: 12.85), and 326 (51.4%) were females. In total, 215 (33.9%) screened positive on the WURS for childhood onset ADHD and 219 (34.5%) participants scored positive on the ASRS. Applying a more stringent criteria of scoring above cut-offs on both scales, suggested 131 (20.7%) screened positive on both. Only three (2.3%) had a prior clinical diagnosis.
This preliminary study suggests the possibility of relatively higher rates of ADHD in a general AMHS than previously thought, however, given the possibility of overlapping symptoms with other major psychiatric disorders in adulthood and recall bias further research is needed before drawing firm conclusions.
Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) course finds a substantial proportion of cases remit within 6 months, a majority within 2 years, and a substantial minority persists for many years. Results are inconsistent about pre-trauma predictors.
The WHO World Mental Health surveys assessed lifetime DSM-IV PTSD presence-course after one randomly-selected trauma, allowing retrospective estimates of PTSD duration. Prior traumas, childhood adversities (CAs), and other lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were examined as predictors using discrete-time person-month survival analysis among the 1575 respondents with lifetime PTSD.
20%, 27%, and 50% of cases recovered within 3, 6, and 24 months and 77% within 10 years (the longest duration allowing stable estimates). Time-related recall bias was found largely for recoveries after 24 months. Recovery was weakly related to most trauma types other than very low [odds-ratio (OR) 0.2–0.3] early-recovery (within 24 months) associated with purposefully injuring/torturing/killing and witnessing atrocities and very low later-recovery (25+ months) associated with being kidnapped. The significant ORs for prior traumas, CAs, and mental disorders were generally inconsistent between early- and later-recovery models. Cross-validated versions of final models nonetheless discriminated significantly between the 50% of respondents with highest and lowest predicted probabilities of both early-recovery (66–55% v. 43%) and later-recovery (75–68% v. 39%).
We found PTSD recovery trajectories similar to those in previous studies. The weak associations of pre-trauma factors with recovery, also consistent with previous studies, presumably are due to stronger influences of post-trauma factors.
To identify the predictors of psychotropic medication use and to determine rates and patterns of use in Northern Ireland (NI) among the general population and various subgroups.
Analysis of data from the NI Study of Health and Stress, a representative household survey undertaken between 2004 and 2008 with 4340 individuals. Respondents were asked about prescribed psychotropic medication use in the previous 12 months along with a series of demographic questions and items regarding experience of traumatic life events. Mental health disorders were assessed using the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
Females, individuals aged 50–64 years old, those who were previously married, and those who had experienced a traumatic lifetime event were more likely to have taken any psychotropic medication. Use of any psychotropic medication in the population in the previous 12 months was 14.9%. Use among individuals who met the criteria for a 12-month mental health disorder was 38.5%. Almost one in ten individuals (9.4%) had taken an antidepressant.
Compared with other countries, NI has high proportions of individuals using psychotropic medication in both the general population and those who met the criteria for a 12-month mental disorder. However, these results still suggest possible under treatment of mental disorders in the country. In addition, rates of use in those with no disorder are relatively high. The predictors of medication use are similar to findings in other countries. Possible research and policy implications are discussed.
The prediction of grass dry matter intake (GDMI) and milk yield (MY) are important to aid sward and grazing management decision making. Previous evaluations of the GrazeIn model identified weaknesses in the prediction of GDMI and MY for grazing dairy cows. To increase the accuracy of GDMI and MY prediction, GrazeIn was adapted, and then re-evaluated, using a data set of 3960 individual cow measurements. The adaptation process was completed in four additive steps with different components of the model reparameterised or altered. These components were: (1) intake capacity (IC) that was increased by 5% to reduce a general GDMI underprediction. This resulted in a correction of the GDMI mean and a lower relative prediction error (RPE) for the total data set, and at all stages of lactation, compared with the original model; (2) body fat reserve (BFR) deposition from 84 days in milk to next calving that was included in the model. This partitioned some energy to BFR deposition after body condition score nadir had been reached. This reduced total energy available for milk production, reducing the overprediction of MY and reducing RPE for MY in mid and late lactation, compared with the previous step. There was no effect on predicted GDMI; (3) The potential milk curve was reparameterised by optimising the rate of decrease in the theoretical hormone related to secretory cell differentiation and the basal rate of secretory cell death to achieve the lowest possible mean prediction error (MPE) for MY. This resulted in a reduction in the RPE for MY and an increase in the RPE for GDMI in all stages of lactation compared with the previous step; and (4) finally, IC was optimised, for GDMI, to achieve the lowest possible MPE. This resulted in an IC correction coefficient of 1.11. This increased the RPE for MY but decreased the RPE for GDMI compared with the previous step. Compared with the original model, modifying this combination of four model components improved the prediction accuracy of MY, particularly in late lactation with a decrease in RPE from 27.8% in the original model to 22.1% in the adapted model. However, testing of the adapted model using an independent data set would be beneficial and necessary to make definitive conclusions on improved predictions.
Predicting the grass dry matter intake (GDMI), milk yield (MY) or milk fat and protein yield (milk solids yield (MSY)) of the grazing dairy herd is difficult. Decisions with regard to grazing management are based on guesstimates of the GDMI of the herd, yet GDMI is a critical factor influencing MY and MSY. A data set containing animal, sward, grazing management and concentrate supplementation variables recorded during weeks of GDMI measurement was used to develop multiple regression equations to predict GDMI, MY and MSY. The data set contained data from 245 grazing herds from 10 published studies conducted at Teagasc, Moorepark. A forward stepwise multiple regression technique was used to develop the multiple regression equations for each of the dependent variables (GDMI, MY, MSY) for three periods during the grazing season: spring (SP; 5 March to 30 April), summer (SU; 1 May to 31 July) and autumn (AU; 1 August to 31 October). The equations generated highlighted the importance of different variables associated with GDMI, MY and MSY during the grazing season. Peak MY was associated with an increase in GDMI, MY and MSY during the grazing season with the exception of GDMI in SU when BW accounted for more of the variation. A higher body condition score (BCS) at calving was associated with a lower GDMI in SP and SU and a lower MY and MSY in all periods. A higher BCS was associated with a higher GDMI in SP and SU, a higher MY in SU and AU and a higher MSY in all periods. The pre-grazing herbage mass of the sward (PGHM) above 4 cm was associated with a quadratic effect on GDMI in SP, on MY in SP and SU and on MSY in SU. An increase in daily herbage allowance (DHA) above 4 cm was associated with an increase in GDMI in AU, an increase in MY in SU and AU and MSY in AU. Supplementing grazing dairy cows with concentrate reduced GDMI and increased MY and MSY in all periods. The equations generated can be used by the Irish dairy industry during the grazing season to predict the GDMI, MY and MSY of grazing dairy herds.
The current study provides the first epidemiological estimates of lifetime mental disorders across NI based on DSM-IV criteria. Risk factors, delays in treatment and the experience of conflict are also examined.
Nationally representative face-to-face household survey of 4340 individuals aged ⩾18 years in NI using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Analyses were implemented using SAS and STATA software.
Lifetime prevalence of any disorder was 39.1% while projected lifetime risk was 48.6%. Individuals who experienced conflict were more likely to have had an anxiety, mood or impulse-control disorder. Treatment delays were substantial for anxiety and substance disorders.
Results from this study show that mental disorders are highly prevalent in Northern Ireland. The elevated rates of post-traumatic stress disorder in relation to other countries and the association of living ‘in a region of terror’ disorders suggests that civil conflict has had an additional impact on mental health. Given substantial delays in treatment, further research is required to investigate the factors associated with failure and delay in treatment seeking.
Adaptation, speciation and extinction
A. Donnelly, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland,
A. Caffarra, Istituto Agrario San Michele all'Adige, Italy,
E. Diskin, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland,
C. T. Kelleher, National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland,
A. Pletsers, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland,
H. Proctor, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland,
R. Stirnemann, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland,
M. B. Jones, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland,
J. O'Halloran, University College Cork, Ireland,
B. F. O'Neill, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland,
J. Peñuelas, Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain,
T. Sparks, Technische Universität München, Germany and Institute of Zoology, Poznań University of Life Sciences, University of Cambridge, UK
The impact of climate change, in particular increasing spring temperatures, on life-cycle events of plants and animals has gained scientific attention in recent years. Leafing of trees, appearance and abundance of insects, and migration of birds, across a range of species and countries, have been cited as phenotrends that are advancing in response to warmer spring temperatures. The ability of organisms to acclimate to variations in environmental conditions is known as phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity allows organisms to time developmental stages to coincide with optimum availability of environmental resources. There may, however, come a time when the limit of this plasticity is reached and the species needs to adapt genetically to survive. Here we discuss evidence of the impact of climate warming on plant, insect and bird phenology through examination of: (1) phenotypic plasticity in (a) bud burst in trees, (b) appearance of insects and (c) migration of birds; and (2) genetic adaptation in (a) gene expression during bud burst in trees, (b) the timing of occurrence of phenological events in insects and (c) arrival and breeding times of migratory birds. Finally, we summarise the potential consequences of future climatic changes for plant, insect and bird phenology.
The recent resurgence of interest in phenology (the timing of recurring life-cycle events in plants and animals) has stemmed from research on the impact of climate change, in particular, global warming.
A simple computer model is proposed to simulate the microstructural evolution of Al-4wt%Cu lines. The model includes the coarsening and pinning of Al2Cu precipitates which occur during normal grain growth. This model is used to explore how Cu-rich precipitates evolve during normal grain growth, and how they affect the evolution of grain structure from polycrystalline to bamboo.
We present 21 cm observations of 5×1 square degrees centered on the local Abell cluster 1367 obtained as part of the Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey. This represents the first HI selected sample covering the core and the outskirts of a local cluster of galaxies. Combining the HI data with SDSS optical imaging we show that in HI selected samples follow scaling relations similar to the ones usually observed in optically selected samples. The most striking difference between HI and optically selected samples resides in their large scale distribution: while optical and X-ray observations trace the cluster potential very well, at radio wavelengths there is almost no evidence of the cluster presence.
The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey is a blind neutral hydrogen survey using the ALFA multibeam receiver at Arecibo Observatory to reach unprecedented sensitivities in a number of selected fields in the local Universe. When completed the survey will cover 200 square degrees out to a distance of at least 270 Mpc. If a population of gas-rich dark galaxies exists, then this survey is in a prime position to uncover that population.
So far 20 square degrees have been covered in the regions of Abell 1367, the Virgo Cluster, the NGC 7332/9 galaxy pair and the isolated galaxy NGC 1156. Over 200 sources have been found, including a number that have no obvious optical counterparts. We discuss here the potential of AGES for uncovering more such objects and the characteristics of the dark sources identified to date.
The Arecibo Galaxy Environments Survey (AGES) is a 2000-hour neutral hydrogen (H I) survey using the new Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) multibeam instrument at Arecibo Observatory. It will cover 200 square degrees of sky, sampling a range of environments from the Local Void through to the Virgo Cluster with higher sensitivity, spatial resolution and velocity resolution than previous neutral hydrogen surveys.
The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey (AGES, Auld et al. 2006) will map ~200 square degrees over the next years using the ALFA feed array at the 305-m Arecibo Telescope. AGES is specifically designed to investigate various galactic environments from local voids to interacting groups and cluster of galaxies. AGES will map 20 square degrees in the Coma-Abell1367 supercluster including the Abell cluster 1367 and its outskirts (up to ~2 virial radii). In Spring 2006 we nearly completed the observations of 5 square degrees in the range 11:34< RA< 11:54, 19:20<Dec<20:20 covering all the cluster core and part of its infalling region reaching a 5 sigma detection limit of M(HI)~4×108M⊙ (assuming a velocity width ~200 km~s−1) at the distance of Abell1367 (~92 Mpc). An HI selected sample has been extracted from the datacube obtaining a catalogue of fluxes, recessional velocities, positions and velocity widths. We present a preliminary analysis of the properties of the HI sources and report the discovery of HI diffuse features within interacting groups at the periphery of Abell1367.
A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and carotenoid database with information on α- and β-carotene, lutein, lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin was prepared and used to compare the carotenoid intakes in five European countries: UK, Republic of Ireland, Spain, France and The Netherlands. Eighty, age- (25–45 years) and sex-matched volunteers were recruited in each of the five countries. A FFQ and carotenoid database was prepared of the most commonly consumed carotenoid rich foods in the participating countries and the information was used to calculate frequency and intake of carotenoid-rich foods. The median total carotenoid intake based on the sum of the five carotenoids, was significantly higher (P<0.05) in France (16.1 mg/day) and lower in Spain (9.5 mg/day,) than the other countries, where the average intake was approximately 14 mg/day. Comparison of dietary source of carotenoids showed that carrots were the major source of β-carotene in all countries except Spain where spinach was most important. Likewise, carrots were also the main source of α-carotene. Tomato or tomato products, were the major source of lycopene. Lutein was mainly obtained from peas in Republic of Ireland and the UK, however, spinach was found to be the major source in other countries. In all countries, β-cryptoxanthin was primarily obtained from citrus fruit. Comparing the data with that from specific European country studies suggests that the FFQ and carotenoid database described in the present paper can be used for comparative dietary intake studies within Europe. The results show that within Europe there are differences in the specific intake of some carotenoids which are related to different foods consumed by people in different countries.