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The global community needs to be aware of the potential psychosocial consequences that may be experienced by healthcare workers who are actively managing patients with COVID-19. These healthcare workers are at increased risk for experiencing mood and trauma-related disorders, including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. In this concept article, strategies are recommended for individual healthcare workers and hospital leadership to aid in mitigating the risk of PTSD as well as to build resilience in light of a potential second surge of COVID-19.
With the increasing fear that democracy is faltering worldwide, it is perhaps naïve to think that there could actually exist a rational and well-ordered system for electing the president of the United States. Yet the opposite idea—that the process for picking the president is irrational and arbitrary, failing to reflect the real preferences of the electorate—is deeply unsettling. The American president wields too much power for the incumbent to be the product of an incoherent procedure. For the sake of humanity as a whole, as well as the people of the United States, it is essential to endeavor as best as is humanly possible to conceptualize what a coherent and sensible system for presidential elections might be.
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs), such as Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Huntington’s disease, inevitably lead to impairments in higher-order cognitive functions, including the perception of emotional cues and decision-making behavior. Such impairments are likely to cause risky daily life behavior, for instance, in traffic. Impaired recognition of emotional expressions, such as fear, is considered a marker of impaired experience of emotions. Lower fear experience can, in turn, be related to risk-taking behavior. The aim of our study was to investigate whether impaired emotion recognition in patients with NDD is indeed related to unsafe decision-making in risky everyday life situations, which has not been investigated yet.
Fifty-one patients with an NDD were included. Emotion recognition was measured with the Facial Expressions of Emotions: Stimuli and Test (FEEST). Risk-taking behavior was measured with driving simulator scenarios and the Action Selection Test (AST). Data from matched healthy controls were used: FEEST (n = 182), AST (n = 36), and driving simulator (n = 18).
Compared to healthy controls, patients showed significantly worse emotion recognition, particularly of anger, disgust, fear, and sadness. Furthermore, patients took significantly more risks in the driving simulator rides and the AST. Only poor recognition of fear was related to a higher amount of risky decisions in situations involving a direct danger.
To determine whether patients with an NDD are still fit to drive, it is crucial to assess their ability to make safe decisions. Measuring emotion recognition may be a valuable contribution to this judgment.
When a patient in an in-patient psychiatric setting allegedly commits a crime, psychiatrists are sometimes asked to assess their fitness to be interviewed by the police. This article describes how to conduct this assessment, outlines the criminal justice process leading to police interviews (with particular reference to the legal system in England and Wales) and highlights practical issues to consider when assessing fitness to be interviewed in this context.
After a heyday in the 1970s and 1980s, probability sampling became much less visible in archaeological literature as it came under assault from the post-processual critique and the widespread adoption of “full-coverage survey.” After 1990, published discussion of probability sampling rarely strayed from sample-size issues in analyses of artifacts along with plant and animal remains, and most textbooks and archaeological training limited sampling to regional survey and did little to equip new generations of archaeologists with this critical aspect of research design. A review of the last 20 years of archaeological literature indicates a need for deeper and broader archaeological training in sampling; more precise usage of terms such as “sample”; use of randomization as a control in experimental design; and more attention to cluster sampling, stratified sampling, and nonspatial sampling in both training and research.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: There are two objectives: 1) To identify healthcare providers’ (HCP) barriers and potential solutions towards rural adolescents’ access to mental healthcare. Healthcare providers include pharmacists, physicians, and mental healthcare providers (MHPs). 2) To identify rural high schoolers’ barriers and potential solutions towards access to mental healthcare. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Fifteen HCPs will be recruited via email listserv and the snowball method. Perceived barriers of rural adolescents, personal barriers, current practices to address mental health in adolescents, and preferred solutions will be discussed. Twenty student and parent dyads will be recruited using fliers in school systems and will be interviewed individually outside of class time on school grounds or over the phone. Barriers to care and preferred solutions will be discussed. All interviews will be semi-structured, recorded, conducted in person or over the phone, and last for 30 minutes to an hour. Compensation will be $25 for students and parents each, $50 for pharmacists and mental health providers and $100 for physicians. Thematic qualitative data analysis will be performed using Atlas.ti software. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Data collection is ongoing. Anticipated results for barriers include absence of mental healthcare providers in rural areas, inability to access mental healthcare providers further away, stigma towards mental healthcare, and lack of knowledge of mental health conditions and treatment. Anticipated results for potential solutions may include promoting mobile applications to assist with telehealth and self-care. Other solutions may be collaboration among rural healthcare providers for adolescents with mental health conditions. Preferred solutions may also include pharmacists disseminating knowledge to rural adolescents and their parents or referrals to mental healthcare providers. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This project will identify barriers and solutions to access to mental healthcare among rural adolescents. These solutions can then be applied towards the creation of programs that address salient issues within rural communities with a greater chance of uptake and use so that rates of depression and suicide will decrease. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: Funding through UAB TL1 award.
This project will work closely with existing service partners involved in street level services and focus on testing and evaluating three approaches for street level interventions for youth who are homeless and who have severe or moderate mentally illness. Youth will be asked to choose their preferred service approach:
Housing First related initiatives focused on interventions designed to move youth to appropriate and available housing and ongoing housing supports.
Treatment First initiatives to provide Mental Health/Addiction supports and treatment solutions, and; Simultaneous attention to both Housing and Treatment Together
Our primary objective is to understand the service delivery preferences of homeless youth and understand the outcomes of these choices. Our research questions include:
1. Which approaches to service are chosen by youth?
2. What are the differences and similarities between groups choosing each approach?
3. What are the critical ingredients needed to effectively implement services for homeless youth from the perspectives of youth, families and service providers?
Focus groups with staff and family members will occur to assist in understanding the nature of each of service approach, changes that evolve within services, & facilitators and barriers to service delivery. This work will be important in determining which approach is chosen by youth and why. Evaluating the outcomes with each choice will provide valuable information about outcomes for the service options chosen by youth. This assist in better identifying weaknesses in the services offered and inform further development of treatment options that youth will accept.
Effectiveness of medication treatment is determined by three components: treatment efficacy (symptom reduction), tolerability/safety, and adherence. Compared with efficacy and safety, research into adherence has been lacking. Nevertheless, medication non-adherence is a risk factor for relapse and for aggressive behavior in association with substance abuse in schizophrenia patients. Non-adherence has been estimated to cause approximately 40% of relapses in patients with schizophrenia. High rates of treatment discontinuation in all arms of the CATIE study illustrate the widespread nature of non-adherence. Most of previous research has defined non-adherence as a complete discontinuation of medication. However, many schizophrenia patients show partial adherence: they do not completely discontinue their medication, but they do not take all that has been prescribed. Partial adherence is more difficult to define and study than complete non-adherence.
e had the opportunity to study partial adherence in the context of a randomized, double-blind, 8-week, fixed-dose study comparing olanzapine 10mg/d, 20 mg/d and 40 mg/d for patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=599). Medication non-adherence was measured by pill counts. Baseline characteristics including demographics, illness history and symptom severity were investigated as potential risk factors for treatment non-adherence.
Results and conclusion
Approximately 1/3 of patients were non-adherent with their medication at least once during the 8-week study. These non-adherent patients had significantly less improvement compared to adherent patients. Adherent patients had greater weight gain than the non-adherent ones. Among the available baseline measures, greater baseline depression severity appeared to be a significant risk factor for non-adherence.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
Sulfur-bearing monazite-(Ce) occurs in silicified carbonatite at Eureka, Namibia, forming rims up to ~0.5 mm thick on earlier-formed monazite-(Ce) megacrysts. We present X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data demonstrating that sulfur is accommodated predominantly in monazite-(Ce) as sulfate, via a clino-anhydrite-type coupled substitution mechanism. Minor sulfide and sulfite peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectra, however, also indicate that more complex substitution mechanisms incorporating S2– and S4+ are possible. Incorporation of S6+ through clino-anhydrite-type substitution results in an excess of M2+ cations, which previous workers have suggested is accommodated by auxiliary substitution of OH– for O2–. However, Raman data show no indication of OH–, and instead we suggest charge imbalance is accommodated through F– substituting for O2–. The accommodation of S in the monazite-(Ce) results in considerable structural distortion that may account for relatively high contents of ions with radii beyond those normally found in monazite-(Ce), such as the heavy rare earth elements, Mo, Zr and V. In contrast to S-bearing monazite-(Ce) in other carbonatites, S-bearing monazite-(Ce) at Eureka formed via a dissolution–precipitation mechanism during prolonged weathering, with S derived from an aeolian source. While large S-bearing monazite-(Ce) grains are likely to be rare in the geological record, formation of secondary S-bearing monazite-(Ce) in these conditions may be a feasible mineral for dating palaeo-weathering horizons.
The Gaia DR2 has dramatically increased the ability to detect faint nearby white dwarfs. The census of the local white dwarf population has recently been extended from 25 pc to 50 pc, effectively increasing the sample by roughly an order of magnitude. Here we examine the completeness of this new sample as a function of variables such as apparent magnitude, distance, proper motion, photometric color index, unresolved components, etc.
The previous two chapters of Part II focused on the economic factors and conditions determining land conversion in developing countries. This chapter is concerned with the problem of freshwater availability and use, which was highlighted in Chapter 1 as an important “stylized fact” of the role of natural resources in economic development for many low- and middle-income economies.
The introductory chapter highlights the structural dependence of many low- and middle-income economies on natural resource exploitation. Chapter 2 reviews many theories that, on the whole, suggest that natural resource exploitation has been the main feature of economic development and trade in the developing world historically. These theories generally suggest that the exploitation of the natural resources of a country is, at the very least, an important first step in its economic development.
As discussed in Part I, the very minimum criterion for attaining sustainable development in a resource-rich economy is that this natural resource exploitation satisfies “weak sustainability” conditions. That is, the development path must ensure that, first, natural resources are managed efficiently so that any rents earned are maximized, and second, the rents resulting from the depletion of natural capital are invested into other productive assets in the economy.
The “stylized facts” reviewed in Chapter 1 suggest that the vast majority of low- and middle-income economies tend to be resource dependent, in terms of a high concentration of primary products to total exports, and that these economies appear to perform poorly. In addition, development in low- and middle-income countries is associated with land conversion and increased stress on freshwater resources, and a significant share of the rural population in developing economies is located in marginal agricultural areas.
This chapter, which begins Part III, centers on a third important aspect of natural resources and economic development in poor countries: namely, that many of the poor in low- and middle-income economies are located in rural areas and remain dependent on agricultural and other renewable resources for their livelihoods, as emphasized by the above quote from Partha Dasgupta. This has two important implications for an economic approach to improved resource management for sustainable development in poor countries. First, we need to understand better the linkages between rural poverty and resource degradation, especially how they might lead to poverty–environment traps in certain geographical areas.
Can frontier-based development be successful? The short answer to this question is: “Why not?” As we have discussed, since 1500, “frontier expansion” has been a major part of global economic development. It is characterized by a pattern of capital investment, technological innovation and social and economic institutions dependent on “opening up” new frontiers of land and natural resources once existing ones have been “closed” and exhausted. Most of this development has been incredibly successful, particularly during the Golden Age of Resource-Based Development (1870–1913).