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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
There has recently been growing interest in various atomic and nuclear techniques for the measurement of elements in the body. This has arisen through the realisation that (a) clinically-important amounts of toxic elements can be absorbed as a result of low-level environmental exposure, and (b) important information about the nutritional status of a patient can be obtained from measurements of major body elements. Where such information can be obtained by taking samples, a very wide range of analytical techniques is available, some capable of a sensitivity measured in parts-per-billion. Sampling is not possible, however, when the whole-body content (e.g. of nitrogen) is required, and is clinically undesirable when the element in question is concentrated in particular organs, for example as lead accumulates in the bones, and cadmium and many other toxic elements accumulate in the kidneys. It is in such cases that the various in vivo techniques are particularly important.
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) has been associated with depression and can have an impact on quality of life. Therefore, researchers have suggested the potential utility of psychological interventions for targeting depression among CSU patients. Psychological interventions that may hold the most promise are those that are brief and easily transportable, such as brief behavioural activation treatment for depression. We report results of a preliminary investigation of an uncontrolled open trial of a one-session behavioural activation treatment for depression designed for patients with CSU (BATD-CSU) at a university-based allergy and immunology clinic. Participants were 11 females with chronic, poorly controlled urticaria and symptoms of depression. Following the completion of pretreatment questionnaires, participants were administered BATD-CSU primarily by non-mental health professionals trained and supervised in its delivery. One month post-BATD-CSU, participants completed follow-up questionnaires. Participants exhibited significant reductions in depression severity, avoidance/rumination, and work/school impairment. BATD-CSU was also associated with improvements in urticaria control one month post-treatment. Moreover, five of nine patients reported reliable and clinically significant improvement on at least one outcome. Results demonstrate that BATD-CSU may have benefits for CSU patients even when consisting of one session and delivered by professionals with limited background in psychological interventions, thus speaking to its feasibility and transportability.
GravityCam is a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. Advances in optical and near-infrared imaging technologies allow images to be acquired at high speed without significant noise penalty. Aligning these images before they are combined can yield a 2.5–3-fold improvement in image resolution. By using arrays of such detectors, survey fields may be as wide as the telescope optics allows. Consequently, GravityCam enables both wide-field high-resolution imaging and high-speed photometry. We describe the instrument and detail its application to provide demographics of planets and satellites down to Lunar mass (or even below) across the Milky Way. GravityCam is also suited to improve the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant clusters of galaxies and multiwavelength follow-ups of background sources that are strongly lensed by galaxy clusters. The photometric data arising from an extensive microlensing survey will also be useful for asteroseismology studies, while GravityCam can be used to monitor fast multiwavelength flaring in accreting compact objects and promises to generate a unique data set on the population of the Kuiper belt and possibly the Oort cloud.
The idea that the state is a fiduciary to its citizens has a long pedigree - ultimately reaching back to the ancient Greeks, and including Hobbes and Locke among its proponents. Public fiduciary theory is now experiencing a resurgence, with applications that range from international law, to insider trading by members of Congress, to election law and gerrymandering. This book is the first of its kind: a collection of chapters by leading writers on public fiduciary subject areas. The authors develop new accounts of how fiduciary principles apply to representation; to officials and judges; to problems of legitimacy and political obligation; to positive rights; to the state itself; and to the history of ideas. The resulting volume should be of great interest to political theorists and public law scholars, to private fiduciary law scholars, and to students seeking an introduction to this new and increasingly relevant area of study.
This study focused on the spirurid nematode Mastophorus muris in water voles (Arvicola amphibius) trapped in three regions in southern Sweden during spring and fall 2013. The collection of water voles formed part of a larger project (EMIRO) on the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis in rodents. The voles’ stomach contents were examined for the presence of M. muris. Prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of infection were calculated. A generalized linear model model was used to examine the effects of sex, functional group, season and region on the number of M. muris individuals in each vole. Forty-seven of 181 (26%) voles were infected with M. muris, with up to 74 worms each. The overall mean intensity (worms per infected vole) was 15 (95% CI 10–21), and abundance (mean number of worms in all voles) was 4 (95% CI 2–6). Model output indicated a significant effect of season and region with respect to abundance of nematode infection, which was independent of sex and functional group of the investigated host.
Serum uric acid (SUA), a causative agent for gout, is linked to dietary factors, perhaps differentially by race. Cross-sectional (SUAbase, i.e. baseline SUA) and longitudinal (SUArate; i.e. annual rate of change in SUA) associations of SUA with diet were evaluated across race and sex–race groups, in a large prospective cohort study of urban adults. Of 3720 African American (AA) and White urban adults participating in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study, longitudinal data (2004–2013, k=1·7 repeats, follow-up, 4·64 (sd 0·93) years) on n 2138 participants were used. The main outcome consisted of up to two repeated measures on SUA. Exposures included the dietary factors such as ‘added sugar’, ‘alcoholic beverages’, ‘red meat’, ‘total fish’, ‘legumes’, ‘total dairy product’, ‘caffeine’, ‘vitamin C’ and a composite measure termed ‘dietary urate index’. Mixed-effects linear regression models were conducted, stratifying by race and by race×sex. A positive association between legume intake and SUArate was restricted to AA, whereas alcohol intake was positively associated with SUAbase overall without racial differences. Added sugars were directly related to SUAbase among White men (P<0·05 for race×sex interaction), whereas dairy product intake was linked with slower SUArate among AA women, unlike among White women. Nevertheless, dairy product intake was associated with a lower SUAbase among Whites. Finally, the dietary urate index was positively associated with both SUAbase and SUArate, particularly among AA. In sum, race and sex interactions with dietary intakes of added sugars, dairy products and legumes were detected in determining SUA. Similar studies are needed to replicate these findings.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The aims of this study are 2-fold: (1) to determine if maternal schistosomiasis affects maternal immunity to tetanus and/or transplacental transfer of antitetanus toxoid (TT) immunoglobulin G (IgG) from mother to infant and (2) determine the influence of maternal schistosomiasis on infant BCG vaccine immunogenicity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The study will utilize blood samples from a historic cohort of 100 mother-infant pairs from Kisumu, Kenya, a schistosomiasis-endemic area. For the first aim, we will evaluate maternal schistosomal circulating anodic antigen, which has improved sensitivity and specificity to detect active schistosomiasis from serum, and antisoluble egg antigen IgG positivity compared with quantitative maternal anti-TT IgG at delivery and anti-TT IgG cord blood to maternal blood ratio (cord:maternal ratio). For the second aim, we will evaluate association between maternal schistosomiasis as detected by circulating anodic antigen and antisoluble egg antigen IgG at delivery and infant BCG-specific Th1-cytokine positive CD4+ cells at 10 weeks following BCG vaccination at birth. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We hypothesize that active maternal schistosomiasis will be associated with decreased maternal anti-TT IgG and reduced efficiency of transplacental transfer, as measured by infant cord blood to maternal blood ratio of anti-TT IgG. We also expect that maternal schistosomiasis will be associated with decreased infant immunogenicity to BCG vaccine. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This is a formative study on infant vaccine immunity using laboratory methodology not previously applied. Understanding infant immunity in the setting of maternal schistosomiasis will inform vaccination strategies and tailor vaccine development in schistosome-endemic areas such as Kenya, where neither TB nor neonatal tetanus have been eradicated. Additionally, our results will inform public health policies to consider integration of antischistosomal agents in antenatal care.