To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The most important factors known to influence the eating quality of beef are well established and include both pre- and post-slaughter events with many of the determinants interacting with each other. A substantial programme of work has been conducted by the Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute in Northern Ireland aimed at quantifying those factors of most importance to the local beef industry. Post-slaughter effects such as carcase chilling and electrical stimulation, ageing, carcase hanging and cooking method have been shown to have a significant impact on eating quality when compared with pre-slaughter activities such as animal handling and lairage time in the Northern Ireland studies. However, the effect of animal breed, particularly the use of dairy breed animals, was shown to significantly improve eating quality. Many of these factors were found to interact with each other.
The eastern bettong Bettongia gaimardi, a potoroid marsupial, has been extinct on the Australian mainland since the 1920s. Sixty adult bettongs were reintroduced from the island of Tasmania to two predator-free fenced reserves on mainland Australia. We examined baseline health parameters (body weight, haematology and biochemistry, parasites and infectious disease exposure) in a subset of 30 (13 male, 17 female) individuals at translocation and again at 12–24 months post-reintroduction. The mean body weight increased significantly post-reintroduction but there were no significant differences in body weight between the two reintroduction sites or between the sexes in response to reintroduction. Differences were evident in multiple haematological and biochemical variables post-reintroduction but there were few differences between the two reintroduced populations or between the sexes in response to reintroduction. Ectoparasite assemblages differed, with five of 13 species failing to persist, and an additional four species were identified post-reintroduction. None of the bettongs had detectable antibodies to the alphaherpesviruses Macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2 post-reintroduction, including one individual that was seropositive at translocation. Similarly, the novel gammaherpesvirus potoroid herpesvirus 1 was not detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in any of the bettongs post-reintroduction, including one individual that was PCR-positive at translocation. None of the bettongs had detectable antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii either at translocation or post-reintroduction. Our data demonstrate changing baseline health parameters in eastern bettongs following reintroduction to the Australian mainland are suggestive of improved health in the reintroduced populations, and provide additional metrics for assessing the response of macropodoids to reintroduction.
Herpes virus infections can cause cognitive impairment during and after acute encephalitis. Although chronic, latent/persistent infection is considered to be relatively benign, some studies have documented cognitive impairment in exposed persons that is untraceable to encephalitis. These studies were conducted among schizophrenia (SZ) patients or older community dwellers, among whom it is difficult to control for the effects of co-morbid illness and medications. To determine whether the associations can be generalized to other groups, we examined a large sample of younger control individuals, SZ patients and their non-psychotic relatives (n=1852).
Using multivariate models, cognitive performance was evaluated in relation to exposures to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), controlling for familial and diagnostic status and sociodemographic variables, including occupation and educational status. Composite cognitive measures were derived from nine cognitive domains using principal components of heritability (PCH). Exposure was indexed by antibodies to viral antigens.
PCH1, the most heritable component of cognitive performance, declines with exposure to CMV or HSV-1 regardless of case/relative/control group status (p = 1.09 × 10−5 and 0.01 respectively), with stronger association with exposure to multiple herpes viruses (β = −0.25, p = 7.28 × 10−10). There were no significant interactions between exposure and group status.
Latent/persistent herpes virus infections can be associated with cognitive impairments regardless of other health status.
Mixing of cattle prior to slaughter which results in aggressive activity (Mohan Raj et al 1992) leads to glycogen depletion pre-slaughter and subsequently meat with a higher ultimate pH (pHu). Purchas et al (1990) reported a quadratic relationship between pHu and tenderness with highest shear force values recorded between pHu 5.8 to 6.2. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fasting and mixing of steers prior to slaughter on the meat eating quality of longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle.
Previous research has found that many patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are unable to maintain normal weight after weight restoration. The objective of this study was to identify variables that predicted successful weight maintenance among weight-restored AN patients.
Ninety-three patients with AN treated at two sites (Toronto and New York) through in-patient or partial hospitalization achieved a minimally normal weight and were then randomly assigned to receive fluoxetine or placebo along with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for 1 year. Clinical, demographic and psychometric variables were assessed after weight restoration prior to randomization and putative predictors of successful weight maintenance at 6 and 12 months were examined.
The most powerful predictors of weight maintenance at 6 and 12 months following weight restoration were pre-randomization body mass index (BMI) and the rate of weight loss in the first 28 days following randomization. Higher BMI and lower rate of weight loss were associated with greater likelihood of maintaining a normal BMI at 6 and 12 months. An additional predictor of weight maintenance was site; patients in Toronto fared better than those in New York.
This study found that the best predictors of weight maintenance in weight-restored AN patients over 6 and 12 months were the level of weight restoration at the conclusion of acute treatment and the avoidance of weight loss immediately following intensive treatment. These results suggest that outcome might be improved by achieving a higher BMI during structured treatment programs and on preventing weight loss immediately following discharge from such programs.
The management of paediatric airway emergencies is part of ENT practice. The most common conditions are acute viral laryngotracheobronchitis (croup), acute epiglottitis and bacterial tracheitis. Management of these conditions is significantly different and accurate diagnosis is crucial. We performed a retrospective analysis of all acute airway admissions to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at the Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children from 1990 to 2003. The results showed a gradual decrease in the number of admissions due to croup. Acute epiglottitis admissions decreased markedly after 1992 but rose again in 2000, with a peak in 2002. Bacterial tracheitis is now the most common paediatric airway emergency requiring PICU admission and its incidence has been steadily increasing since 1990, peaking in 2003. The total number of admissions showed little change over the 14-year period audited. The significant shift in the nature of these conditions and these findings confirm the ongoing requirement for caution in dealing with a suspected airway emergency.
Excessive exercise has long been observed to be a problematic behavior of many patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, many questions remain as to the exact role exercise plays in this disorder. In particular, it has been suggested that exercise holds “addictive” properties in persons with AN, but that remains to be demonstrated.
The aim of this study was to adapt and apply a scale used in addictions research to determine whether symptoms of “dependence” to exercise could be measured in a group of women with AN.
Forty-eight percent of individuals assessed endorsed symptoms consistent with exercise dependence in the previous month. The number of criteria met for exercise dependence was directly correlated with a clinical measure of anxiety.
Results support further investigation into addictive properties for exercise in individuals with AN and its relationship to anxiety.
The earliest possible seeding of wheat crops in the southern Australian dryland cropping zone is prevented by the lack of a weed control practice that adequately controls initial weed seedling emergence at the start of the growing season. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for using residual herbicides applied up to 1 mo before the start of the growing season to control rigid ryegrass seedlings that emerge after the season-opening rains. In a series of glasshouse studies, S-metolachlor and propyzamide were found to effectively persist on the soil surface through prolonged exposure to hot, dry, and intense sunlight conditions, preventing the establishment of rigid ryegrass seedlings. In addition, these herbicides caused little or no effect on subsequently seeded wheat. It also was determined that S-metolachlor had the potential to retain efficacy on rigid ryegrass seedlings after 12 wk of exposure on the soil surface to these conditions. These studies have identified two herbicides with the potential for use at the novel application timing, i.e., before the commencement of the growing season, in Mediterranean climates of southern Australia.
Lisa A. Kotler, Columbia University/New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA,
Michael J. Devlin, Columbia University/New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA,
B. Timothy Walsh, Columbia University/New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA
This chapter reviews the role of medication in the treatment of eating disorders, with particular emphasis on trials conducted in children and adolescents. More than 90% of all cases of anorexia nervosa occur in females. Hypothesized biologic mechanisms for anorexia nervosa have included disturbances in the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline, as well as in neuropeptides and peripheral hormones. Pharmacotherapy is often used as an adjunct to a multidisciplinary approach including nutritional counseling, and family and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies. Bulimia nervosa is more prevalent than anorexia nervosa, with estimates ranging from 1 to 5% of adolescent and young adult females. The pharmacotherapy of bulimia nervosa is based on the use of antidepressant medications. DSM-IV suggested diagnostic criteria for a new eating disorder, binge eating disorder. The precise role of psychopharmacologic agents in the treatment of eating disorders in children and adolescents is a fertile area for future research.
The synthesis of clay composites modified with magnetite and Co ferrite magnetic nanoparticles is described. The synthetic method relies on the adsorption of colloidal magnetite or Co ferrite particles onto the external surfaces of a Na-saturated clay mineral to give magnetic clay composites that can be converted easily, through ion exchange reactions, to valuable clay derivatives, e.g. organoclays, which maintain the magnetic properties of the parent composite. The magnetic solids were characterized by XRD, EPR, Mössbauer, magnetic measurement and TEM techniques.
A disturbed calcium homeostasis characterizes diabetic pregnancy. This study documents changes in bone mineral composition in diabetic pregnant rats and examines the effect of insulin replacement. Control pregnant (CP), diabetic pregnant (DP) and insulin-treated DP (DPi) rats were assessed for femoral calcium and magnesium content, bone mineral density (BMD) and the ratio of hypertrophic to maturing and proliferative cells in the femoral growth plate. DP rats showed a significantly (P < 0·01) lower body weight, femoral weight and length than CP rats. Femoral calcium and magnesium content was also significantly (P < 0·05) lower in DP rats, as was ash weight. When calcium and magnesium were normalized for ash weight no signficant differences were apparent. A significantly (P < 0·05) lower total BMD at the distal femur was seen in DP rats. This comprised a significantly (P < 0·01) lower trabecular BMD with no significant change in cortical BMD. A significantly (P < 0·05) higher ratio of hypertrophic to maturing and proliferative cells of the femoral growth plate was evident in DP animals. DPi rats showed normal blood glucose concentrations and femoral growth plate histology. DPi rats also showed normal femoral weight and length but only partially restored femoral ash weight and mineral content. Insulin failed to normalize total or trabecular BMD. Diabetes mellitus clearly has a marked effect on bone growth and mineral content in pregnancy which may be relevant to overall calcium homeostasis. The lower bone growth, bone calcium content and trabecular BMD may be unfortunate consequences of the marked hypercalciuria reported elsewhere in diabetes and may serve to maintain normocalcaemia in the disease.