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We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: We have reported that radiofrequency renal denervation (RF-RDN) in SHR at 20-weeks of age, decreased blood pressure (BP) and fibrosis in kidney cortex and medulla when rats were sacrificed at 6 months. However, whether RF-RDN can have similar benefits in older rats remains unknown. This study examined whether performing RF-RDN in older rats also has a beneficial effect on BP and renal fibrosis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Baseline systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DPB) was measured (telemetry) in nine-month-old SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Groups of rats then received bilateral RF-RDN or Sham-RDN (SHR-RDN, n=9; SHR-Sham, n=10; WKY-RDN, n=5; WKY-Sham, n=8). Rats were then sacrificed at 12-months of age. Kidneys were harvested, sectioned, and assessed for fibrosis by Masson’s trichrome stain. A pathologist, who was blinded to treatment groups, evaluated each kidney section for fibrosis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Compared to SHR with Sham-RDN, RF-RDN prevented a further increase in systolic and diastolic BP from baseline (9-month) in SHR as they aged to 12-months (SHR-Sham mmHg: 9-month 193±4/127±4; 12-month 207±3/142±5; SHR-RDN mmHg: 9-month 197±3/132±2; 12-month 197±4/132±3). RF-RDN did not alter SBP or DBP in aged WKY. One-year-old SHR with prior Sham-RDN showed extensive renal fibrosis in kidney cortex and medulla. In contrast, RF-RDN significantly decreased renal fibrosis in the medulla, but not cortex. There was no fibrosis in kidneys of age matched WKY. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These findings suggest that RF-RDN may be a potential therapy for halting progression of hypertension and decreasing medullary fibrosis in the aged population.
We estimated several parameters of dwarf galaxies, including their star formation rate and dust mass, and compared them with galaxies with larger stellar masses.
We have chosen dwarf galaxies in the ELAIS N1 field, and fitted their Spectral Energy Distributions (SED). We used data from the new Herschel SPIRE and PACS Point Source catalogues to constrain the infrared radiation. Data available in VIZIER from multiple surveys have also been used.
We determined that the star formation rate (SFR), M* and Mdust is one order of magnitude lower in dwarf galaxies compared to galaxies with larger stellar masses. However, the starburtiness was higher in the dwarf galaxies. They also had lower redshifts than normal galaxies, so we compared them to a subsample of normal galaxies with lower redshifts. The dust masses and SFRs of the dwarf galaxies were slightly lower, but their starburtiness was higher.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal of this study was to investigate whether RF-RDN attenuates renal fibrosis and inflammation in SHR with established hypertension. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Twenty-two-week-old SHR received bilateral RF-RDN or Sham-RDN (Biosense Webster Stockert 70 generator and RF-probe). Four weeks later, SHR were sacrificed and paraffin sections of kidneys were stained for fibrosis by Masson’s trichrome staining. Kidney tissue were homogenized for measurement of cytokines levels by ELISA. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The results showed that Sham-RDN treated SHR had extensive fibrosis as demonstrated by moderate thickening of Bowman’s capsule, collagen deposition in glomerulus, extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and segmental glomerulosclerosis. In contrast, RF-RDN significantly reduced each of these pathological components of fibrosis in kidney cortex and medulla as compared with Sham-RDN treated kidneys. In other studies, RF-RDN decreased B cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells in the kidney of SHR as measured by flow cytometry. Meanwhile, kidney tissue levels of IL-17, INF-γ, MIP-3a, TNF-α, and TGF-β were decreased as compared with respective levels in Sham-RDN. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Together, these findings demonstrate that removal of the influence of heightened renal sympathetic activity by RF-RDN decreases kidney inflammatory markers and attenuates renal fibrosis in hypertensive SHR.
In September 2016, the annual meeting of the International Union for Quaternary Research’s Loess and Pedostratigraphy Focus Group, traditionally referred to as a LoessFest, met in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, USA. The 2016 LoessFest focused on “thin” loess deposits and loess transportation surfaces. This LoessFest included 75 registered participants from 10 countries. Almost half of the participants were from outside the United States, and 18 of the participants were students. This review is the introduction to the special issue for Quaternary Research that originated from presentations and discussions at the 2016 LoessFest. This introduction highlights current understanding and ongoing work on loess in various regions of the world and provides brief summaries of some of the current approaches/strategies used to study loess deposits.
Most major modern families of Hymenoptera were established in the Mesozoic, but the diversifications within ecologically key trophic guilds and lineages that significantly influence the character of modern terrestrial ecosystems – bees (Apiformes), ants (Formicidae), social Vespidae, parasitoids (Ichneumonidae), and phytophagous Tenthredinoidea – were previously known to occur mostly in the middle to late Eocene. We find these changes earlier, seen here in the early Eocene Okanagan Highlands fossil deposits of western North America. Some of these may have occurred even earlier, but have been obscured by taphonomic processes. We provide an overview of the Okanagan Highlands Hymenoptera to family level and in some cases below that, with a minimum of 25 named families and at least 30 when those tentatively assigned or distinct at family level, but not named are included. Some are poorly known as fossils (Trigonalidae, Siricidae, Peradeniidae, Monomachidae), and some represent the oldest confirmed occurrences (Trigonalidae, Pompilidae, Sphecidae sensu stricto, Peradeniidae, Monomachidae, and possibly Halictidae). Some taxa previously thought to be relictual or extinct by the end of the Cretaceous (Angarosphecidae, Archaeoscoliinae, some Diapriidae) are present and sometimes abundant in the early Eocene. Living relatives of some taxa are now present in different climate regimes or on different continents.
This spatial experiment is under construction and has been defined as a 2 years mission on board SOHO, a satellite dedicated to the Sun which will be launched in mid 95. The main objectives are the detection of solar low degree acoustic modes and solar gravity modes for improving our knowledge of the solar nuclear region.
Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) investigation of the expression of the components supposedly taking part in serotonin regulation of the early development of Paracentrotus lividus has shown the presence of transcripts of five receptors, one of which has conservative amino acid residues characteristic of monoaminergic receptors. At the early stages of embryogenesis the expressions of serotonin transporter (SERT) and noradrenaline transporter (NET) were also recognized. The activities of the enzymes of serotonin synthesis and serotonin transporter were shown using immunohistochemistry and incubation with para-chlorophenylalanine (PСРА) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (HTP). Pharmacological experiments have shown a preferential cytostatic activity of ligands characterized as mammalian 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1-antagonists. On the basis of the sum of the data from molecular biology and embryo physiological experiments, it is suggested that metabotropic serotonin receptors and membrane transporters take part in the regulatory processes of early sea urchin embryogenesis.
Deep levels studies on a set of n-GaN films grown by MOCVD and HVPE reveal the presence of electron traps with levels near Ec−0.25 eV, Ec−0.55 eV, Ec−0.8 eV, Ec−1 eV, hole traps with levels near Ev+0.9 eV and a band of relatively shallow states in the lower half of the bandgap. The total density of these latter states was estimated to be some 1016 cm−3 and they were tentatively associated with dislocations in GaN based on their high concentration and band-like character. None of the electron or hole traps could be unambiguously related with strong changes of diffusion lengths of minority carriers in various samples. It is proposed that such changes occur due to different surface recombination velocities. An important role of Ec−0.55 eV traps in persistent photoconductivity phenomena in n-GaN has been demonstrated.
Deep levels studies on a set of n-GaN films grown by MOCVD and HVPE reveal the presence of electron traps with levels near Ec-0.25 eV, Ec-0.55 eV, Ec-0.8 eV, Ec-1 eV, hole traps with levels near Ev+0.9 eV and a band of relatively shallow states in the lower half of the bandgap. The total density of these latter states was estimated to be some 1016 cm−3 and they were tentatively associated with dislocations in GaN based on their high concentration and band-like character. None of the electron or hole traps could be unambiguously related with strong changes of diffusion lengths of minority carriers in various samples. It is proposed that such changes occur due to different surface recombination velocities. An important role of Ec-0.55 eV traps in persistent photoconductivity phenomena in n-GaN has been demonstrated.