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The Fontan Outcomes Network was created to improve outcomes for children and adults with single ventricle CHD living with Fontan circulation. The network mission is to optimise longevity and quality of life by improving physical health, neurodevelopmental outcomes, resilience, and emotional health for these individuals and their families. This manuscript describes the systematic design of this new learning health network, including the initial steps in development of a national, lifespan registry, and pilot testing of data collection forms at 10 congenital heart centres.
There is evidence that depression can be prevented; however, traditional approaches face significant scalability issues. Digital technologies provide a potential solution, although this has not been adequately tested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new smartphone app designed to reduce depression symptoms and subsequent incident depression amongst a large group of Australian workers.
A randomized controlled trial was conducted with follow-up assessments at 5 weeks and 3 and 12 months post-baseline. Participants were employed Australians reporting no clinically significant depression. The intervention group (N = 1128) was allocated to use HeadGear, a smartphone app which included a 30-day behavioural activation and mindfulness intervention. The attention-control group (N = 1143) used an app which included a 30-day mood monitoring component. The primary outcome was the level of depressive symptomatology (PHQ-9) at 3-month follow-up. Analyses were conducted within an intention-to-treat framework using mixed modelling.
Those assigned to the HeadGear arm had fewer depressive symptoms over the course of the trial compared to those assigned to the control (F3,734.7 = 2.98, p = 0.031). Prevalence of depression over the 12-month period was 8.0% and 3.5% for controls and HeadGear recipients, respectively, with odds of depression caseness amongst the intervention group of 0.43 (p = 0.001, 95% CI 0.26–0.70).
This trial demonstrates that a smartphone app can reduce depression symptoms and potentially prevent incident depression caseness and such interventions may have a role in improving working population mental health. Some caution in interpretation is needed regarding the clinical significance due to small effect size and trial attrition.
Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au/) ACTRN12617000548336
Mental health staff may have limited exposure to emergencies associated with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) during postgraduate training. The first time they encounter a person in the midst of severe obsessions, or one who has compulsively self-harmed in response to such obsessions, might be when working on call covering the emergency department. This educational article presents the lived experience of one of the authors as a clinical scenario. The scenario is then used to illustrate the severity of disability and the rates of self-harm and suicide-related mortality caused by OCD. The recognition and assessment of OCD is described, along with what helps in emergency situations. Written informed consent was obtained for the publication of clinical details.
Hypnosis involves the use of verbal suggestion to modulate behavior and experience. Hypnosis and imagination have long been associated and the view that hypnotic suggestion effects changes in experience through imagination is a persistent one. In this review, we first present a brief overview of hypnosis and then turn to its potential relationship to imagery and imagination. We consider whether individual differences in imagination may relate to hypnotic suggestibility and the extent to which imagery is recruited during response to hypnotic suggestions in psychological and neuroimaging studies. Finally, we briefly consider the roles of imagery and suggestion in clinical applications of hypnosis. We conclude that while hypnotic suggestibility may relate to variability in imagination, hypnotic suggestion and voluntary forms of imagery are subserved by dissimilar neurocognitive mechanisms.
Isolated aortic regurgitation and myocardial infarction are a rare congenital defect among neonatal patients. We present a case of a neonate with an unusual aortic valve morphology causing both regurgitation and obstruction of the left coronary artery ostium. Despite both non-invasive and invasive imaging modalities, accurate diagnosis of the valve morphology was only determined by direct visualisation at the time of surgical repair. To the knowledge of authors, this particular aortic valve morphology in neonatal population has not been previously reported in the literature.
We describe a case of delayed COVID-19 diagnosis due to unrecognized community transmission in Atlanta, Georgia in mid-February 2020. This case resulted in transmission of COVID-19 to three of the four healthcare workers present during a diagnostic bronchoscopy procedure where only procedural masks were worn.
It is not clear to what extent associations between schizophrenia, cannabis use and cigarette use are due to a shared genetic etiology. We, therefore, examined whether schizophrenia genetic risk associates with longitudinal patterns of cigarette and cannabis use in adolescence and mediating pathways for any association to inform potential reduction strategies.
Associations between schizophrenia polygenic scores and longitudinal latent classes of cigarette and cannabis use from ages 14 to 19 years were investigated in up to 3925 individuals in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mediation models were estimated to assess the potential mediating effects of a range of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenotypes.
The schizophrenia polygenic score, based on single nucleotide polymorphisms meeting a training-set p threshold of 0.05, was associated with late-onset cannabis use (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.08,1.41), but not with cigarette or early-onset cannabis use classes. This association was not mediated through lower IQ, victimization, emotional difficulties, antisocial behavior, impulsivity, or poorer social relationships during childhood. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for genetic liability to cannabis or cigarette use, using polygenic scores excluding the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster, or basing scores on a 0.5 training-set p threshold, provided results consistent with our main analyses.
Our study provides evidence that genetic risk for schizophrenia is associated with patterns of cannabis use during adolescence. Investigation of pathways other than the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenotypes examined here is required to identify modifiable targets to reduce the public health burden of cannabis use in the population.
To outline features of the neurologic examination that can be performed virtually through telemedicine platforms (the virtual neurological examination [VNE]), and provide guidance for rapidly pivoting in-person clinical assessments to virtual visits during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.
The full neurologic examination is described with attention to components that can be performed virtually.
A screening VNE is outlined that can be performed on a wide variety of patients, along with detailed descriptions of virtual examination maneuvers for specific scenarios (cognitive testing, neuromuscular and movement disorder examinations).
During the COVID-19 pandemic, rapid adoption of virtual medicine will be critical to provide ongoing and timely neurological care. Familiarity and mastery of a VNE will be critical for neurologists, and this article outlines a practical approach to implementation.
The anesthesia record is more than just a historic snapshot of clinical care. It also serves as a clinical monitor in itself. In electronic form, and as a component of an electronic health record (EHR), its utility is extended to provide data to drive clinical decision support, compliance, research, administrative, and human resource functions with an overall goal of performance improvement.
Despite recommendations to discontinue prophylactic antibiotics after incision closure or <24 hours after surgery, prophylactic antibiotics are continued after discharge by some clinicians. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with postdischarge prophylactic antibiotic use after spinal fusion.
Multicenter retrospective cohort study.
This study included patients aged ≥18 years undergoing spinal fusion or refusion between July 2011 and June 2015 at 3 sites. Patients with an infection during the surgical admission were excluded.
Prophylactic antibiotics were identified at discharge. Factors associated with postdischarge prophylactic antibiotic use were identified using hierarchical generalized linear models.
In total, 8,652 spinal fusion admissions were included. Antibiotics were prescribed at discharge in 289 admissions (3.3%). The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (22.1%), cephalexin (18.8%), and ciprofloxacin (17.1%). Adjusted for study site, significant factors associated with prophylactic discharge antibiotics included American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class ≥3 (odds ratio [OR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00–1.70), lymphoma (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.11–5.98), solid tumor (OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.62–8.14), morbid obesity (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.09–2.47), paralysis (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.30–4.37), hematoma/seroma (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.17–7.33), thoracic surgery (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01–1.93), longer length of stay, and intraoperative antibiotics.
Postdischarge prophylactic antibiotics were uncommon after spinal fusion. Patient and perioperative factors were associated with continuation of prophylactic antibiotics after hospital discharge.
Acute cannabis administration can produce transient psychotic-like effects in healthy individuals. However, the mechanisms through which this occurs and which factors predict vulnerability remain unclear. We investigate whether cannabis inhalation leads to psychotic-like symptoms and speech illusion; and whether cannabidiol (CBD) blunts such effects (study 1) and adolescence heightens such effects (study 2).
Two double-blind placebo-controlled studies, assessing speech illusion in a white noise task, and psychotic-like symptoms on the Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI). Study 1 compared effects of Cann-CBD (cannabis containing Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and negligible levels of CBD) with Cann+CBD (cannabis containing THC and CBD) in 17 adults. Study 2 compared effects of Cann-CBD in 20 adolescents and 20 adults. All participants were healthy individuals who currently used cannabis.
In study 1, relative to placebo, both Cann-CBD and Cann+CBD increased PSI scores but not speech illusion. No differences between Cann-CBD and Cann+CBD emerged. In study 2, relative to placebo, Cann-CBD increased PSI scores and incidence of speech illusion, with the odds of experiencing speech illusion 3.1 (95% CIs 1.3–7.2) times higher after Cann-CBD. No age group differences were found for speech illusion, but adults showed heightened effects on the PSI.
Inhalation of cannabis reliably increases psychotic-like symptoms in healthy cannabis users and may increase the incidence of speech illusion. CBD did not influence psychotic-like effects of cannabis. Adolescents may be less vulnerable to acute psychotic-like effects of cannabis than adults.
La non-observance des traitements représente un risque d’exacerbation chez les patients schizophrènes [1,2,3]. L’objectif était d’évaluer l’impact d’un programme d’accompagnement des patients recevant la rispéridone à libération prolongée (RLP) sur le taux d’hospitalisation psychiatrique.
Une cohorte de 506 patients schizophrènes traités par RLP a été recrutée dans 36 centres et suivie 12 mois. Le programme d’accompagnement consistait en un rappel téléphonique 48 heures avant la date prévue de l’injection et dans les trois jours suivants, au besoin. Les centres observants étaient ceux ayant appliqué le programme pour 50 % ou plus des injections prévues. Les patients observants étaient ceux qui s’étaient présentés dans les cinq jours de la date prévue de l’injection pour au moins 80 % des injections. L’effet de l’observance (centre, patient, ou les deux combinés) sur le taux d’hospitalisation a été estimé par un modèle de Poisson avec appariement, ajusté sur un score de propension résumant les facteurs de risque.
Environ 75 % des patients ont été observants et leur taux d’hospitalisation était similaire aux non-observants (32,8 et 31,7 par 100 patients-années [PA], respectivement). Les centres observants traitaient des patients moins sévères (hospitalisation dans l’année précédente [64,2 vs. 44,1 %] et meilleurs scores sur les échelles psychiatriques [CGI maximum, BPRS, EGF]). L’observance des centres avait un effet moins important sur le taux d’hospitalisation des patients observants (28,2/100 PA pour les centres observants vs 38,3/100 PA pour les centres non observants) que chez les patients non observants (11,7/100 PA vs 41,0/100 PA, respectivement). L’effet chez les patients non observants était maintenu dans les analyses ajustées.
Le taux d’hospitalisation chez les patients traités par RLP était comparable entre les patients observants et non observants, mais ce taux était amélioré dans les centres observants au programme d’accompagnement des patients à observance faible.
Les pratiques avancées en soins infirmiers (PASI) sont des procédures permettant de conférer à certains infirmiers des responsabilités médicales, sous des conditions spécifiques et prédéfinies. Les PASI sont déjà très développées dans certains pays comme les États-Unis ou l’Australie . Elles font alors l’objet de diplômes spécifiques, avec un statut professionnel reconnu, globalement similaire à celui de sage-femme en France mais en plus élargi . Les PASI offrent de nombreux avantages : valorisation des perspectives d’avancement de la carrière des infirmiers, facilitation du travail des médecins, réponse à la désertification médicale, réduction des coûts de santé. Depuis 2003, les PASI ont été introduites en France, non pas sous forme de statuts spécifiques, mais à travers des protocoles de coopérations mis en place localement par les Agences régionales de santé. Pour des raisons multiples, ce système n’a pas abouti à l’essor initialement escompté . Aujourd’hui, le projet de nouvelle Loi de santé prévu par le ministère de la Santé prévoit de redéfinir en profondeur le métier d’infirmier, et de mettre en place des formations complémentaires avec un statut d’infirmier avancé reconnu et valorisé financièrement. Les infirmiers occupent déjà une place particulière dans la psychiatrie française. Ils sont parfois très autonomes et exercent des fonctions d’accueil, de psychothérapie, ou d’évaluation, notamment dans les structures où les moyens médicaux sont limités . Parfois, ils exercent déjà officieusement certaines fonctions médicales de gestion de traitements ou de prise de décisions d’orientation. En addictologie, l’expérience de certains infirmiers est telle qu’il arrive que les médecins leur laissent gérer l’ajustement posologique de certains traitements . Mais, jusqu’à présent, ces pratiques n’étaient ni officielles, ni encadrées . La réforme à venir va aboutir à une diversification des statuts et des missions des infirmiers, avec un meilleur encadrement des missions médicales conférées aux PASI.
Many institutions are attempting to implement patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures. Because PROs often change clinical workflows significantly for patients and providers, implementation choices can have major impact. While various implementation guides exist, a stepwise list of decision points covering the full implementation process and drawing explicitly on a sociotechnical conceptual framework does not exist.
To facilitate real-world implementation of PROs in electronic health records (EHRs) for use in clinical practice, members of the EHR Access to Seamless Integration of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Consortium developed structured PRO implementation planning tools. Each institution pilot tested the tools. Joint meetings led to the identification of critical sociotechnical success factors.
Three tools were developed and tested: (1) a PRO Planning Guide summarizes the empirical knowledge and guidance about PRO implementation in routine clinical care; (2) a Decision Log allows decision tracking; and (3) an Implementation Plan Template simplifies creation of a sharable implementation plan. Seven lessons learned during implementation underscore the iterative nature of planning and the importance of the clinician champion, as well as the need to understand aims, manage implementation barriers, minimize disruption, provide ample discussion time, and continuously engage key stakeholders.
Highly structured planning tools, informed by a sociotechnical perspective, enabled the construction of clear, clinic-specific plans. By developing and testing three reusable tools (freely available for immediate use), our project addressed the need for consolidated guidance and created new materials for PRO implementation planning. We identified seven important lessons that, while common to technology implementation, are especially critical in PRO implementation.
Is the ancient Confucian ideal of he 和, ‘harmony,’ a viable ideal in pluralistic societies composed of people and groups who subscribe to different ideals of the good and moral life? Is harmony compatible with accepting, even encouraging, difference and the freedom to think differently? I start with seminal characterizations of harmony in Confucian texts and then aim to chart ways harmony and freedom can be compatible and even mutually supportive while recognizing the constant possibility of conflict between them. I shall point out how the Confucian notion of harmony resonates with the Indian King Asoka's project of promoting religious pluralism. Along the way, I will make some comments of a ‘meta’ nature about the kind of interpretation I am offering of harmony in the Confucian texts and the use to which I am putting this interpretation by setting it in the context of societies that in important respects are quite different from the ones from which concepts of harmony originally emerged.
Nick Martin is a pioneer in recognizing the need for large sample size to study the complex, heterogeneous and polygenic disorders of common mental disorders. In the predigital era, questionnaires were mailed to thousands of twin pairs around Australia. Always quick to adopt new technology, Nick’s studies progressed to phone interviews and then online. Moreover, Nick was early to recognize the value of collecting DNA samples. As genotyping technologies improved over the years, these twin and family cohorts were used for linkage, candidate gene and genome-wide association studies. These cohorts have underpinned many analyses to disentangle the complex web of genetic and lifestyle factors associated with mental health. With characteristic foresight, Nick is chief investigator of our Australian Genetics of Depression Study, which has recruited 16,000 people with self-reported depression (plus DNA samples) over a time frame of a few months — analyses are currently ongoing. The mantra of sample size, sample size, sample size has guided Nick’s research over the last 30 years and continues to do so.
Biomarkers diagnose, predict or assess the risk of disease, and studies of the effects of genetic variation on biomarker phenotypes in the general population complement studies on patients diagnosed with disease. This paper traces the evolution of studies on biomarker genetics over the past 40 years through examples drawn from the work of Professor Martin and his colleagues.
The electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment used for several psychiatric disorders. However, there are multiple enigmas about the mechanisms of action and factors that improve its results. Some frequent questions are if the anesthetic drug makes a difference in the time of convulsion and blood pressure.
Our principal aim is to describe the utilization of anesthetic drugs among the patients that are being treated with ECT in hospital del Mar. We also want to know the differences in the time of convulsion and systolic arterial pressure for every anesthetic drug (propofol, thiopental and etomidate).
Material and methods
We have used the database of ECT in hospital del Mar. It contains information like age, principal diagnosis, medical background and pharmacological treatment at the moment of starting ECTs; it also contains information of each individual ECT session as basal, 2 and 5 minutes arterial pressure; the anesthetic drug used, and convulsion duration.
We made an analysis of general conditions of the population, the differences of convulsion time and arterial pressure between the three anesthetic drugs.
Propofol was used in 1140 sessions, thiopental in 61 sessions and etomidate in 54 sessions. The differences in the means of convulsion times between propofol and etomidate are statistically significant (“P” value < 0.05). Etomidate or thiopental increases the difference of arterial pressure more than propofol.
Further research about the factors that improve convulsion duration and minimize adverse effects on blood pressure is needed.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.