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We aimed at evaluating the association of maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status with offspring anthropometry and body composition. We also evaluated whether these associations were modified by gender, diet and physical activity and mediated by birth weight.
Birth cohort study.
Waist circumference was measured with an inextensible tape, and fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for possible confounders and allele score of BMI. We carried out mediation analysis using G-formula.
In 1982, 1993 and 2004, all maternity hospitals in Pelotas (South Brazil) were visited daily and all live births whose families lived in the urban area of the city were evaluated. These subjects have been followed up at different ages.
Offspring of obese mothers had on average higher BMI, waist circumference and fat mass index than those of normal weight mothers, and these differences were higher among daughters. The magnitudes of the association were similar in the cohorts, except for height, where the association pattern was not clear. In the 1982 cohort, further adjustment for a BMI allele score had no material influence on the magnitude of the associations. Mediation analyses showed that birth weight captured part of this association.
Our findings suggest that maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status is positively associated with offspring BMI and adiposity in offspring. And this association is higher among daughters whose mother was overweight or obese and, birth weight explains part of this association.
We evaluated the impact of peak respiratory exchange ratio on the prognostic values of cardiopulmonary exercise variables during symptoms-limited incremental exercise tests in patients with Fontan physiology.
Retrospective single-centre chart review study of Fontan patients who underwent exercise testing using the Bruce protocol between 2014 and 2018 and follow-up.
A total of 34 patients (age > 18 years) had a Borg score of ≥7 on the Borg 10-point scale, but only 50% of patients achieved a peak respiratory exchange ratio of ≥ 1.10 (maximal test). Peak oxygen consumption, percent-predicted peak oxygen consumption, and peak oxygen consumption at the ventilatory threshold was reduced significantly in patients with a peak respiratory exchange ratio of < 1.10. Peak oxygen consumption and percent-predicted peak oxygen consumption was positively correlated with peak respiratory exchange ratio values (r = 0.356, p = 0.039). After a median follow-up of 21 months, cardiac-related events occurred in 16 (47%) patients, with no proportional differences in patients due to their respiratory exchange ratio (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI: 0.18–2.58; p = 0.492). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed percent-predicted peak oxygen consumption, peak heart rate, and the oxygen uptake efficient slope were highly related to the occurrence of events in patients only with a peak respiratory exchange ratio of ≥ 1.10.
The value of peak cardiopulmonary exercise variables is limited for the determination of prognosis and assessment of interventions in Fontan patients with sub-maximal effort. Our findings deserve further research and clinical application.
This research communication addresses the hypothesis that, during the summer in the subtropics, natural tree shade helps to improve milk functional characteristics such as stability and acidity. Sixteen Holstein lactating cows were enrolled. The study consisted of three periods (pre-stress, heat stress and post-stress) based on allocating grazing cows into two treatments (with and without access to shade during the Heat Stress period). Overall THI during the trial was (mean ± se) 76.0 ± 3.4. Access to shade prevented the heat stress-related decrease in milk stability both in the ethanol and in the coagulation time test, as well as maintained milk acidity within an acceptable range (14 to 18°D).
Peak respiratory exchange ratio is an objective marker of patient effort during cardiopulmonary exercise testing. We evaluated exercise variables in 175 adult congenital heart disease patients and the impact of respiratory exchange ratio on the prognostic value of exercise variables for short-term cardiac-related events. Of 175 patients, 110 completed the exercise test with a peak respiratory exchange ratio of ≥1.10 and the remaining 65 had a peak respiratory exchange ratio of <1.10. Peak oxygen consumption, the percentage of oxygen consumption at the ventilatory threshold, peak heart rate, percentage predicted peak heart rate, double product, oxygen uptake efficiency slope, and the number of patients with exercise oscillatory ventilation were reduced significantly in patients with a respiratory exchange ratio of <1.10 compared to those with a respiratory exchange ratio of ≥1.10. After a median follow-up of 21 months, total cardiac-related events occurred in 37 (21%) patients. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that the percentage predicted peak oxygen consumption, and oxygen uptake efficiency slope were independent predictors of cardiac-related events only in patients with a peak respiratory exchange ratio of ≥1.10. Sub-maximal exercise performance can be preserved in adult congenital heart disease patients. The percentage predicted oxygen consumption and the oxygen uptake efficiency slope are two independent predictors for short-term cardiac-related events in adult congenital heart disease patients.
Oxycalciomicrolite (IMA2019-110), (Ca,Na)2(Ta,Nb,Ti)2O6(O,F), is a new member of microlite-group mineral found in the saprolite of the weathered Fumal pegmatite, located close to the city of Nazareno, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. It occurs as an accessory mineral associated with quartz, albite, microcline, muscovite, columbite-subgroup minerals, cassiterite, hematite, ilmenite, monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), zircon, beryl, spinel, epidote and garnet-group minerals. Oxycalciomicrolite is found as octahedral crystals, occasionally modified to rhombododecahedra, ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 mm in size. The crystals are brownish-yellow to brownish-red and translucent, with white streak and vitreous to resinous lustre. The tenacity is brittle, with a Mohs hardness of 5–5½. Cleavage and parting are not observed; the fracture is conchoidal. Electron microprobe analysis, Raman and infrared spectroscopies and X-ray powder diffraction were applied to characterise this mineral. Oxycalciomicrolite is isotropic, ncalc. = 2.037, and the calculated density is 6.333 g/cm3. The composition is (Ca1.57□0.26Na0.06Sn0.03Sr0.03U0.02Mn0.02Fe0.01Ce0.01)∑2.00(Ta1.79Nb0.18Ti0.03)∑2.00O6.00[O0.64F0.19□0.17]∑1.00 analysed by electron microprobe using wavelength dispersive spectrometry. The unit-cell parameters obtained by Pawley fitting from powder X-ray diffraction data are a = 10.4325(4) Å and V = 1135.46(14) Å3 with Z = 8.
To conduct international comparisons of self-reports, collateral reports, and cross-informant agreement regarding older adult psychopathology.
We compared self-ratings of problems (e.g. I cry a lot) and personal strengths (e.g. I like to help others) for 10,686 adults aged 60–102 years from 19 societies and collateral ratings for 7,065 of these adults from 12 societies.
Data were obtained via the Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) and the Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL; Achenbach et al., 2004).
Cronbach’s alphas were .76 (OASR) and .80 (OABCL) averaged across societies. Across societies, 27 of the 30 problem items with the highest mean ratings and 28 of the 30 items with the lowest mean ratings were the same on the OASR and the OABCL. Q correlations between the means of the 0–1–2 ratings for the 113 problem items averaged across all pairs of societies yielded means of .77 (OASR) and .78 (OABCL). For the OASR and OABCL, respectively, analyses of variance (ANOVAs) yielded effect sizes (ESs) for society of 15% and 18% for Total Problems and 42% and 31% for Personal Strengths, respectively. For 5,584 cross-informant dyads in 12 societies, cross-informant correlations averaged across societies were .68 for Total Problems and .58 for Personal Strengths. Mixed-model ANOVAs yielded large effects for society on both Total Problems (ES = 17%) and Personal Strengths (ES = 36%).
The OASR and OABCL are efficient, low-cost, easily administered mental health assessments that can be used internationally to screen for many problems and strengths.
There has been limited evaluation of handover from emergency medical services (EMS) to the trauma team. We sought to characterize these handover practices to identify areas of improvement and determine if handover standardization might be beneficial for trauma team performance.
Data were prospectively collected over a nine-week period by a trained observer at a Canadian level one trauma centre. A randomized scheduled was used to capture a representative breadth of handovers. Data collected included outcome measures such as duration of handover, structure of the handover, and information shared, process measures such as questions and interruptions from the trauma team, and perceptions of the handover from nurses, trauma team leaders and EMS according to a bidirectional Likert scale.
79 formal verbal handovers were observed. Information was often missing regarding airway (present 22%), breathing (54%), medications (59%), and allergies (54%). Handover structure lacked consistency beyond the order of identification and mechanism of injury. Of all questions asked, 35% were questioning previously given information. The majority of handovers (61%) involved parallel conversations between team members while EMS was speaking. There was a statistically significant disparity between the self-evaluation of EMS handovers and the perceived quality determined by nurses and trauma team leaders.
We have identified the need to standardize handover due to poor information content, a lack of structure and active listening, information repetition, and discordant expectations between team members. These data will guide the development of a co-constructed framework integrating the perspectives of all team members.
To determine if a global mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) cut-off can be established to classify underweight in adults (men and non-pregnant women).
We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) to explore the sensitivity (SENS) and specificity (SPEC) of various MUAC cut-offs for identifying underweight among adults (defined as BMI < 18·5 kg/m2). Measures of diagnostic accuracy were determined every 0·5 cm across MUAC values from 19·0 to 26·5 cm. A bivariate random effects model was used to jointly estimate SENS and SPEC while accounting for heterogeneity between studies. Various subgroup analyses were performed.
Twenty datasets from Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, North America and South America were included.
All eligible participants from the original datasets were included.
The total sample size was 13 835. Mean age was 32·6 years and 65 % of participants were female. Mean MUAC was 25·7 cm, and 28 % of all participants had low BMI (<18·5 kg/m2). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the pooled dataset was 0·91 (range across studies 0·61–0·98). Results showed that MUAC cut-offs in the range of ≤23·5 to ≤25·0 cm could serve as an appropriate screening indicator for underweight.
MUAC is highly discriminatory in its ability to distinguish adults with BMI above and below 18·5 kg/m2. This IPDMA is the first step towards determining a global MUAC cut-off for adults. Validation studies are needed to determine whether the proposed MUAC cut-off of 24 cm is associated with poor functional outcomes.
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially evolving turbulent planar jets of viscoelastic fluids described by the FENE-P model, such as those consisting of a Newtonian fluid solvent carrying long chain polymer molecules, are carried out in order to develop a theory for the far field of turbulent jets of viscoelastic fluids. New evolution relations for the jet shear-layer thickness
, centreline velocity
and maximum polymer stresses
are derived and validated by the new DNS data, yielding
, respectively, where
is the coordinate in the streamwise direction. It is shown that, compared with a classical (Newtonian) turbulent jet, the effect of the polymers is to reduce the spreading rate, centreline velocity decay, Reynolds stresses and viscous dissipation rate. The self-preserving character of the flow is analysed and it is shown that profiles of mean velocity, Reynolds stresses and polymer stresses are self-similar provided the proper scales are used in the normalisation of these quantities. A fundamental difference from the Newtonian jet in this regard is the necessity for two, instead of only one, different velocity and length scales to properly characterise the evolution of the turbulent flow. These extra velocity and length scales are directly related to a time scale associated with the characteristic fading memory property of viscoelastic fluids.
Litter size reduction can induce early overnourishment, being an attractive experimental model to study short- and long-term consequences of childhood obesity. Epidemiological data indicate sex differences regarding cardiometabolic disorders and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The present study aimed to describe biometric, nutritional and cardiovascular changes related to neonatal overweight promoted by litter size reduction in young and adult Wistar rats of both sexes. Litter adjustment to eight or four pups/mother (1:1 male-to-female ratio) gave, respectively, control and overweight groups. Body mass, food intake, haemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters and cardiorespiratory capacity were evaluated at postnatal days 30 and 150. Diminished litters were correlated with higher body mass and weight gain (12 %) during lactation, validating the experimental model of neonatal overweight. Soon after weaning male (16 %) and female (25 %) offspring of these litters presented a lower food intake than their respective control, without differences in body mass. Adult males from reduced litters presented higher abdominal circumference (7 %), systolic blood pressure (10 %), interventricular septum thickness (15 %) and relative wall thickness (15 %) compared with their respective control. Rats' performance on the maximal effort ergometer test was not affected by neonatal overweight. Data suggest the occurrence of catch-down growth and hypophagia in male and female rats submitted to neonatal overweight. However, only male rats presented haemodynamic and cardiac structural changes. These findings are crucial to personalised/gender medicine.
To estimate the total energy and micronutrient intakes of children 9–24 months of age and evaluate the probability of adequacy (PA) of the diet in seven MAL-ED sites.
Cohort study. Food intake was registered monthly using 24-h recalls beginning at 9 months. We estimated PA for thirteen nutrients and overall mean PA (MPA) by site and 3-month periods considering estimated breast milk intake.
Seven sites in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
1669 children followed from birth to 24 months of age.
Median estimated %energy from breast milk ranged from 4 to 70 % at 9–12 months, and declined to 0–39 % at 21–24 months. Iron bioavailability was low for all sites, but many diets were of moderate bioavailability for zinc. PA was optimal for most nutrients in Brazil and South Africa, except for iron and vitamin E (both), calcium and zinc (South Africa). PA for zinc increased only for children consuming a diet with moderate bioavailability. MPA increased 12–24 months as the quantity of complementary foods increased; however, PA for vitamin A remained low in Bangladesh and Tanzania. PA for vitamins D and E and iron was low for most sites and age groups.
MPA increased from 12 to 24 months as children consumed higher quantities of food, while nutrient density remained constant for most nutrients. Ways to increase the consumption of foods containing vitamins D, E and A, and calcium are needed, as are ways to increase the bioavailability of iron and zinc.
The energy content of finishing diets offered to feedlot cattle may vary across countries. We assumed that the lower is the energy content of the finishing diet, the shorter can be the adaptation period to high-concentrate diets without negatively impacting rumen health while still improving feedlot performance. This study was designed to determine the effects of adaptation periods of 6, 9, 14 and 21 days on feedlot performance, feeding behaviour, blood gas profile, carcass characteristics and rumen morphometrics of Nellore cattle. The experiment was designed as a completely randomised block, replicated 6 times, in which 96 20-month-old yearling Nellore bulls (391.1 ± 30.9 kg) were fed in 24 pens (4 animals/pen) according to the adaptation period adopted: 6, 9, 14 or 21 days. The adaptation diets contained 70%, 75% and 80.5% concentrate, and the finishing diet contained 86% concentrate. After adaptation, one animal per pen was slaughtered (n = 24) for rumen morphometric evaluations and the remaining 72 animals were harvested after 88 days on feed. Orthogonal contrasts were used to assess linear, quadratic and cubic relationships between days of adaptation and the dependent variable. Overall, as days of adaptation increased, final BW (P = 0.06), average daily gain (ADG) (P = 0.07), hot carcass weight (P = 0.04) and gain to feed ratio (G : F) (P = 0.07) were affected quadratically, in which yearling bulls adapted by 14 days presented greater final BW, ADG, hot carcass weight and improved G : F. No significant (P > 0.10) days of adaptation effect was observed for any of feeding behaviour variables. As days of adaptation increased, the absorptive surface area of the rumen was affected cubically, where yearling bulls adapted by 14 days presented greater absorptive surface area (P = 0.03). Thus, Nellore yearling bulls should be adapted by 14 days because it led to improved feedlot performance and greater development of rumen epithelium without increasing rumenitis scores.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The goal of this project was to assess the scientific impact of Miami CTSI’s Mentored Career Development (KL2) Program using bibliometric tools and network visualization in addition to the traditional metrics used to provide a comprehensive evaluation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Scholarly productivity of KL2 scholars were tracked using REDCap. For bibliometric data analysis and visualization, publications were queried using iCite (NIH Office of Portfolio Analysis) and Web of Science database. A total of 173 publications produced by eight KL2 scholars from 2013-2018 were analyzed and categorized into pre-award, during award, and post-award periods. iCite was used to assess scientific influence and translation. Scientific networks and collaboration were visualized using VOSviewer (Centre for Science and Technology Studies, Leiden University). CTSA Common Metrics were tracked using the Results Based Accountability framework. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Albeit of modest size, the Miami CTSI’s KL2 Program had significant scientific productivity and impact in its first five years. Our KL2 scholars’ publications were cited twice as frequently as other papers in their fields. Further, 48% of publications post KL2 award were above the NIH 50th percentile and had higher citation impact compared to the average NIH-funded paper; 11% were in the top 10% NIH citation ranking. In contrast, only 20% of the publications pre-KL2 award were above the NIH 50th percentile. The program also promoted research collaboration; network visualizations indicate larger co-authorship and organization networks of KL2 scholars post-award. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Bibliometric and data visualization approaches helped us better identify trends and gauge effectiveness of the KL2 program. These findings provided useful insight into the scientific influence and impact of our scholars’ work.
The co-infection between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased in several countries in the world. The current serological tests are not suitable since they present low sensitivity to detect the most of VL/HIV cases, and a more precise diagnosis should be performed. In this context, in the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed using Leishmania infantum antigenic extracts and VL, HIV and VL/HIV patients sera, besides healthy subjects samples; aiming to identify antigenic markers for these clinical conditions. Results showed that 43 spots were recognized by antibodies in VL and VL/HIV sera, and 26 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Between them, β-tubulin was expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments as a proof of concept for validation of our immunoproteomics findings and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values to detect VL and VL/HIV patients. In conclusion, the identified proteins in the present work could be considered as candidates for future studies aiming to improvement of the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV co-infection.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is recommended in treatment guidelines as an efficacious therapy for treatment-resistant depression. However, it has been associated with loss of autobiographical memory and short-term reduction in new learning.
To provide clinically useful guidelines to aid clinicians in informing patients regarding the cognitive side-effects of ECT and in monitoring these during a course of ECT, using complex data.
A Committee of clinical and academic experts from Australia and New Zealand met to the discuss the key issues pertaining to ECT and cognitive side-effects. Evidence regarding cognitive side-effects was reviewed, as was the limited evidence regarding how to monitor them. Both issues were supplemented by the clinical experience of the authors.
Meta-analyses suggest that new learning is impaired immediately following ECT but that group mean scores return at least to baseline by 14 days after ECT. Other cognitive functions are generally unaffected. However, the finding of a mean score that is not reduced from baseline cannot be taken to indicate that impairment, particularly of new learning, cannot occur in individuals, particularly those who are at greater risk. Therefore, monitoring is still important. Evidence suggests that ECT does cause deficits in autobiographical memory. The evidence for schedules of testing to monitor cognitive side-effects is currently limited. We therefore make practical recommendations based on clinical experience.
Despite modern ECT techniques, cognitive side-effects remain an important issue, although their nature and degree remains to be clarified fully. In these circumstances it is useful for clinicians to have guidance regarding what to tell patients and how to monitor these side-effects clinically.
Since Bell's original description delirious mania (DM) has been repeatedly rediscovered and renamed, resulting in much confusion as to its meaning.Definitions range from mania with self-limited temporal-spatial disorientation to a fatal, delirious catatonic syndrome with euphoric mood, high fever and autonomic instability. Moreover, it remains unclear whether DM is a specific clinical entity or an unspecific, unpredictable complication of mania, and whether it is a useful diagnostic category.
To identify the frequency and clinical features of DM and mania with delirium.
We reviewed all admissions to our acute inpatient unit with mania, hypomania or mixed affective state, in 2006 and 2007. Cases with delirious features and cases with a working diagnosis of DM, were reviewed in detail. The three groups (no delirium, delirious features and DM) were compared for general demographic and clinical variables, as well as features specifically associated with DM (e.g., catatonia; nakedness; inappropriate toileting; unexplained fever, etc).
We found 100 patients with mania, hippomania or mixed affective state. 14 had medically unexplained delirium, 4 of them with a final diagnosis of DM. DM cases (but not non-DM mania cases with delirious features) had extremely long durations of stay, acute onset, hypertermia, catatonia, autonomic instability, anarchic sleep, shouting/coprolalia, delirium persisting for over a week, and were more likely to receive ECT. Moreover, in three of them DM occurred in most manic/mixed affective episodes.
DM is a rare occurrence in bipolar disorder. It has typical clinical features and may be recurrent.
An important part of the patients are affected with Mental Disorder associate with the cognitive alterations and its exercises an influence in the patient's daily routine.
This field study, a descriptive diagnostic encompassing the case and had as objective to evaluate the cognitive aspects: motor aptitude and attention.
The sample was the intentional kind, composed of female patients with diagnosis of Mental Disorder (major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder) according to DSM IV, in depressive condition, from 22 to 55 years old, interned in a psychiatric hospital.
For the evaluation of the motor aptitude it was used the Motor Aptitude Rank for the Elderly (Escala Motora para a Terceira Idade - EMTI - Pink Grandson, 2002) adapted that evaluates the general and specific motor aptitude: Specific Motricity, Global Motricity, Balance, Corporal Design, Space Organization, Shedule Organization. It was used the TMT (Trail Making Test - parts A and B - neuropsychological battery Halstead-Reitan) to evaluate the attention (Reitan, 1958).
The data had been organized and analyzed through descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.
General Motor Aptitude (GMA) was classified as Normal Low; Global Motricity, Balance, Corporal Design, Space Organization and Schedule Organization had low output; the worse execution in the TMT indicating attention deficit disorder; the increasing of the time in the execution of the TMT proportional to the increase of the age; a negative value of the correlation of the GMA and the attention, a bigger slowness in the execution of the TMT tests shows minors values of GMA.
Prevalence of depression and other common psychiatric disorders in autoimmune diseases has been extensively documented. The association between subclinical autoimmunity and behavioural or psychiatric syndromes remains less studied. The best known example is raised titres of autoantibodies with high affinity for the basal ganglia in some obsessive compulsive spectrum syndromes (e.g. Paediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections). The possible role of autoimmunity in impulse control disorders remains understudied.
We proposed to study the relation between autoimmunity, affective bipolarity and impulsive psicopathology.
14 bipolar, 10 cluster B personality disorder inpatients. Titres for rheumatoid factor (RA), antithyroglobulin (ATG), antiperoxidase (APO) antinuclear (ANA), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic (ANCA) and antistreptolysin (ASO) antibodies were measured in all subjects. Psychiatric assessment: non-structured psychiatric interview, MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II.
21,4% of bipolar patients had positive ATG titre vs 11,1% in the cluster B personality group. 28,6% of bipolar patients had positive APO titre vs 22,2% in the cluster B personality group. 16,7% of bipolar patients had positive ASO titre vs 30,0% in the cluster B personality group. None of this differences reached significance.
ASO titre correlated significantly with antisocial (rho=0,435, p=0,043) and autodestructive (rho=0,461, p=0,031) ratings and almost significantly with borderline (rho=0,420, p=0,052) ratings.
The results obtained partly agree with the existing studies. As far as we know a possible correlation between ASOs and impulsive behaviour has not been previously described. The results obtained call for further investigation in the subject.
La fédération européenne des internes de psychiatrie (EFPT) a réalisé une étude observationnelle sur la migration des internes de psychiatrie en Europe suite à un rapport de la WPA . Entre 2013 et 2014, 2281 internes de 33 pays ont répondu à un questionnaire sur internet. Nous présenterons les résultats concernant les internes faisant leurs études en France. Au total, 193 personnes ont répondu en France (2e pays répondeur). Parmi ces internes, 8 n’avaient pas la nationalité française, ce qui fait de la France le 7e pays le plus attractif de l’étude. A contrario, 4 français émigrés à l’étranger ont répondu à l’étude. En termes d’expérience de mobilité, 30 % des français ont déjà vécu à l’étranger entre 3 et 12 mois. Seuls 5 % des internes ont passé plus d’un an à l’étranger, soit 3 fois moins que dans les autres pays européens (p < 10−4) ce qui place la France à la 14e place en termes de nombre d’émigrants. Cette faible mobilité ne s’explique pas par une désaffection : 71 % des internes ont déjà envisagé de partir à l’étranger. Cependant, 65 % des répondeurs pensent qu’ils resteront en France dans les 5 prochaines années. Les raisons principales pour quitter la France sont personnelles, académiques ou liées à l’environnement culturel. Le salaire des internes de psychiatrie en France est compris entre 1500 et 1999 €, ce qui est un salaire moyen en Europe et dont ils semblent modérément satisfaits et qui ne représente pas une réelle motivation à l’émigration. D’autres difficultés davantage culturelles ou liés à la faiblesse des aides à la mobilité pourraient expliquer cette moindre mobilité par rapport aux autres pays européens. Depuis 2011, l’EFPT cherche à répondre à cette volonté de mobilité par un programme d’échange de 2 à 6 semaines parmi 13 pays européens.
Depression is the world’s most debilitating disease, more prevalent in association with chronic diseases. We studied two different patient groups: with chronic renal failure in hemodialysis (H), responsible for 100 procedures/day and oncologic patients under chemotherapy (Q), with an admission rate of 659,788/year in Brazil. This study aims at investigating the presence of depression symptoms in both (H) and (Q). We associated sociodemographic and clinical variants with depression symptoms, measured the number of symptomatic patients under treatment and detected the group with the higher symptom scores. It is a cross-sectional study of the reference services in Barbacena, with 200 sample patients, prevalence 15%, power 80%, error 4%, significance 5%. We used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and a sociodemographic one. Both were analyzed by the software SPSS-17, descriptive statistics, CHI Square Test, Fischer and Student’s t-Tests, 5% significance. Following data analysis we found 16,4% (H) and 12,2% (Q) with low or moderate symptoms; 1,5% (H) and 8,2% (Q) with serious depression symptoms. We observed that smoking and depression symptoms are linked, 66,7% (H). Weight, somatization, tiredness, sleep deprivation and decreased libido were found to be the most associated among the clinical variants. Although mental scores in both H and Q are similar it is necessary to differentiate symptoms caused by the underlying disease or depression, once none of the symptomatic patients received treatment; in (H), 8,96% of patients revealed suicidal thoughts and 60% of men suffered from erectile dysfunction.