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The global spread of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may be due to HIV/AIDS and other environmental factors. The symptoms of NTM and tuberculosis (TB) disease are indistinguishable, but their treatments are different. Lack of research on the epidemiology of NTM infections has led to underestimation of its prevalence within TB endemic countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of pulmonary NTM in Bamako. A cross-sectional study which include 439 suspected cases of pulmonary TB. From 2006 to 2013 a total of 332 (76%) were confirmed to have sputum culture positive for mycobacteria. The prevalence of NTM infection was 9.3% of our study population and 12.3% of culture positive patients. The seroprevalence of HIV in NTM group was 17.1%. Patients who weighed <55 kg and had TB symptoms other than cough were also significantly more likely to have disease due to NTM as compared to those with TB disease who were significantly more likely to have cough and weigh more than 55 kg (OR 0.05 (CI 0.02–0.13) and OR 0.32 (CI 0.11–0.93) respectively). NTM disease burden in Bamako was substantial and diagnostic algorithms for pulmonary disease in TB endemic countries should consider the impact of NTM.
The Vogan sheep (VS), a crossbreed between Djallonke sheep (DS) and sahelian sheep (SS), is a unique sheep breed in Togo. It is highly valued for its performances but its breeding is very localized in southeastern of Togo. The objective of this study was to update the breed's phenotypic characterization and to compare VS phenotypic features with those of parental populations (DS and SS). For this purpose, morphological data were collected in January 2013 from 206 animals in Vô, Kloto and Agou prefectures (Togo) and in May 2013 from 30 SS in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). Results showed that the coat colour was very variable. Horn shape was also variable but was generally prismatic and outward-oriented, present in all rams and fine or remains of them in ewes. Quantitative traits such as height at withers, body length, chest circumference, tail length, ear length, space between the horns and chest depth showed that VS traits are smaller than SS traits but are significantly superior when compared to DS traits. Most VS characters were influenced by geographic location (p < 0,05). This study confirmed the “intermediate” status of VS. The sustainable use of VS needs molecular characterization and a dissemination programme.
Flukes were found in the bile ducts of domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), necropsied in the Binh Dinh province of Central Vietnam. Following staining, morphological characteristics of the bird flukes were compatible with Opisthorchis viverrini, although some characteristics differed from those described in specimens collected from mammal hosts. Computation of the phylogenetic trees on the partial sequences of the second internal ribosomal spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) markers of the mitochondrial DNA showed close similarity of the ‘bird’ Opisthorchis sp. with O. viverrini. We speculate that these bird flukes are O. viverrini that show intraspecies morphological and molecular variability compared to isolates from mammals. This demonstrates the complex epidemiological situation of opisthorchiasis in Vietnam and urges investigations on the potential of birds as a reservoir host of this zoonotic fluke.
Locally Er3+-doped noncongruent, Li-deficient Ti:Er:LiNbO3 strip waveguide was fabricated with a technological process in sequence of preparation of Li-deficient LiNbO3 substrate using Li-poor vapor transport equilibration (VTE), Er3+, and Ti4+ diffusion in wet O2. The Li2O content change was evaluated from the measured birefringence. The Ti4+ and Er3+ profile characteristics in the waveguide were studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show that the VTE and subsequent Er3+ diffusion procedures resulted in totally ∼0.8 mol% Li2O content reduction. The Ti4+ profile follows a sum of two error functions in the width direction and a Gaussian function in the depth direction of waveguide. The Er3+ profile follows also a Gaussian function. At 1130 °C, the Ti4+ surface/depth diffusivity and surface concentration are 8.5 ± 1.3/1.98 ± 0.06 μm2/h and ∼7 mol%, respectively, and the Er3+ diffusivity and surface concentration are (12.8 ± 0.3) × 10−2 μm2/h and ∼0.6 mol%, respectively.
To evaluate the validity of fruit and vegetable intakes as it relates to plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations in Chinese women, using three classification schemes.
Intakes were calculated using an interviewer-administered FFQ. Fruits and vegetables, botanical groups and high-nutrient groups were evaluated. These three classification schemes were compared with plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations from blood samples collected within 1 week of questionnaire completion.
Participants (n 2031) comprised women who had participated in a case–control study of diet and breast-related diseases nested within a randomized trial of breast self-examination among textile workers (n 266 064)
Fruit intake was significantly (P < 0·05) and positively associated with plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene, retinyl palmitate and vitamin C. Fruit intake was inversely associated with γ-tocopherol and lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations. Vegetable consumption was significantly and positively associated with γ-tocopherol and β-cryptoxanthin concentrations. Each botanical and high-nutrient group was also significantly associated with particular plasma nutrient concentrations. Fruit and vegetable intakes and most plasma nutrient concentrations were significantly associated with season of interview.
These results suggest that the manner in which fruits and vegetables are grouped leads to different plasma nutrient exposure information, which may be an important consideration when testing and generating hypotheses regarding disease risk in relation to diet. Interview season should be considered when evaluating the associations of reported intake and plasma nutrients with disease outcomes.
Elasto-plastic response of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) follows closely the response of granular materials through pressure dependent (or normal stress) yield locus and shear stress induced material dilatation. On a micro-structural level, material dilatation is responsible for stress softening and formation of localized shear band, however its influence on the macro-scale flow and deformation is largely unknown. In this work, we systematically analyze the effect of material dilatation on the gross indentation response of Zr-based BMG via finite element simulation. The strengthening/softening effect on the load-depth response and corresponding stress-strain profiles are presented in light of differences in elastic-plastic regimes under common indenters. Through comparison with existing experimental results, we draw conclusions regarding selection of suitable dilatation parameters for accurately predicting the gross response of BMGs
The food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) can be an efficient tool to evaluate dietary intake in large, population-based studies, especially for specific foods. The objective of this study was to validate the assessment of soy and isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) intakes, measured by an FFQ, by comparing intakes with serum isoflavone concentrations.
Design and setting:
Soy and isoflavone intakes and serum isoflavone concentrations were determined as part of a case–control study of dietary factors and risks of benign breast disease and breast cancer. The FFQ, administered during an in-person interview, included six soy-specific line items. Blood was drawn within one week of FFQ completion.
In total, 1823 women living in Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
In this population, soybean milk, fresh bean curd and other bean foods were eaten once per week, and fermented bean curd, fried bean curd puff and soybeans were eaten less than once per week. A significant linear trend (P > 0.01) in serum isoflavone concentrations across increasing categories of soy and isoflavone intakes was observed, indicating that soy and isoflavone intakes, measured by the FFQ, well distinguished serum isoflavone concentrations. Linear trends were also observed in both case and control groups in stratified analyses, suggesting little differential bias by case–control status.
The results suggest that the FFQ provides a useful marker of soy food consumption and isoflavone exposure in this population.
A raster or grid-based Geographic Information System with data on tsetse, trypanosomosis, animal production, agriculture and land use has recently been developed in Togo. This paper describes the generation of area-wide digital tsetse distribution and abundance maps and how these accord with the local climatic and agro-ecological setting. Results include: (i) a spatial demarcation of ecologically distinct areas, producing a seasonal cluster map based on seasonal weather data and temporal series of satellite derived National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) AVHRR and METEOSAT variables: (ii) tsetse distribution maps of Glossina tachinoides Westwood, G. palpalis palpalis (Robineau-Desvoidy), G. morsitans submorsitansNewstead, G. longipalpis Wiedemann, G. medicorum Austen and G. fusca fusca (Walker); and (iii) tsetse abundance or ‘risk’ maps, corrected for within database seasonal fluctuations, for G. tachinoides and G. p. palpalis. It is concluded that grid-based sampling is the ideal method for rapid assessment of the current vector and disease situation within any country or region, and that remote sensing has an important role to play in planning such a sampling system.
Most in vivo studies of striatal D2 receptor (SD2R) density with positron emission tomography in schizophrenia have attempted to relate this variable to the diagnosis of the illness. In the present study, a relationship between SD2R and clinical dimensions of this psychosis was searched for in a highly selected group of young negative schizophrenics (8 drug-naïve and 2 drug-free). The SD2R density index measured in vivo using 76Br-bromolisuride and PET correlated negatively (r = 0.80, P < 0.01) with a psychomotor dimension of schizophrenia involving blunted affect and alogia. The mean SD2R index of the patients did not differ from that of age-matched control subjects. Therefore, this behavioural dimension accounts for the variance of the SD2R, suggesting that the striatal dopamine system modulates symptoms such as flattened affect and alogia.
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