To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Compound-specific radiocarbon (14C) dating often requires working with small samples of < 100 µg carbon (µgC). This makes the radiocarbon dates of biomarker compounds very sensitive to biases caused by extraneous carbon of unknown composition, a procedural blank, which is introduced to the samples during the steps necessary to prepare a sample for radiocarbon analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (i.e., isolating single compounds from a heterogeneous mixture, combustion, gas purification and graphitization). Reporting accurate radiocarbon dates thus requires a correction for the procedural blank. We present our approach to assess the fraction modern carbon (F14C) and the mass of the procedural blanks introduced during the preparation procedures of lipid biomarkers (i.e. n-alkanoic acids) and lignin phenols. We isolated differently sized aliquots (6–151 µgC) of n-alkanoic acids and lignin phenols obtained from standard materials with known F14C values. Each compound class was extracted from two standard materials (one fossil, one modern) and purified using the same procedures as for natural samples of unknown F14C. There is an inverse linear relationship between the measured F14C values of the processed aliquots and their mass, which suggests constant contamination during processing of individual samples. We use Bayesian methods to fit linear regression lines between F14C and 1/mass for the fossil and modern standards. The intersection points of these lines are used to infer F14Cblank and mblank and their associated uncertainties. We estimate 4.88 ± 0.69 μgC of procedural blank with F14C of 0.714 ± 0.077 for n-alkanoic acids, and 0.90 ± 0.23 μgC of procedural blank with F14C of 0.813 ± 0.155 for lignin phenols. These F14Cblank and mblank can be used to correct AMS results of lipid and lignin samples by isotopic mass balance. This method may serve as a standardized procedure for blank assessment in small-scale radiocarbon analysis.
The unsteady lift response of an airfoil in a sinusoidal gust has in the past been modelled by two different transfer functions: the first-order Sears function and the second-order Atassi function. Previous studies have shown that the Sears function holds in experiments, but recently Cordes et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 811, 2017) reported experimental data that corresponded to the Atassi function rather than the Sears function. In order to clarify the observed discrepancy, the specific differences between these models are isolated analytically. To this end, data and analysis are confined to unloaded airfoils. These differences are related to physical gust parameters, and gusts with these parameters are then produced in wind-tunnel experiments using an active-grid gust generator. Measurements of the unsteady gust loads on an airfoil in the wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers (
and reduced frequencies between
confirm that the Sears and Atassi functions differ only in convention: the additional gust component of the Atassi problem can be scaled so that the Atassi function collapses onto the Sears function. These experiments, complemented by numerical simulations of the set-up, validate both models across a range of gust parameters. Finally, the influence of boundary-layer turbulence and the turbulent wake of the gust generator on experimental convergence with model predictions is investigated. These results serve to clarify the conditions under which the Sears and Atassi functions can be applied, and demonstrate that the Sears function can effectively model unsteady forces even when significant fluctuations in the streamwise velocity are present.
Introduction: Prompt defibrillation is critical during paediatric cardiac arrest. The main objective of this systematic review was to determine the initial defibrillation energy dose for ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (pVT) that is associated with sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during paediatric cardiac arrest. Associations between initial defibrillation energy dose with any ROSC, survival and defibrillation-induced complications were also assessed. Methods: A systematic review was performed using four databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) (PROSPERO: CRD42016036734). Human studies (cohort studies or controlled trials) and animal model studies (controlled trials) of pediatric cardiac arrest involving assessment of external defibrillation energy dosing were considered. The primary outcome was sustained ROSC. Two researchers independently reviewed all the titles and abstracts of the retrieved citations, selected the studies and extracted the data using a standardized template. Risk of bias of human non-randomised studies were assessed using the ROBIN-I tool (formerly ACROBAT-NRSI) tool proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration group. Results: The search strategy identified 14,471 citations of which 232 manuscripts were reviewed. Ten human and 10 animal model studies met the inclusion criteria. Human studies were prospective (n = 6) or retrospective (n = 4) cohort studies and included between 11 and 266 patients (median = 46 patients). Sustained ROSC rates ranged from 0 to 61% (n = 7). No studies reported a statistically significant association between the initial defibrillation energy dose and the rate of sustained ROSC (n = 7) or survival (n = 6). No human studies reported defibrillation-induced complications. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to clinical heterogeneity. The overall risk of bias was moderate. All animal studies were randomized controlled trials with 8 and 52 (median = 27) piglets. ROSC was frequently achieved (more than 85%) with energy dose ranging from 2 to 7 joules/kg (n = 7). The defibrillation threshold varied according to the body weight and appears to be higher in infant models. Conclusion: Defibrillation energy doses and thresholds varied according to the body weight and trended higher for infants. No definitive association between initial defibrillation doses and the outcomes of sustained ROSC or survival could be demonstrated.
Significant ethnic and socio-economic disparities exist in infectious diseases (IDs) rates in New Zealand, so accurate measures of these characteristics are required. This study compared methods of ascribing ethnicity and socio-economic status. Children in the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal cohort were ascribed to self-prioritised, total response and single-combined ethnic groups. Socio-economic status was measured using household income, and both census-derived and survey-derived deprivation indices. Rates of ID hospitalisation were compared using linked administrative data. Self-prioritised ethnicity was simplest to use. Total response accounted for mixed ethnicity and allowed overlap between groups. Single-combined ethnicity required aggregation of small groups to maintain power but offered greater detail. Regardless of the method used, Māori and Pacific children, and children in the most socio-economically deprived households had a greater risk of ID hospitalisation. Risk differences between self-prioritised and total response methods were not significant for Māori and Pacific children but single-combined ethnicity revealed a diversity of risk within these groups. Household income was affected by non-random missing data. The census-derived deprivation index offered a high level of completeness with some risk of multicollinearity and concerns regarding the ecological fallacy. The survey-derived index required extra questions but was acceptable to participants and provided individualised data. Based on these results, the use of single-combined ethnicity and an individualised survey-derived index of deprivation are recommended where sample size and data structure allow it.
The Magellanic Clouds are nearby dwarf irregular galaxies that represent a unique laboratory for studying galaxy interactions. Their morphology and dynamics have been heavily influenced by their mutual interactions as well as with their interaction(s) with the Milky Way. We use the VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic Clouds system (VMC) in combination with stellar partial models of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and the Milky Way to investigate the spatial distribution of stellar populations of different ages across the Magellanic Clouds. In this contribution, we present the results of these studies that allow us to trace substructures possibly related to the interaction history of the Magellanic Clouds.
Disaffection of youth from politics is a well-documented phenomenon in many countries. In this article, we consider whether the social networks of young people have the same influence on political engagement as they have been found to have for older adults. We use a single dataset to test the effects of discussion and disagreement on the political engagement of young people (30 and under) and older adults. We find that social network discussion has a stronger effect on the engagement of young people but that disagreement has no clear differential effect.
Acute respiratory infections cause significant morbidity and mortality accounting for 5.8 million deaths worldwide. In Australia, influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as cough, fever and fatigue is a common presentation in general practice and results in reduced productivity and lost working days. Little is known about the epidemiology of ILI in working-age adults. Using data from the ASPREN influenza surveillance network in Australia (2010–2013) we found that working-age adults made up 45.2% of all ILI notifications with 55% of samples positive for at least one respiratory virus. Viruses most commonly detected in our study included influenza A (20.6%), rhinovirus (18.6%), influenza B (6.2%), human meta-pneumovirus (3.4%), respiratory syncytial virus (3.1%), para-influenza virus (2.6%) and adenovirus (1.3%). We also demonstrated that influenza A is the predominant virus that increases ILI (by 1.2% per month for every positive influenza A case) in working-age adults during autumn–winter months while other viruses are active throughout the year. Understanding the epidemiology of viral respiratory infections through a year will help clinicians make informed decisions about testing, antibiotic and antiviral prescribing and when the beginning of the ‘flu season’ can be more confidently predicted.
Oxygen isotopic and soluble ionic measurements made on snow-pit (2 m depth) and firn-core (12.4 m depth) samples recovered from the accumulation zone (5100 m) of Inilchek glacier (43° N, 79° E) provide information on recent (1992–98) climatic and environmental conditions in the central Tien Shan region of central Asia. The combined 14.4 m snow-pit/firn-core profile lies within the firn zone, and contains only one observed melt feature (10 m temperature = −12°C). Although some post-depositional attenuation of the sub-seasonal δ18O record is possible, annual cycles are apparent throughout the isotope profile. We therefore use the preserved δ18O record to establish a depth/age scale for the core. Mean δ18O values for the entire core and for summer periods are consistent with δ18O/temperature observations, and suggest the δ18O record provides a means to reconstruct past changes in summer surface temperature at the site. Major-ion (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl−, NO3−, SO42−) data from the core demonstrate the dominant influence of dust deposition on the soluble chemistry at the site, and indicate significant interannual variability in atmospheric-dust loading during the 1990s. Anthropogenic impacts on NH4+ concentrations are observed at the site, and suggest a summer increase in atmospheric NH4+ that may be related to regional agricultural (nitrogen-rich fertilizer use) activities.
It is currently believed that Herbig-Haro (HH) objects are a consequence of a high-velocity (up to at least 200 km s−1) outflow of material from a young embedded star. These flows can often be detected by deep observations of optical emission lines using CCD cameras.
Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a major cause of morbidity but there are no validated tools to help clinicians predict post-concussion symptoms. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prognostic value of S-100B protein to predict post-concussion symptoms following a mTBI in adults. Methods: The protocol of this systematic review was registered with the PROSPERO database (CRD42016032578). A search strategy was performed on seven databases (CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, PyscBITE, PsycINFO) from their inception to October 2016. Studies evaluating the association between S-100B protein level and post-concussion symptoms assessed at least seven days after the mTBI were eligible. Individual patient data were requested. Studies eligibility assessment, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed independently by two researchers. Analyses were done following the meta-analysis using individual participant data or summary aggregate data guidelines from the Cochrane Methodology Review Group. Results: Outcomes were dichotomised as persistent (≥3 months) or early (≥7 days <3 months). Our search strategy yielded 23,298 citations of which 29 studies presenting between seven and 223 patients (n=2505) were included. Post-concussion syndrome (PCS) (16 studies), neuropsychological symptoms (9 studies) and health-related quality of life (4 studies) were the most frequently presented outcomes. The S-100B protein serum level of patients with no PCS was similar to that of patients experiencing persistent PCS (mean difference 0.00 [-0.05, 0.04]) or early PCS (mean difference 0.03 [-0.02, 0.08]). The odds of having persistent PCS (OR 0.56 (95% CI: 0.29-1.10) or early PCS (OR 1.67 (95% CI: 0.98-2.85) in patients with an elevated S-100B protein serum level was not significantly different from that of patients with normal values. No meta-analysis was performed for other outcomes than PCS due to heterogeneity and small samples. Studies’ overall risk of bias was considered moderate. Conclusion: Results suggest that the prognostic value of S-100B protein serum level to predict persistent and early post-concussion symptoms is limited. Variability in injury to S-100B protein sample time and outcomes assessed could potentially explain the lack of association and needs further evaluation.
Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is an understudied worldwide health problem and a socio-economic burden that remains a major cause of morbidity. However, there is no prognostication tool to help clinicians predict the occurrence of post-concussion symptoms. This systematic review aimed to determine the prognostic value of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) to predict post-concussion symptoms following a mTBI in adults. Methods: The protocol of this systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database (registration number CRD42016033683). Seven databases (CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycBITE, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge/Biosis) were searched for cohort studies evaluating the association between NSE levels and post-concussion symptoms assessed at least seven days after the mild TBI. Grey literature was also screened using databases on dissertations and theses as well as abstracts from relevant congresses. Two researchers independently screened studies for inclusion, extracted data, and appraised their quality using the Quality in Prognostic Studies (QUIPS) tool from the Cochrane Collaboration Group. Results: Our search strategy yielded a total of 23,298 citations from which eight cohorts presented in 10 studies were included. Studies included between 45 and 141 patients (total=608 patients). The most frequently assessed outcomes were post-concussion syndrome (PCS) (13 assessments), neuropsychological disorders (10 assessments), return to work or sick leave (2 assessments) and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) (2 assessments). No association was found between an elevated NSE serum level and the occurrence of PCS. Of the 33 outcomes assessments performed, only three showed an association between a higher level of serum NSE and a post-concussion symptom (alteration of at least three cognitive domains at 2 weeks, standardised physician assessment at 6 weeks and headache at 6 months following a mild TBI). Included studies’ overall risk of bias was considered moderate. Conclusion: Results of this systematic review conclude that based on current levels of evidence, serum NSE levels alone do not provide prognostic information on persistent or early post-concussion symptoms after a mTBI.
We have made an analysis of the visual photometric data contained in the Catalogue of Concentric Aperture UBVRI Photoelectric Photometry of Globular Clusters (Peterson 1986). Structural parameters have been obtained by use of the Simplex algorithm of Caceci and Cacheris (1984) to fit the model curves of King (1966) to the run of cluster luminosity with radius. We find that concentric aperture photometry alone can be used to determine globular cluster core radii and central surface brigtnesses reliably. Application of this techique, however, is limited to about two-thirds of the known clusters of the Galaxy because no or inadequate numbers of photometric measurements exist for the remaining clusters. Accurate determination of cluster concentration classes still requires use of other types of data, such as star counts.
We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young (≲ 200 Myr), nearby (≲ 100 pc) moving groups, which is consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary ages for both the β Pic and Tucana-Horologium moving groups. This age scale was derived using a set of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones that incorporate an empirical colour-Teff relation and bolometric corrections based on the observed colours of Pleiades members, with theoretical corrections for the dependence on logg. Absolute ages for young, nearby groups are vital as these regions play a crucial role in our understanding of the early evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars, as well as providing ideal targets for direct imaging and other measurements of dusty debris discs, substellar objects and, of course, extrasolar planets.
The recognition of ‘fetal origins of adult disease’ has placed new responsibilities on the obstetrician, as antenatal care is no longer simply about ensuring good perinatal outcomes, but also needs to plan for optimal long-term health for mother and baby. Recently, it has become clear that the intrauterine environment has a broad and long-lasting impact, influencing fetal and childhood growth and development as well as future cardiovascular health, non-communicable disease risk and fertility. This article looks specifically at the importance of the developmental origins of ovarian reserve and ageing, the role of the placenta and maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy. It also reviews recent insights in developmental medicine of relevance to the obstetrician, and outlines emerging evidence supporting a proactive clinical approach to optimizing periconceptional as well as antenatal care aimed to protect newborns against long-term disease susceptibility.
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause bacteraemia, meningitis, and complications during pregnancy. In July 2012, molecular subtyping identified indistinguishable L. monocytogenes isolates from six patients and two samples of different cut and repackaged cheeses. A multistate outbreak investigation was initiated. Initial analyses identified an association between eating soft cheese and outbreak-related illness (odds ratio 17·3, 95% confidence interval 2·0–825·7) but no common brand. Cheese inventory data from locations where patients bought cheese and an additional location where repackaged cheese yielded the outbreak strain were compared to identify cheeses for microbiological sampling. Intact packages of imported ricotta salata yielded the outbreak strain. Fourteen jurisdictions reported 22 cases from March–October 2012, including four deaths and a fetal loss. Six patients ultimately reported eating ricotta salata; another reported eating cheese likely cut with equipment also used for contaminated ricotta salata, and nine more reported eating other cheeses that might also have been cross-contaminated. An FDA import alert and US and international recalls followed. Epidemiology-directed microbiological testing of suspect cheeses helped identify the outbreak source. Cross-contamination of cheese highlights the importance of using validated disinfectant protocols and routine cleaning and sanitizing after cutting each block or wheel.
Exposure to animal livestock has been linked to zoonotic transmission, especially of gastrointestinal pathogens. Exposure to animals may contribute to chronic asymptomatic intestinal infection, environmental enteropathy and child under-nutrition in low-income settings. We conducted a cohort study to explore the effect of exposure to cows on growth and endemic diarrhoea in children aged <5 years in a rural, low-income setting in the Indian state of Odisha. The study enrolled 1992 households with 2739 children. Height measurements were available for 824 children. Exposure to cows was measured as (1) the presence of a cowshed within or outside the compound, (2) the number of cows owned by a household, and (3) the number of cowsheds located within 50 m of a household. In a sub-study of 518 households, fly traps were used to count the number of synanthropic flies that may act as vectors for gastrointestinal pathogens. We found no evidence that environmental exposure to cows contributes to growth deficiency in children in rural India, neither directly by affecting growth, nor indirectly by increasing the risk of diarrhoea. We found no strong evidence that the presence of a cowshed increased the number synanthropic flies in households.
Decay experiments are becoming a more widespread tool in evaluating the fidelity of the fossil record. Character interpretations of fossil specimens stand to benefit from an understanding of how decay can result in changes in morphology and, potentially, total character loss. We performed a decay experiment for the Class Enteropneusta to test the validity of anatomical interpretations of the Burgess Shale enteropneust Spartobranchus tenuis and to determine how the preservation of morphological features compares with the sequence of character decay in extant analogues. We used three species of enteropneust (Saccoglossus pusillus, Harrimania planktophilus, and Balanoglossus occidentalis) representing the two major families of Enteropneusta. Comparisons between decay sequences suggest that morphological characters decay in a consistent and predictable manner within Enteropneusta, and do not support the hypothesis of stemward slippage. The gill bars and nuchal skeleton were the most decay resistant, whereas the gill pores and pre-oral ciliary organ were unequivocally the most decay prone. Decay patterns support the identification of the nuchal skeleton, gill bars, esophageal organ, trunk, and proboscis in Spartobranchus tenuis and corroborate a harrimaniid affinity. Bias due to the taphonomic loss of taxonomically informative characters is unlikely. The morphologically simple harrimaniid body plan can be seen, therefore, to be plesiomorphic within the enteropneusts. Discrepancies between the sequence of decay in a laboratory setting and fossil preservation also exist. These discrepancies are highlighted not to discredit the use of modern decay studies but rather to underline their non-actualistic nature. Paleoenvironmental variables besides decay, such as the timeframe between death and early diagenesis as well as postmortem transport, are discussed relative to decay data. These experiments reinforce the strength of a comprehensive understanding of decay sequences as a benchmark against which to describe fossil taxa and understand the conditions leading to fossilization.