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Childhood early life stress (ELS) increases risk of adulthood major depressive disorder (MDD) and is associated with altered brain structure and function. It is unclear whether specific ELSs affect depression risk, cognitive function and brain structure.
This cross-sectional study included 64 antidepressant-free depressed and 65 never-depressed individuals. Both groups reported a range of ELSs on the Early Life Stress Questionnaire, completed neuropsychological testing and 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neuropsychological testing assessed domains of episodic memory, working memory, processing speed and executive function. MRI measures included cortical thickness and regional gray matter volumes, with a priori focus on the cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), amygdala, caudate and hippocampus.
Of 19 ELSs, only emotional abuse, sexual abuse and severe family conflict independently predicted adulthood MDD diagnosis. The effect of total ELS score differed between groups. Greater ELS exposure was associated with slower processing speed and smaller OFC volumes in depressed subjects, but faster speed and larger volumes in non-depressed subjects. In contrast, exposure to ELSs predictive of depression had similar effects in both diagnostic groups. Individuals reporting predictive ELSs exhibited poorer processing speed and working memory performance, smaller volumes of the lateral OFC and caudate, and decreased cortical thickness in multiple areas including the insula bilaterally. Predictive ELS exposure was also associated with smaller left hippocampal volume in depressed subjects.
Findings suggest an association between childhood trauma exposure and adulthood cognitive function and brain structure. These relationships appear to differ between individuals who do and do not develop depression.
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) due to Staphylococcus aureus have become increasingly common in the outpatient setting; however, risk factors for differentiating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) SSTIs are needed to better inform antibiotic treatment decisions. We performed a case-case-control study within 14 primary-care clinics in South Texas from 2007 to 2015. Overall, 325 patients [S. aureus SSTI cases (case group 1, n = 175); MRSA SSTI cases (case group 2, n = 115); MSSA SSTI cases (case group 3, n = 60); uninfected control group (control, n = 150)] were evaluated. Each case group was compared to the control group, and then qualitatively contrasted to identify unique risk factors associated with S. aureus, MRSA, and MSSA SSTIs. Overall, prior SSTIs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7·60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·31–17·45], male gender (aOR 1·74, 95% CI 1·06–2·85), and absence of healthcare occupation status (aOR 0·14, 95% CI 0·03–0·68) were independently associated with S. aureus SSTIs. The only unique risk factor for community-associated (CA)-MRSA SSTIs was a high body weight (⩾110 kg) (aOR 2·03, 95% CI 1·01–4·09).
A good leader inspires people to have confidence in the leader; a great leader inspires people to have confidence in themselves.
– Eleanor Roosevelt
Have you ever been in a group in which someone took control by conveying a clear group vision with actively caring for people (AC4P) passion, and made the rest of the group feel recharged and energized? These are characteristics of an AC4P leader. AC4P leadership inspires positive change in followers. These leaders are energetic, enthusiastic, and passionate.
AC4P leaders are concerned and involved in reaching SMARTS goals (Chapter 3). They focus on helping every member of the group succeed in the process. These leaders create beneficial behavior change within a group or an organization, and they facilitate self-motivation among their followers. The measure of a leader, you see, can be defined by the amount of discretionary or self-directed behavior performed by followers.
Now, have you ever been in a group in which someone takes over by telling everyone what to do, and precisely how to do it? These are behaviors of a manager. Managers expect followers to be compliant, and they ensure compliance with an accountability system – positive and negative behavioral consequences. Managers do not seek any type of transformation or change; their aim is simply to keep people on track to reach existing group or organizational goals. Followers are carefully monitored to ensure expectations are met. The power of managers comes from their formal authority and designated responsibility in the group; the power of an AC4P leader comes from inspiration.
Finally, have you ever belonged to a group in which you were sometimes a leader and at other times a follower, depending on the task or the challenge at hand? People often switch between leader and follower roles many times in a single day, and task success depends as much on effective followership as it does on effective leadership.
So what is leadership? Leadership is the process of influencing others toward the accomplishment of goals (recall the discussion of SMARTS goals in Chapter 3). Leadership is not inherently good or bad. It becomes good or bad depending on the intentions, goals, and behavior of both leaders and followers. Goals can be constructive or destructive, helpful or harmful, legal or illegal, self-serving or prosocial. They can reflect actively caring for self or for others.
Although the incidence of invasive group A streptococcal disease in northern Australia is very high, little is known of the regional epidemiology and molecular characteristics. We conducted a case series of Northern Territory residents reported between 2011 and 2013 with Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from a normally sterile site. Of the 128 reported episodes, the incidence was disproportionately high in the Indigenous population at 69·7/100 000 compared to 8·8/100 000 in the non-Indigenous population. Novel to the Northern Territory is the extremely high incidence in haemodialysis patients of 2205·9/100 000 population; and for whom targeted infection control measures could prevent transmission. The incidences in the tropical north and semi-arid Central Australian regions were similar. Case fatality was 8% (10/128) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome occurred in 14 (11%) episodes. Molecular typing of 82 isolates identified 28 emm types, of which 63 (77%) were represented by four emm clusters. Typing confirmed transmission between infant twins. While the diverse range of emm types presents a challenge for effective coverage by vaccine formulations, the limited number of emm clusters raises optimism should cluster-specific cross-protection prove efficacious. Further studies are required to determine effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis for contacts and to inform public health response.
In this article I argue that an analysis of “the State” is necessary in order to understand legal developments related to “family” that are relevant to efforts to combat the oppression of heterosexual women, as well as of lesbians and gay men. Drawing on recent debates concerning postmodernism and feminist theory, I review efforts to reconceptualize the nature of the state not as a monolithic institution, but rather as a set of arenas, or the site of various discursive formations. Because laws are generated from within, but are only part of, concentrated forms of state power, feminists and progressive groups that are engaging with law must retain an explicit analysis of the state. This analysis must be more nuanced and displaced than it has been in instrumentalist and structuralist accounts, in order to explore the ways in which feminists have influenced legal change and whether this influence is positive or negative for different groups. The limits on law's ability to fundamentally transform the social relations of oppression must however be recognized. In particular, the relationship between overall state trends—for example privatization—and trends specific to certain state arenas such as courts and legislatures—for example enhanced women's rights to men's property and increased legal recognition of same sex couples—must be traced in order to determine the political impact of seemingly progressive movements in areas related to “the family”.
Transnational food, beverage and restaurant companies, and their corporate foundations, may be potential collaborators to help address complex public health nutrition challenges. While UN system guidelines are available for private-sector engagement, non-governmental organizations (NGO) have limited guidelines to navigate diverse opportunities and challenges presented by partnering with these companies through public–private partnerships (PPP) to address the global double burden of malnutrition.
We conducted a search of electronic databases, UN system websites and grey literature to identify resources about partnerships used to address the global double burden of malnutrition. A narrative summary provides a synthesis of the interdisciplinary literature identified.
We describe partnership opportunities, benefits and challenges; and tools and approaches to help NGO engage with the private sector to address global public health nutrition challenges. PPP benefits include: raising the visibility of nutrition and health on policy agendas; mobilizing funds and advocating for research; strengthening food-system processes and delivery systems; facilitating technology transfer; and expanding access to medications, vaccines, healthy food and beverage products, and nutrition assistance during humanitarian crises. PPP challenges include: balancing private commercial interests with public health interests; managing conflicts of interest; ensuring that co-branded activities support healthy products and healthy eating environments; complying with ethical codes of conduct; assessing partnership compatibility; and evaluating partnership outcomes.
NGO should adopt a systematic and transparent approach using available tools and processes to maximize benefits and minimize risks of partnering with transnational food, beverage and restaurant companies to effectively target the global double burden of malnutrition.
Raman scattering has been used to characterize lattice damage and impurity-induced compositional disordering in AlGaAs superlattice suitable for optical waveguiding. The degree of damage induced by both conventional ion beam (CIB) implantation and focused ion beam (FIB) implantation is studied using a spatial correlation model to interpret the Raman spectra. FIB implantation is found to induce slightly more damage than CIB implantation for doses of 8×1013 cm−2 and 4×1014 cm−2. and significantly more damage with 2×1015 cm2 compared to CIB implantations of the same dose. Suitable FIB implantation and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) conditions which provide compositional mixing were determined using Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Using these conditions, an optical channel waveguide in AlGaAs superlattice formed by FIB-induced compositional intermixing is demonstrated.
Real 3-D sub-νm lithography was performed with two-photon polymerization (2PP) using inorganic-organic hybrid polymer (ORMOCER®) resins. The hybrid polymers were synthesized by hydrolysis/polycondensation reactions (modified sol-gel synthesis) which allows one to tailor their material properties towards the respective applications, i.e., dielectrics, optics or passivation. Due to their photosensitive organic functionalities, ORMOCER®s can be patterned by conventional photo-lithography as well as by femtosecond laser pulses at 780 nm. This results in polymerized (solid) structures where the non-polymerized parts can be removed by conventional developers.
ORMOCER® structures as small as 200 nm or even below were generated by 2PP of the resins using femtosecond laser pulses. It is demonstrated that ORMOCER®s have the potential to be used in components or devices built up by nm-scale structures such as, e.g., photonic crystals. Aspects of the materials in conjunction to the applied technology are discussed.
Ultra-fast pulsed laser deposition using high-repetition-rate short-pulse lasers has been shown to provide high optical quality, super smooth thin films free of scattering centres. The optimized process conditions require short ps or sub-ps pulses with repetition rate in the range 1-100 MHz, depending on the target material. Ultra-fast pulsed laser deposition was used to successfully deposit atomically-smooth, 5micron thick As2S3 films. The as-deposited films were photosensitive at wavelengths close to the band edge (≈520 nm) and waveguides could be directly patterned into them by photo-darkening using an Argon ion or frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of the films were measured as well as the photosensitivity of the material. The optical losses in photo-darkened waveguides were <0.2 dB/cm at wavelengths beyond 1200nm and <0.1 dB/cm in as-deposited films. The third order nonlinearity, n2,As2S3, was measured using both four-wave mixing and the z-scan technique and varied with wavelength from 100 to 200 times fused silica (n2,Silica ≈3×10-16 cm2/W) between 1500nm and 1100nm with low nonlinear absorption.
Encouraged by the Ultrafast laser deposition results, we have built a new specialized modelocked picosecond laser system for deposition of optical films and for laser formation of nanoclusters. The newly developed “state of the art” powerful Nd:YVO laser can operate over a wide range of wavelengths, intensities, and repetition rates in MHz range. A brief description of the 50W laser installation is presented.