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We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of canonical statistically steady, statistically planar turbulent flames have been used in an attempt to produce distributed burning in lean methane and hydrogen flames. Dilatation across the flame means that extremely large Karlovitz numbers are required; even at the extreme levels of turbulence studied (up to a Karlovitz number of 8767) distributed burning was only achieved in the hydrogen case. In this case, turbulence was found to broaden the reaction zone visually by around an order of magnitude, and thermodiffusive effects (typically present for lean hydrogen flames) were not observed. In the preheat zone, the species compositions differ considerably from those of one-dimensional flames based a number of different transport models (mixture averaged, unity Lewis number and a turbulent eddy viscosity model). The behaviour is a characteristic of turbulence dominating non-unity Lewis number species transport, and the distinct limit is again attributed to dilatation and its effect on the turbulence. Peak local reaction rates are found to be lower in the distributed case than in the lower Karlovitz cases but higher than in the laminar flame, which is attributed to effects that arise from the modified fuel-temperature distribution that results from turbulent mixing dominating low Lewis number thermodiffusive effects. Finally, approaches to achieve distributed burning at realisable conditions are discussed; factors that increase the likelihood of realising distributed burning are higher pressure, lower equivalence ratio, higher Lewis number and lower reactant temperature.
As bottom water warms, destabilisation of gas hydrates may increase the extent of methane-rich sediments. The authors present an assessment of organic carbon processing by the benthic community in methane-rich sediments, including one of the first investigations of inorganic C fixation in a non-hydrothermal vent setting. This topic was previously poorly studied, and there is much need to fill the gaps in knowledge of such ecosystems. The authors hypothesized that benthic C fixation would occur, and that a high biomass macrofaunal community would play a substantial role in organic C cycling. Experiments were conducted at a 257 m deep site off South Georgia. Sediment cores were amended with 13C and 15N labelled algal detritus, or 13C labelled bicarbonate solution. In the bicarbonate experiment, labelling of bacteria-specific phospholipid fatty acids provided direct evidence of benthic C fixation, with transfer of fixed C to macrofauna and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In the algae experiment, macrofauna played an active role in organic carbon cycling. Compared to similar experiments, low temperature supressed the rates of community respiration and macrofaunal C uptake. While benthic C fixation occurred, the biological processing of organic carbon was dominantly controlled by low temperature and high photic zone productivity.
Leucites are silicate framework structures with some of the silicon framework cations partially replaced by divalent or trivalent cations. A monovalent extraframework alkali metal cation is also incorporated to balance the charges. We have previously reported Pbca leucite structures with the stoichiometries Cs2X2+Si5O12 (X = Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd) and Rb2X2+Si5O12 (X = Mg, Mn, Ni, Cd). These orthorhombic leucite structures have all the silicon and non-silicon framework cations completely ordered onto separate crystallographic sites. This structure has five distinct Si sites and 1 X site; there are also two distinct sites for the extra-framework Cs or Rb. We have recently synthesised leucite analogues with two different extra-framework cations, these have the stoichiometry RbCsX2+Si5O12 (X = Mg, Ni, Cd). The initial Rietveld refinements assumed 50% Cs and 50% Rb on each of the two extra-framework cation sites. The refined structures for X = Ni and Cd have (within error limits) complete extra-framework cation site disorder. However, for X = Mg there is partial ordering of the extra-framework cation sites, the site occupancies are:- Cs1 0.37(3), Rb1 0.63(3), Cs2 0.63(3), Rb2 0.37(3).
Predictive analytics in health is a complex, transdisciplinary field requiring collaboration across diverse scientific and stakeholder groups. Pilot implementation of participatory research to foster team science in predictive analytics through a partnered-symposium and funding competition. In total, 85 stakeholders were engaged across diverse translational domains, with a significant increase in perceived importance of early inclusion of patients and communities in research. Participatory research approaches may be an effective model for engaging broad stakeholders in predictive analytics.
Introduction: Massive Transfusion Protocol (MTP) activation allows for efficient delivery of a balanced transfusion strategy to exsanguinating patients, and should deliver a reasonable ratio of plasma and platelets to red blood cells. MTP activation should facilitate communication between care providers and laboratory services in order to minimize blood product wastage. Unfortunately, it is unclear which activation criteria are best to achieve this. Understanding of acceptable sensitivity and specificity, as well as reasons for blood component wastage, may provide refinement to MTP design. Methods: We surveyed clinicians, who were identified as content experts in their fields, using a snowball survey technique. Respondents were categorized into two groups: Group 1 included Emergency Medicine, Anesthesia, Critical Care, and Surgery; Group 2 included Hematology, Hematopathology and Transfusion Medicine. Between-group differences were examined using the Pearsons Chi-Square Test. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: 50% of physicians in Group 1 considered an MTP under-call rate of 5-10% to be acceptable, whereas the majority (57.1%) of physicians in Group 2 considered an under-call rate of <5% to be acceptable. Both groups agreed on an acceptable over-call rate of 5-10%. A significantly greater proportion of physicians in Group 1 felt that MTP activation criteria including transfusion of an entire blood volume within 24 hours, loss of >50% blood volume within 3 hours and anticipated transfusion of >10U of PRBC in 24 hours were appropriate for MTP activation. Physicians in Group 2 were more likely to consider poor communication a reason for blood component wastage. Conclusion: Similarities in acceptable over- and under-call rates of MTP highlight the similar values in MTP activation between different medical specialties. Collaboration between the resuscitation team and consultants in transfusion medicine is necessary for MTP protocol development to improve patient outcomes and reduce blood wastage.
The goal of the present study was to use a methodology that accurately and reliably describes the availability, price and quality of healthy foods at both the store and community levels using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S), to propose a spatial methodology for integrating these store and community data into measures for defining objective food access.
Two hundred and sixty-five retail food stores in and within 2 miles (3·2 km) of Flint, Michigan, USA, were mapped using ArcGIS mapping software.
A survey based on the validated NEMS-S was conducted at each retail food store. Scores were assigned to each store based on a modified version of the NEMS-S scoring system and linked to the mapped locations of stores. Neighbourhood characteristics (race and socio-economic distress) were appended to each store. Finally, spatial and kernel density analyses were run on the mapped store scores to obtain healthy food density metrics.
Regression analyses revealed that neighbourhoods with higher socio-economic distress had significantly lower dairy sub-scores compared with their lower-distress counterparts (β coefficient=−1·3; P=0·04). Additionally, supermarkets were present only in neighbourhoods with <60 % African-American population and low socio-economic distress. Two areas in Flint had an overall NEMS-S score of 0.
By identifying areas with poor access to healthy foods via a validated metric, this research can be used help local government and organizations target interventions to high-need areas. Furthermore, the methodology used for the survey and the mapping exercise can be replicated in other cities to provide comparable results.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), located in Western Australia, is one of the low-frequency precursors of the international Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project. In addition to pursuing its own ambitious science programme, it is also a testbed for wide range of future SKA activities ranging from hardware, software to data analysis. The key science programmes for the MWA and SKA require very high dynamic ranges, which challenges calibration and imaging systems. Correct calibration of the instrument and accurate measurements of source flux densities and polarisations require precise characterisation of the telescope’s primary beam. Recent results from the MWA GaLactic Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey show that the previously implemented Average Embedded Element (AEE) model still leaves residual polarisations errors of up to 10–20% in Stokes Q. We present a new simulation-based Full Embedded Element (FEE) model which is the most rigorous realisation yet of the MWA’s primary beam model. It enables efficient calculation of the MWA beam response in arbitrary directions without necessity of spatial interpolation. In the new model, every dipole in the MWA tile (4 × 4 bow-tie dipoles) is simulated separately, taking into account all mutual coupling, ground screen, and soil effects, and therefore accounts for the different properties of the individual dipoles within a tile. We have applied the FEE beam model to GLEAM observations at 200–231 MHz and used false Stokes parameter leakage as a metric to compare the models. We have determined that the FEE model reduced the magnitude and declination-dependent behaviour of false polarisation in Stokes Q and V while retaining low levels of false polarisation in Stokes U.
The current generation of experiments aiming to detect the neutral hydrogen signal from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) is likely to be limited by systematic effects associated with removing foreground sources from target fields. In this paper, we develop a model for the compact foreground sources in one of the target fields of the MWA’s EoR key science experiment: the ‘EoR1’ field. The model is based on both the MWA’s GLEAM survey and GMRT 150 MHz data from the TGSS survey, the latter providing higher angular resolution and better astrometric accuracy for compact sources than is available from the MWA alone. The model contains 5 049 sources, some of which have complicated morphology in MWA data, Fornax A being the most complex. The higher resolution data show that 13% of sources that appear point-like to the MWA have complicated morphology such as double and quad structure, with a typical separation of 33 arcsec. We derive an analytic expression for the error introduced into the EoR two-dimensional power spectrum due to peeling close double sources as single point sources and show that for the measured source properties, the error in the power spectrum is confined to high k⊥ modes that do not affect the overall result for the large-scale cosmological signal of interest. The brightest 10 mis-modelled sources in the field contribute 90% of the power bias in the data, suggesting that it is most critical to improve the models of the brightest sources. With this hybrid model, we reprocess data from the EoR1 field and show a maximum of 8% improved calibration accuracy and a factor of two reduction in residual power in k-space from peeling these sources. Implications for future EoR experiments including the SKA are discussed in relation to the improvements obtained.
The surface gravity of Arcturus is estimated from the strength of the MgH features (the Mg abundance being derived from MgI lines), from strong metal lines and from the FeI/FeII ionization equilibrium. The MgH lines give log g = 1.7 (cgs units) and 4375 K for the effective temperature. This value of log g is consistent with the gravity derived from the sample of strong pressure-broadened lines from FeI, CaI and NaI which gives log g = 1.6, and what we obtain from the ionization equilibrium of Fe, log g = 1.4. The corresponding estimates of the maximum error are 0.3, 0.2 and 0.5 dex, respectively. The mass of Arcturus is found to be in the interval 0.6–1.0 solar masses. It is concluded that the MgH features offer good possibilities for determining gravities of late-type stars, when good estimates of effective temperatures are available.
This study uses an experiment where ferry passengers are sold hotel room “views” to evaluate the impact of wind turbines views on tourists’ vacation experience. Participants purchase a chance for a weekend hotel stay. Information about the hotel rooms was limited to the quality of the hotel and its distance from a large wind turbine, as well as whether or not a particular room would have a view of the turbine. While there was generally a negative effect of turbine views, this did not hold across all participants, and did not seem to be effected by distance or hotel quality.
Motivated by anomalous entrainment behaviour in cumulus clouds, Bhat et al. (Exp. Fluids, vol. 7, 1989, pp. 99–102) pioneered a laboratory experiment to study turbulent jets subjected to a volumetric heating away from the momentum source. The study concluded that the use of a constant entrainment coefficient was insufficient for the flow, and that the results did not confirm the analysis of Hunt (Recent Research Advances in the Fluid Mechanics of Turbulent Jets and Plumes, 1994, pp. 309–334, Kluwer Academic), which suggested that an increase in relative turbulent transport of streamwise momentum could lead to a decrease in entrainment. The present paper re-evaluates theoretical aspects of both studies, and includes a decomposition of the factors contributing to entrainment. The reworked analysis is then used to examine three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent jets with off-source heating. The data are consistent with previous work, but give deeper insight not easily obtainable through experiment. Specifically, direct measurement of flux integrals shows that previous inference from experimental measurements of centreline velocity and profile widths under the assumption of self-similarity can lead to underestimation of the mass flux by over 50 % in some cases. Radial profiles of temperature, radial velocity and turbulent correlations show significant departures from self-similarity. The flux measurements show that there is actually an increase in the entrainment coefficient with heating, and that it is locally enhanced by positive forcing and decreased by an increase in turbulent transport of streamwise momentum, thereby confirming the essence of the original proposal of Hunt.
We present low-frequency spectral energy distributions of 60 known radio pulsars observed with the Murchison Widefield Array telescope. We searched the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array survey images for 200-MHz continuum radio emission at the position of all pulsars in the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) pulsar catalogue. For the 60 confirmed detections, we have measured flux densities in 20 × 8 MHz bands between 72 and 231 MHz. We compare our results to existing measurements and show that the Murchison Widefield Array flux densities are in good agreement.
Avian malaria is a vector transmitted disease caused by Plasmodium and recent studies suggest that variation in its prevalence across avian hosts is correlated with a variety of ecological traits. Here we examine the relationship between prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium lineages in southeastern Amazonia and: (1) host ecological traits (nest location, nest type, flocking behaviour and diet); (2) density and diversity of avian hosts; (3) abundance and diversity of mosquitoes; and (4) season. We used molecular methods to detect Plasmodium in blood samples from 675 individual birds of 120 species. Based on cytochrome b sequences, we recovered 89 lineages of Plasmodium from 136 infected individuals sampled across seven localities. Plasmodium prevalence was homogeneous over time (dry season and flooding season) and space, but heterogeneous among 51 avian host species. Variation in prevalence among bird species was not explained by avian ecological traits, density of avian hosts, or mosquito abundance. However, Plasmodium lineage diversity was positively correlated with mosquito abundance. Interestingly, our results suggest that avian host traits are less important determinants of Plasmodium prevalence and diversity in southeastern Amazonia than in other regions in which they have been investigated.
Parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) are a diverse group of pathogens that infect birds nearly worldwide. Despite their ubiquity, the ecological and evolutionary factors that shape the diversity and distribution of these protozoan parasites among avian communities and geographic regions are poorly understood. Based on a survey throughout the Neotropics of the haemosporidian parasites infecting manakins (Pipridae), a family of Passerine birds endemic to this region, we asked whether host relatedness, ecological similarity and geographic proximity structure parasite turnover between manakin species and local manakin assemblages. We used molecular methods to screen 1343 individuals of 30 manakin species for the presence of parasites. We found no significant correlations between manakin parasite lineage turnover and both manakin species turnover and geographic distance. Climate differences, species turnover in the larger bird community and parasite lineage turnover in non-manakin hosts did not correlate with manakin parasite lineage turnover. We also found no evidence that manakin parasite lineage turnover among host species correlates with range overlap and genetic divergence among hosts. Our analyses indicate that host switching (turnover among host species) and dispersal (turnover among locations) of haemosporidian parasites in manakins are not constrained at this scale.
FK506 and rapamycin (Rap) are immunosuppressive drugs that act principally on T-lymphocytes. The receptors for both drugs are FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs), but the molecular mechanisms of immunosuppression differ. An FK506–FKBP complex inhibits the protein phosphatase calcineurin, blocking a key step in T-cell activation, while the Rap –FKBP complex binds to the protein kinase target of rapamycin (TOR), which is involved in a subsequent signalling pathway. Both drugs, and certain non-immunosuppressive compounds related to FK506, have potent antimalarial activity. There is however conflicting evidence on the involvement of Plasmodium calcineurin in the action of FK506, and the parasite lacks an apparent TOR homologue. We therefore set out to establish whether inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum FKBP PfFKBP35 itself might be responsible for the antimalarial effects of FK506 and Rap. Similarities in the antiparasitic actions of FK506 and Rap would constitute indirect evidence for this hypothesis. FK506 and Rap acted indistinguishably on: (i) specificity for different intra-erythrocytic stages in culture, (ii) kinetics of killing or irreversible growth arrest of parasites and (iii) interactions with other antimalarial agents. Furthermore, PfFKBP35's inhibitory effect on calcineurin was independent of FK506 under a range of conditions, suggesting that calcineurin is unlikely to be involved in the antimalarial action of FK506.
Two-sided oxidation experiments were recently conducted at 1000-1200°C in flowing steam with samples of sponge-based Zr-1Nb alloy E110. Although the old electrolytic E110 tubing exhibited a high degree of susceptibility to nodular corrosion and experienced breakaway oxidation rates in relatively short time, the new sponge-based E110 has demonstrated steam oxidation behavior comparable to Zircaloy-4. The sponge-based E110 followed the parabolic law, and the derived oxidation rate constant is in good agreement with the Cathcart-Pawel (CP) correlation at 1100-1200°C. For 1000°C oxidation, the weight-gain of sponge-based E110 is much lower than Zircaloy-4. No breakaway oxidation was observed at 1000°C up to 8000 s. Ring compression tests were conducted to evaluate the residual ductility of oxidized samples at room temperature and at 135°C. All sponge-based E110 specimens were still ductile at 135°C after being oxidized up to 20% equivalent cladding reacted at 1000-1200°C. Metallographic examinations were performed on oxidized E110 specimens to correlate material performance with microstructure.