Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To examine similarities and differences in the demographic and clinical profiles of young people (15–25 years of age) referred between the mental health services (MHS) and Jigsaw Galway.
A retrospective chart review was conducted of clinical files of individuals attending secondary MHS who had been referred to or from Jigsaw Galway over a 5-year period. Differences in demographic and clinical data between individuals referred to or from Jigsaw Galway were compared.
A recent act of self-harm was more prevalent in individuals referred from Jigsaw to the adult MHS (p=0.02). No other demographic or clinical differences were detected between individuals attending Jigsaw Galway and the MHS.
Education sessions for clinical staff working in primary care, Jigsaw Galway and the MHS are suggested to support clinicians in choosing the best referral pathway, which may more optimally address young people’s mental health difficulties.
Background Survival estimates are integral to care for patients diagnosed with dementia. Few Canadian studies have carried out long-term follow-up of well-described cohorts, analyzing survival related to multiple risk factors. Methods Survival analysis of an inception cohort enrolled at a British Columbia (BC) tertiary dementia referral clinic between 1997 and 1999 was undertaken. Vital status was completed for 168 patients diagnosed with dementia. An evaluation of the effects of demographics, vascular risk factors, cognitive and functional ratings, apolipoprotein 4-status, and cholinesterase use on survival was performed using a log-rank test and time-dependent Cox regression. Survival of this dementia cohort was compared with the age-matched life expectancy of persons in BC. Results In all, 158/168 (94.0%) subjects died over 16.6 years, with a median survival of 7.08 years. Risk factors associated with shorter survival in dementia groups included age of onset ≥80 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.32); greater functional disability (Disability Assessment for Dementia<55% [HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.04-2.08]); and cumulative medical illness severity (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale≥7 [HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.12)]. Compared with the BC population, years of potential life lost for dementia subjects aged <65 was 15.36 years, and for dementia subjects aged ≥80 it was 1.82 years. Conclusions Survival in dementia subjects is shorter than population life expectancies for each age strata, with greatest impact on younger patients. For people diagnosed with dementia, age ≥80 years, cumulative medical illness severity, and functional disabilities are the most significant survival predictors and can be used to guide prognosis.
This study was based on research to identify particular pig breeds, which produce high quality eating pork. Duroc in particular is thought to improve meat quality of progeny when crossed with Large White/Landrace (LW/Lr) hybrid dams by altering the intra-muscular fat (IMF) content of the lean, which is positively related to eating quality (McGloughlin et al., 1988). The extraction of IMF is slow and laborious with harmful solvents involved. Eichinger and Beck (1991) have successfully used NIRS to measure IMF ranging from 1-11% in 39 beef carcases. Ground beef and pork samples have also been predicted for fat, water and protein by NIRS, with prediction errors of 0.82-1.49%, 0.94-1.33% and 0.35-0.70% respectively (Togersen et al.,1999). Instrumental measurements of pork are accepted as indicators of tenderness. Sensory variables such as juiciness, tenderness and flavour are important characteristics for the consumer. Therefore the objective of this study was to explore the potential of NIRS to estimate the chemical, physical and sensory parameters of homogenized fresh pork eye muscle.
Feed restriction prior to slaughter may reduce live and carcass weight gain (Murray and Jones, 1994) and meat quality (Warriss, 1982) but can reduce carcass contamination and the amount of waste to be disposed of at the slaughter house (Eikelenbloom et al., 1991). Most literature studies are however based on a single feed restriction while group housed pigs may be slaughtered over a period of time and can therefore be subjected to several periods of feed restriction. This study was conducted to examine the effects of feed restriction prior to slaughter on the production performance and meat quality of group housed finishing pigs.
There were three experimental treatments (1) control - ad libitum access up to point of transport, feeders closed off for 12 hours (Treatment 2) and feeders closed off for 20 hours (Treatment 3) prior to transport to the slaughter house. All pigs had unrestricted access to water. Four hundred and eighty six, 35 kg crossbred pigs, housed in groups of 18, were randomly allocated to 9 replicates of the three treatments. Pigs were slaughtered when a target live weight of 102 kg was reached. Production performance was recorded on a weekly basis when the first pig in any treatment approached 95 kg live weight until all pigs were slaughtered.
The paper presents data on the snow cover in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland, and compares typical Scottish snow profiles with those measured in alpine, continental, and polar areas. The paper shows that in the Cairngorms snow temperatures are higher and as a result densities and ram penetration resistances are also higher. Typical densities are between 350 and 500 kg m−3 and ram resistances are frequently above 50 or even 100 kg. Typical profiles show large masses of windslab above an equigranular basal layer of old snow, and ice layers are common throughout the profile. Avalanche activity is related to two types of profile both of which share low ram resistance in common. Dry-slab avalanches release when densities are of the order of 250 kg m−3 or less and snow temperatures down to – 10° C in the upper layers. Wet slabs and sluffs fall when the snow is isothermal at the melting point. Densities are usually over 450 kg m−3 and may reach over 600 kgm−3 in slush layers supported by ice lenses.
Harvesting solar energy, is only one of the incentives of incorporating photosynthetic proteins in electrochemical devices. Understanding the interface of photosynthetic protein complexes and organic\inorganic underlying electrodes can give rise to development of new generation of nano-bioelectronics for other applications such as sensing, as well. Previous approaches in fabricating photosynthetic bio-hybrid electrochemical solar cells were mainly based on metallic electrodes with protein complexes attached, either directly or through linker molecules. Due to the energy band structure in semiconductors, they potentially can be useful for selective charge transfer in an electrochemical device. In the current study, a two terminal sealed bio-hybrid solar cell device was fabricated comprising of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanowires on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass working electrode, a Pt counter electrode, and methyl viologen (MV) as a single diffusible redox mediator. The ZnO working electrode was initially characterized using scanning electron microscopy (XRD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A solution of dimeric Rhodobacter sphaeroides – light harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complexes and redox electrolyte was injected into the cavity between working and counter electrodes. Such structure resulted in ∼0.64 µA.cm-2 photocurrent density and ∼0.24 V open circuit potential difference in the dark and under illumination. Additionally, the device stability tests demonstrated that the current response of such devices remained unchanged after 33 hours storage in the dark.
Gem minerals at Lava Plains, northeast Queensland, offer further insights into mantle-crustal gemformation under young basalt fields. Combined mineralogy, U-Pb age determination, oxygen isotope and petrological data on megacrysts and meta-aluminosilicate xenoliths establish a geochemical evolution in sapphire, zircon formation between 5 to 2 Ma. Sapphire megacrysts with magmatic signatures (Fe/Mg ∼100–1000, Ga/Mg 3–18) grew with ∼3 Ma micro-zircons of both mantle (δ18O 4.5–5.6%) and crustal (δ18O 9.5–10.1‰) affinities. Zircon megacrysts (3±1 Ma) show mantle and crustal characteristics, but most grew at crustal temperatures (600–800°C). Xenolith studies suggest hydrous silicate melts and fluids initiated from amphibolized mantle infiltrated into kyanite+sapphire granulitic crust (800°C, 0.7 GPa). This metasomatized the sapphire (Fe/Mg ∼50–120, Ga/Mg ∼3–11), left relict metastable sillimanite-corundum-quartz and produced minerals enriched in high field strength, large ion lithophile and rare earth elements. The gem suite suggests a syenitic parentage before its basaltic transport. Geographical trace-element typing of the sapphire megacrysts against other eastern Australian sapphires suggests a phonolitic involvement.
This study explored how older Punjabi-speaking South-Asian immigrants (four focus groups; 33 participants) in Surrey, British Columbia, perceive oral health and related problems. Content analysis revealed two umbrella themes: (a) interpretations of mouth conditions and (b) challenges to oral health. The umbrella themes had four sub-themes: damage caused by heat (wai), disturbances caused by caries, coping with dentures, and quality of life. Three challenges were considered: home remedies, Western dentistry, and difficulties accessing dentists. Participants explained oral diseases in terms of a systemic infection (resha), and preferred to decrease imbalances of wai in the mouth with home remedies from India. We conclude that older Punjabi-speaking immigrants interpret oral health and disease in the context of both Western and Ayurvedic traditions, and that they manage dental problems with a mix of traditional remedies supplemented, if possible, by elective oral health care in India, and by emergency dental care in Canada.
To determine the frequency of multiple pathology [Alzheimer Disease (AD) plus Vascular Dementia and/or Dementia with Lewy Bodies] in patients enrolled in clinical trials of AD therapy, and to compare the cognitive and functional assessments between patients with pure AD and AD with multiple pathology.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with a clinical diagnosis of AD who were enrolled in AD therapy clinical trials and subsequently received an autopsy for confirmation of their diagnosis from 2000 to 2009. Performance on cognitive screening tests, namely Modified Mini Mental state (3MS) exam, Mini Mental state Exam (MMSE) and Functional Rating Scale (FRS) were compared between patients with pure AD and multiple pathology.
Autopsy reports were available for 16/47 (34%) of deceased patients. Of these 16 patients, 5 (31%) had pure AD pathology, 10 (63%) had AD with other pathology, and 1 (6%) had non-AD pathology. Compared to patients with pure AD, patients with AD mixed with other pathology had poorer baseline FRS in problem-solving (p<0.01) and community affairs (p<0.02).
While the strict enrollment criteria for clinical trials identified the presence of AD pathology in the majority of cases (15/16), multiple pathology was more common than pure AD in our series of autopsied patients. Premortem biomarkers that can distinguish between pure AD and AD with multiple pathology will be beneficial in future clinical trials and dementia patient management.
Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines' Tuscaloosa Research Center have measured the dielectric properties of over 60 minerals. Thirty-eight of these minerals have been identified as containing elements such as Co, Pt, and Ni, which are considered to be critical and strategic to the Nation. The dielectric properties were measured over the temperature range of 25° to325° C and microwave frequencies of 300 MHz to 3 GHz.
The data were analyzed to determine if trends could be detected in the dielectric properties of minerals having the same crystalline structure and/or mineralogical classification. Such trends would make possible realistic assumptions about how these classes of minerals would be affected by microwave energy without specific knowledge of their dielectric properties.
The use of single-mode cavities has been recognized as a viable technique for sintering and joining ceramics and for creating microwave plasma for materials processing. It is often reported, however, that tuning these cavities at lower and higher temperatures critically depends on the types of materials being processed, the variation of ε* as a function of temperature, the size and shape of samples, and the overall heating system configuration with and without insulation.
In this paper we use the finite-difference time-domain technique to address the performance of the single-mode cavity heating system under a wide variety of heating conditions and system configurations. Specifically, practical issues such as limiting values of sample sizes, the dependence of optimal sample sizes on the complex permittivity of materials under test, the role of sample shape on enhancing uniformity of heating patterns, and various tradeoffs involved in utilizing various cavity modes and/or SiC rods as stimulus for heating large samples are evaluated.
A novel approach to synthetic ceramic powders based on microwave heating of metallorganic ceramic precursor compounds or mixtures of such compounds with a appropriate matrix material is described.
Numerous oxides as well as nonoxide powders with high specific surface area were obtained. Pyrolysis as well as enhanced reactivity is observed with microwave heating at lower temperatures than in conventional heating.
The unavoidable way of a better conception of cavities for industrial applications is electromagnetic field numerical computation with the aim of placing the fields E and H into the material, and furthermore to obtain some characteristics like the input impedance of the cavity or the dissipated power in the sample. From Maxwell's equations and using a Finite Element Method with 3D edge elements we get a linear system from which, after resolution, we can obtain several kinds of results: research of eigen modes of an empty or partially dielectric loaded cavity, that is, for a bounded domain, all the frequencies that could be excited, using only dimensionnal (L,l,h) and physical (εʹ,εʺ) characteristics, or response of a loaded cavity to an external excitation, that is, setting a TE10 mode in a waveguide feeding a cavity, obtain the distribution of field inside the oven and the dielectric. An original approach allows us, by projection of the excitation on eigen modes, to understand the behavior of the cavity and the interaction wave-product. Our computation is in very good agreement with analytical results we can obtain in some specific configurations (eigenvalues of an empty cavity, or transmission of only the TE10 mode in a correctly shaped waveguide).
We have used 2.0-μsec microwave pulses at a frequency of 2.856 GHz to rapidly heat thin amorphous yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBCO) films deposited onto silicon substrates. The samples were irradiated inside a WR-284 waveguide by single-pass TE10 pulses in a traveling wave geometry. X-ray diffractometry studies show that an amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition occurs for incident pulse powers exceeding about 6 MW, in which case the amorphous YBCO layer is converted to Y2BaCuO5. Microscopy of the irradiated film reveals that the phase transition is brought about by melting of the YBCO precursor film and crystallization of the molten layer upon solidification. Time-resolved in situ experiments of the microwave reflectivity (R) and transmissivity (T) show that there is an abrupt change in R for microwave pulse powers exceeding the melt threshold, so that measurements of R and T can be used to monitor the onset of surface melting.
Monte Carlo simulations based on a Spin-1 Ising Model for binary alloys have been used to investigate the non-equilibrium partition coefficient (kneq ) as a function of solid-liquid interface velocity and orientation. In simulations of Si with a second component kneq is greater in the  direction than the  direction in agreement with experimental results reported by Aziz et al. The simulated partition coefficient scales with the square of the step velocity divided by the diffusion coefficient of the secondary component in the liquid.