New ways of integrating and scaling up control of neglected tropical diseases (including schistosomiasis) are presently underway. In this context consideration of social science perspectives is essential. In this article, we review social science publications of relevance to sustained control of schistosomiasis in Africa including diagnosis and screening, treatment, supply of clean water and improved sanitation, as well as health communication. Studies of community involvement and links between schistosomiasis control programmes and broader health care systems are also explored. Directions for future social science of relevance to sustainable schistosomiasis control are outlined, including ways of ensuring equitable access to health services as well as involvement of endemic communities and local health care systems based on equal partnership.