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In January 1961, Jamaica was a member of the West Indies Federation consisting of ten Caribbean islands. By 1964, Jamaica was an independent island state and recognized at the UN as a global leader in the human rights field after having abandoned the Federation in 1962. This chapter argues Jamaica presents an early example of the integration of human rights and development, normally dated to the late 1980s, and that Jamaica’s process of ending empire shaped the postcolonial world in surprising ways. It focuses on both the domestic and the international dimensions of Jamaica's human rights enterprise. Norman Manley’s period in government from 1955 to 1962, and its new practice and philosophy of societal planning, nurtured an emphasis on both human rights and decolonization. Manley’s nation and state-building project would go on to shape transformative work of Jamaica at the UN during the 1960s when Manley’s protégé Egerton Richardson – who from 1956 to 1962 had been closely associated with the planning work – refashioned international human rights work.
The COVID-19 pandemic has created a high demand on personal protective equipment, including disposable N95 masks. Given the need for mask reuse, we tested the feasibility of vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP), ultraviolet light (UV), and ethanol decontamination strategies on N95 mask integrity and the ability to remove the infectious potential of SARS-CoV-2.
Disposable N95 masks, including medical grade (1860, 1870+) and industrial grade (8511) masks, were treated by VHP, UV, and ethanol decontamination. Mask degradation was tested using a quantitative respirator fit testing. Pooled clinical samples of SARS-CoV-2 were applied to mask samples, treated, and then either sent immediately for real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or incubated with Vero E6 cells to assess for virucidal effect.
Both ethanol and UV decontamination showed functional degradation to different degrees while VHP treatment showed no significant change after two treatments. We also report a single SARS-CoV-2 virucidal experiment using Vero E6 cell infection in which only ethanol treatment eliminated detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA.
We hope our data will guide further research for evidenced-based decisions for disposable N95 mask reuse and help protect caregivers from SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens.
Introduction: The novel Paramedics Providing Palliative Care at Home program has been developed to address the mismatch between traditional paramedic practice and patient's goals of care. Case-finding is key to estimate potential impact for systems looking to establish such programs, continuous quality improvement once operational, and for prospective identification of patients who might benefit from referral to palliative care. Typical paramedic charting templates do not provide direct identification of these cases. Our objective was to test the validity of a previously derived Palliative Support Composite Measure (PSCM) and two modifications. Methods: A priori Gold Standard criteria for determining whether a response was appropriate for a paramedic palliative care approach were identified by expert consensus. Excluding chief complaints and clinical conditions that were universally identified as not appropriate for paramedic palliative support, these criteria were applied by two trained chart abstractors to 500 consecutive charts to classify calls as appropriate for paramedic palliative support, or not. The PSCM and modifications (added criteria call location type and registration in a palliative care program, text mining terms) were applied to the same cohort, and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicative (PPV/NPV) values calculated. Results: Of the 500 cases, 21 (4.2%) were classified as appropriate for paramedic palliative support by the Gold Standard (kappa 0.734). 9 cases with initial disagreement were reviewed with 8 ultimately being deemed to fit the palliative support criteria. The PSCM performed poorly (using the “potential palliative” cut point): sensitivity 71.4% (95%CI: 47.8-88.7), specificity 71.4% (95%CI: 67.1-75.4) and PPV of 9.9% (95%CI: 7.5-12.9) and NPV of 98.3% (95%CI: 96.7-99). The modified PSCM: sensitivity 61.9% (95% CI: 38.4-81.9), specificity 99% (95%CI: 97.6-99.7), PPV 72.2% (95%CI: 50.5-86.9) and NPV 98.3% (95%CI: 97.2-99). A Modified PSCM plus pall* text term performed similarly: sensitivity100% (83.9-100), specificity 97.3% (95% CI: 95.4-98.5), PPV 61.8% (95%CI: 48.6-73.4) and NPV100%. Conclusion: A modified PSCM provides moderate sensitivity, specificity and PPV, improved by the text term Pall* if feasible. This query will be helpful to systems considering a paramedic palliative care program or when one is already operational.
In the mink industry, feed costs are the largest variable expense and breeding for feed efficient animals is warranted. Implementation of selection for feed efficiency must consider the relationships between feed efficiency and the current selection traits BW and litter size. Often, feed intake (FI) is recorded on a cage with a male and a female and there is sexual dimorphism that needs to be accounted for. Study aims were to (1) model group recorded FI accounting for sexual dimorphism, (2) derive genetic residual feed intake (RFI) as a measure of feed efficiency, (3) examine the relationship between feed efficiency and BW in males (BWM) and females (BWF) and litter size at day 21 after whelping (LS21) in Danish brown mink and (4) investigate direct and correlated response to selection on each trait of interest. Feed intake records from 9574 cages, BW records on 16 782 males and 16 875 females and LS21 records on 6446 yearling females were used for analysis. Genetic parameters for FI, BWM, BWF and LS21 were obtained using a multivariate animal model, yielding sex-specific additive genetic variances for FI and BW to account for sexual dimorphism. The analysis was performed in a Bayesian setting using Gibbs sampling, and genetic RFI was obtained from the conditional distribution of FI given BW using genetic regression coefficients. Responses to single trait selection were defined as the posterior distribution of genetic superiority of the top 10% of animals after conditioning on the genetic trends. The heritabilities ranged from 0.13 for RFI in females and LS21 to 0.59 for BWF. Genetic correlations between BW in both sexes and LS21 and FI in both sexes were unfavorable, and single trait selection on BW in either sex showed increased FI in both sexes and reduced litter size. Due to the definition of RFI and high genetic correlation between BWM and BWF, selection on RFI did not significantly alter BW. In addition, selection on RFI in either sex did not affect LS21. Genetic correlation between sexes for FI and BW was high but significantly lower than unity. The high correlations across sex allowed for selection on standardized averages of animals’ breeding values (BVs) for RFI, FI and BW, which yielded selection responses approximately equal to the responses obtained using the sex-specific BVs. The results illustrate the possibility of selecting against RFI in mink with no negative effects on BW and litter size.
Cardiometabolic diseases are under-diagnosed and under-treated in psychiatric inpatients. A common solution is implementation of screening guidelines. However, we often forget to ask the essential question: Why were our patients underdiagnosed in the first place?
To identify causes of under-diagnosing and under-treatment in the context of local clinical practices.
All consecutive admissions (n=63) over 93 days were screened for hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemias and abdominal obesity. Patients identified with both (a) undiagnosed and untreated disease and (b) admission on a separate occasion within the previous two years to the ward in question, were selected for a retrospective patient file review. These patients (n=32) had their medical records scrutinized for information on how each cardiometabolic measure was assessed at previous admission.
Relevant examination were performed in 38% of cases and test results were abnormal for 54% of these. Abnormal test results were evaluated in 14% of cases and none of the evaluated results were acted upon.
Rigorous examination and testing of patients is only of value if clinicians have the essential knowledge to interpret the results and feel responsibility to do so. These barriers must be broken down before implementing screening guidelines in routine clinical practice.
The Centre for Suicide Research, Odense, Denmark has since 1990 registered all suicide attempts and suicides in patients residing in the County of Funen, Denmark.
The Pain Clinic, Odense University Hospital's receives patients with chronic pain from the whole region of Southern Denmark. This study is part of two studies from the Pain Clinic.
The aims of the study have been
To investigate whether patients treated in the Pain Clinic in the period 1/1 2004-31/12 2010 have an increased risk of suicide attempts compared with the background population
To investigate whether the frequency of suicide attempts before the treatment in the Pain Clinic differs from the frequency of suicide attempts after treatment.
Data about age, sex and time of treatment on patients treated in the Pain Clinic in the period are registered. Time and method of the suicide attempts are registered in Centre of Suicide Research. By registry linkages between patient registers from the Pain Clinic and the Registry of Suicide Attempt in the County of Funen it was possible to calculate any excess risk of suicide attempts in chronic pain patients in the study period.
The Incidence rate ratio for suicide attempts in our study for both sex and all age group are about 1 or lower, which means that the pain population in our study does not have an increased risk of suicide attempts.
Early changes in biomarker levels probably occur before bloodstream infection (BSI) is diagnosed. However, this issue has not been fully addressed. We aimed at evaluating the kinetics of C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma albumin (PA) in the 30 days before community-acquired (CA) BSI diagnosis. From a population-based BSI database we identified 658 patients with at least one measurement of CRP or PA from day −30 (D–30) through day −1 (D–1) before the day of CA-BSI (D0) and a measurement of the same biomarker at D0 or D1. Amongst these, 502 had both CRP and PA measurements which fitted these criteria. CRP and PA concentrations began to change inversely some days before CA-BSI diagnosis, CRP increasing by day −3.1 and PA decreasing by day −1.3. From D–30 to D–4, CRP kinetics (expressed as slopes – rate of concentration change per day) was −1.5 mg/l/day. From D–3 to D1, the CRP slope increased to 36.3 mg/l/day. For albumin, the slope between D–30 to D–2 was 0.1 g/l/day and changed to −1.8 g/l/day between D–1 and D1. We showed that biomarker levels begin to change some days before the CA-BSI diagnosis, CRP 3.1 days and PA 1.3 days before.
The provision of straw to pigs kept in conventional pens with concrete floor improves animal welfare, but the effects of straw on pigs’ performance are unclear. In two steps, we investigated the relationship between amount of straw provided to pigs and measures of performance in a set-up maintaining constant space allowance and controlled room temperature. From approximately 30- to 85-kg BW, pigs were housed in groups of 18 in pens (5.48 m × 2.48 m) with concrete floor (1/3 solid, 1/3 drained and 1/3 slatted). The pens were cleaned manually twice a week, and the designated amount of fresh uncut wheat straw was provided daily onto the solid part of the floor. In the first step, 48 pens were assigned to 10-, 500- or 1000-g straw per pig per day, while in the second step, 90 pens were assigned to 10-, 80-, 150-, 220-, 290-, 360-, 430- or 500-g straw per pig per day. Pigs were weighed at the start of the experimental period at approximately 30 kg and again at approximately 85-kg BW. The average daily gain increased 8.1 g (SEM 17) for every extra 100-g straw added daily (P < 0.001) resulting in 40 g higher average daily gain with 500 compared to 10-g straw per pig per day. The feed conversion ratio was not affected by the amount of straw provided, as the feed intake tended to be higher with increasing amounts of straw. Thus, between 10 and 500 g, the more straw provided, the higher the daily weight gain. As the nutritional value of straw is considered minimal, this result is likely due to improved gut health from the increasing amounts of straw ingested and increased feed intake due to increased stimulation of exploratory behaviour with increasing amounts of straw available, or a combination of these. The observed tendency for a higher feed intake supports this suggestion, but studies are needed to establish the impact of these two contributing factors.
Tail biting is a welfare and economical concern in modern pig production. One common preventive measure used throughout the world is tail docking, which is generally considered one of the most effective methods for limiting tail biting. However, tail docking is a painful mutilation and systematic tail docking is not allowed in the EU. Therefore, the aim was to compare pig behaviour and the prevalence of tail biting in finishing pigs with intact tails housed in two different pen designs under Danish commercial conditions. PEN1 was a traditional Danish pen and PEN2 was inspired by Swedish finisher pen design and had a larger proportion of solid floor area (PEN1: 1/3 and PEN2: 2/3), reduced group size (PEN1: 15 and PEN2: 12), increased space allowance per head (PEN1: 0.7 m2 and PEN2: 0.89 m2) and straw allocated on the floor (PEN2) whereas straw was provided in a straw rack in PEN1. Tail damage observations were carried out daily by the stockperson and every 2 weeks one trained research technician assessed tail damages according to a tail scoring system. Tail lesions were observed in 51% of PEN1 and in 11% of PEN2 (P < 0.001). PEN1 had higher prevalence of tail damages than PEN2 (23% v. 5%, P < 0.001). Behavioural observations were carried out by the use of video recordings. Pigs in PEN2 tended to spend more time on tail-directed behaviour than pigs in PEN1 (P = 0.07), whereas pigs in PEN1 tended to spend more time on ear-directed behaviour (P = 0.08). Pigs in PEN2 spent more time on straw-directed behaviour compared to pigs in PEN1 (P < 0.001). Pen design did not affect time spent on other penmate-directed behaviour. In addition, the level of welfare between the two pen designs was compared using the Welfare Quality® protocol. PEN2 received an overall score of ‘excellent’ while PEN1 scored ‘enhanced’. PEN2 scored higher on all principles besides ‘good health’, where PEN1 scored better on lameness and wounds. The main measurements accounting for the differences were water supply, huddling, tail biting, social behaviour and fear of humans. In conclusion, the combination of increased space allowance, increased area of solid flooring, straw allocated onto the floor and reduced group size (PEN2) resulted in fewer tail damaged pigs and a better overall welfare assessment, despite a tendency for more tail-directed behaviour.
Climate and weather conditions may have substantial effects on the ecology of both parasites and hosts in natural populations. The strength and shape of the effects of weather on parasites and hosts are likely to change as global warming affects local climate. These changes may in turn alter fundamental elements of parasite–host dynamics. We explored the influence of temperature and precipitation on parasite prevalence in a metapopulation of avian hosts in northern Norway. We also investigated if annual change in parasite prevalence was related to winter climate, as described by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). We found that parasite prevalence increased with temperature within-years and decreased slightly with increasing precipitation. We also found that a mild winter (positive winter NAO index) was associated with higher mean parasite prevalence the following year. Our results indicate that both local and large scale weather conditions may affect the proportion of hosts that become infected by parasites in natural populations. Understanding the effect of climate and weather on parasite–host relationships in natural populations is vital in order to predict the full consequence of global warming.
There are increasing efforts aiming to utilise endophytes as biological control agents (BCAs) to improve crop production. However, reliability remains a major practical constraint for the development of novel BCAs. Many organisms are adapted to their specific habitat; it is optimistic to expect that a new organism added can find a niche or even out-compete those adapted and already present. Our approach for isolating novel BCAs for specific plant diseases is therefore to look in healthy plants in a habitat where disease is a problem, since we predict that it is more likely to find competitive strains among those present and adapted. In vitro inhibitory activities often do not correlate with in planta efficacy, especially since endophytes rely on intimate plant contact. They can, however, be useful to indicate modes of action. We therefore screen for in planta biological activity as early as possible in the process in order to minimise the risk of discarding valuable strains. Finally, some fungi are endophytic in one situation and pathogenic in another (the mutualism–parasitism continuum). This depends on their biology, environmental conditions, the formulation of inoculum, the health, developmental stage and cultivar of the host plant, and the structure of the plant microbiome.
We consider an infinitely divisible random field in ℝd given as an integral of a kernel function with respect to a Lévy basis. Under mild regularity conditions, we derive central limit theorems for the moment estimators of the mean and the variogram of the field.
The detection and monitoring of meltwater within firn presents a significant monitoring challenge. We explore the potential of small wireless sensors (ETracer+, ET+) to measure temperature, pressure, electrical conductivity and thus the presence or absence of meltwater within firn, through tests in the dry snow zone at the East Greenland Ice Core Project site. The tested sensor platforms are small, robust and low cost, and communicate data via a VHF radio link to surface receivers. The sensors were deployed in low-temperature firn at the centre and shear margins of an ice stream for 4 weeks, and a ‘bucket experiment’ was used to test the detection of water within otherwise dry firn. The tests showed the ET+ could log subsurface temperatures and transmit the recorded data through up to 150 m dry firn. Two VHF receivers were tested: an autonomous phase-sensitive radio-echo sounder (ApRES) and a WinRadio. The ApRES can combine high-resolution imaging of the firn layers (by radio-echo sounding) with in situ measurements from the sensors, to build up a high spatial and temporal resolution picture of the subsurface. These results indicate that wireless sensors have great potential for long-term monitoring of firn processes.
Experiments with a weakly damped monopile, either fixed or free to oscillate, exposed to irregular waves in deep water, obtain the wave-exciting moment and motion response. The nonlinearity and peak wavenumber cover the ranges:
is an estimate of the spectral wave slope,
the significant wave height,
the peak wavenumber and
the cylinder radius. The response and its statistics, expressed in terms of the exceedance probability, are discussed as a function of the resonance frequency,
in the range
times the spectral peak frequency,
. For small wave slope, long waves and
, the nonlinear response deviates only very little from its linear counterpart. However, the nonlinearity becomes important for increasing wave slope, wavenumber and resonance frequency ratio. The extreme response events are found in a region where the Keulegan–Carpenter number exceeds
, indicating the importance of possible flow separation effects. A similar region is also covered by a Froude number exceeding
, pointing to surface gravity wave effects at the scale of the cylinder diameter. Regarding contributions to the higher harmonic forces, different wave load mechanisms are identified, including: (i) wave-exciting inertia forces, a function of the fluid acceleration; (ii) wave slamming due to both non-breaking and breaking wave events; (iii) a secondary load cycle; and (iv) possible drag forces, a function of the fluid velocity. Also, history effects due to the inertia of the moving pile, contribute to the large response events. The ensemble means of the third, fourth and fifth harmonic wave-exciting force components extracted from the irregular wave results are compared to the third harmonic FNV (Faltinsen, Newman and Vinje) theory as well as other available experiments and calculations. The present irregular wave measurements generalize results obtained in deep water regular waves.
Laboratory experiments with a bottom hinged surface-piercing cylinder, exposed to irregular deep water waves, are used to investigate high-frequency forcing. The focus is on the secondary load cycle, a strongly nonlinear phenomenon regarding the wave load on a vertical cylinder, first identified by Grue et al. (1993 Preprint Series. Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, pp. 1–30. University of Oslo, available at http://urn.nb.no/URN:NBN:no-52740; 1994 Ninth International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies (ed. M. Ohkusu), pp. 77–81, available at http://iwwwfb.org). For a total of 2166 single wave events, the force above
is the governing wave frequency) is used to identify and split the strongly nonlinear forces into two peaks: a high-frequency peak closely correlated in time with the wave crest when the total load is positive and a high-frequency peak defining the secondary load cycle which occurs close in time to the wave zero downcrossing when the total load is negative. The two peaks are studied by regression analysis as a function of either the Keulegan–Carpenter number (
) or the Froude number (
). Regarding the secondary load cycle, the best correlation is found with
. The speed of the travelling edge of the undisturbed wave approximates the fluid velocity. A threshold value separating between small and large forces is found for
–5, indicating effects of flow separation. Alternatively, the threshold occurs for
–0.4, indicating local wave effects at the scale of the cylinder diameter. The findings suggest that both effects are present and important.
Engabreen is an outlet glacier of the Svartisen Ice Cap located in Northern Norway. It is a unique glacier due to the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory which allows direct access to the glacier bed. In this study, we combine both sub- and supraglacial observations with ice-flow modelling in order to investigate conditions at the bed of Engabreen both spatially and temporally. We use the full-Stokes model Elmer/Ice and satellite-based surface-velocity maps from 2010 and 2014 to infer patterns of basal friction. Direct measurements of basal sliding and deformation of lower layers of the ice are used to adjust the ice viscosity and provide essential input to the setup of our model and influence the interpretation of the results. We find a clear seasonal cycle in the subglacial conditions at the higher elevation region of the study area and discuss this in relation to the subglacial hydrological system. Our results also reveal an area with an overdeepening where basal friction is significantly lower than elsewhere on the glacier all year round. We attribute this to either water pooling at the base, or saturated sediments and increased strain heating at this location which softens the ice further.
Community-acquired bacteraemia patients (n = 2472), Denmark, 2000–2008. Albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and haemoglobin (Hb) measured 2000–2010. We assessed daily mean levels of albumin, CRP and Hb from 30 days before to 30 days after bacteraemia and correlations between albumin vs. CRP and albumin vs. Hb. In linear regression models, we evaluated the contribution of CRP, Hb, chronic and acute variables to the albumin level variations. The mean albumin level (33.6 g/l) was steady before day 1, declined to 29.3 g/l on day 1 with little increase afterward. The mean CRP increased from day −5, peaked on day 1 and declined thereafter. The mean Hb level was fairly constant during days −30/30. Albumin was inversely (R range, − 0.18/–0.47, P < 10−4) correlated with the CRP level and positively (R = 0.17–0.46, P < 10−4) correlated with the HB level. In most models, CRP was the first variable that contributed to the albumin variations, 34–70% of the full model. The sudden decrease of albumin levels, without sudden fluctuations of CRP or Hb, indicated that hypoalbuminaemia was a marker of trans-capillary leakage.
We consider a continuous, infinitely divisible random field in ℝd, d = 1, 2, 3, given as an integral of a kernel function with respect to a Lévy basis with convolution equivalent Lévy measure. For a large class of such random fields, we compute the asymptotic probability that the excursion set at level x contains some rotation of an object with fixed radius as x → ∞. Our main result is that the asymptotic probability is equivalent to the right tail of the underlying Lévy measure.