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Climate and weather conditions may have substantial effects on the ecology of both parasites and hosts in natural populations. The strength and shape of the effects of weather on parasites and hosts are likely to change as global warming affects local climate. These changes may in turn alter fundamental elements of parasite–host dynamics. We explored the influence of temperature and precipitation on parasite prevalence in a metapopulation of avian hosts in northern Norway. We also investigated if annual change in parasite prevalence was related to winter climate, as described by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). We found that parasite prevalence increased with temperature within-years and decreased slightly with increasing precipitation. We also found that a mild winter (positive winter NAO index) was associated with higher mean parasite prevalence the following year. Our results indicate that both local and large scale weather conditions may affect the proportion of hosts that become infected by parasites in natural populations. Understanding the effect of climate and weather on parasite–host relationships in natural populations is vital in order to predict the full consequence of global warming.
There are increasing efforts aiming to utilise endophytes as biological control agents (BCAs) to improve crop production. However, reliability remains a major practical constraint for the development of novel BCAs. Many organisms are adapted to their specific habitat; it is optimistic to expect that a new organism added can find a niche or even out-compete those adapted and already present. Our approach for isolating novel BCAs for specific plant diseases is therefore to look in healthy plants in a habitat where disease is a problem, since we predict that it is more likely to find competitive strains among those present and adapted. In vitro inhibitory activities often do not correlate with in planta efficacy, especially since endophytes rely on intimate plant contact. They can, however, be useful to indicate modes of action. We therefore screen for in planta biological activity as early as possible in the process in order to minimise the risk of discarding valuable strains. Finally, some fungi are endophytic in one situation and pathogenic in another (the mutualism–parasitism continuum). This depends on their biology, environmental conditions, the formulation of inoculum, the health, developmental stage and cultivar of the host plant, and the structure of the plant microbiome.
An automatic time sequence filter sampler has been developed for atmospheric aerosol particle sampling of ambient air and subsequent analysis for elemental composition using the proton, beam of a Van de Graaff accelerator. Some features of the operation of the sampler are given, the retention of particles by the filter material are discussed, examples of the type of data obtained are presented, and some approaches to the numerical analysis of data for environmental interpretation are considered. Lines for further development and improvement in this type of sampler are indicated.
We consider an infinitely divisible random field in ℝd given as an integral of a kernel function with respect to a Lévy basis. Under mild regularity conditions, we derive central limit theorems for the moment estimators of the mean and the variogram of the field.
The detection and monitoring of meltwater within firn presents a significant monitoring challenge. We explore the potential of small wireless sensors (ETracer+, ET+) to measure temperature, pressure, electrical conductivity and thus the presence or absence of meltwater within firn, through tests in the dry snow zone at the East Greenland Ice Core Project site. The tested sensor platforms are small, robust and low cost, and communicate data via a VHF radio link to surface receivers. The sensors were deployed in low-temperature firn at the centre and shear margins of an ice stream for 4 weeks, and a ‘bucket experiment’ was used to test the detection of water within otherwise dry firn. The tests showed the ET+ could log subsurface temperatures and transmit the recorded data through up to 150 m dry firn. Two VHF receivers were tested: an autonomous phase-sensitive radio-echo sounder (ApRES) and a WinRadio. The ApRES can combine high-resolution imaging of the firn layers (by radio-echo sounding) with in situ measurements from the sensors, to build up a high spatial and temporal resolution picture of the subsurface. These results indicate that wireless sensors have great potential for long-term monitoring of firn processes.
Experiments with a weakly damped monopile, either fixed or free to oscillate, exposed to irregular waves in deep water, obtain the wave-exciting moment and motion response. The nonlinearity and peak wavenumber cover the ranges:
is an estimate of the spectral wave slope,
the significant wave height,
the peak wavenumber and
the cylinder radius. The response and its statistics, expressed in terms of the exceedance probability, are discussed as a function of the resonance frequency,
in the range
times the spectral peak frequency,
. For small wave slope, long waves and
, the nonlinear response deviates only very little from its linear counterpart. However, the nonlinearity becomes important for increasing wave slope, wavenumber and resonance frequency ratio. The extreme response events are found in a region where the Keulegan–Carpenter number exceeds
, indicating the importance of possible flow separation effects. A similar region is also covered by a Froude number exceeding
, pointing to surface gravity wave effects at the scale of the cylinder diameter. Regarding contributions to the higher harmonic forces, different wave load mechanisms are identified, including: (i) wave-exciting inertia forces, a function of the fluid acceleration; (ii) wave slamming due to both non-breaking and breaking wave events; (iii) a secondary load cycle; and (iv) possible drag forces, a function of the fluid velocity. Also, history effects due to the inertia of the moving pile, contribute to the large response events. The ensemble means of the third, fourth and fifth harmonic wave-exciting force components extracted from the irregular wave results are compared to the third harmonic FNV (Faltinsen, Newman and Vinje) theory as well as other available experiments and calculations. The present irregular wave measurements generalize results obtained in deep water regular waves.
Laboratory experiments with a bottom hinged surface-piercing cylinder, exposed to irregular deep water waves, are used to investigate high-frequency forcing. The focus is on the secondary load cycle, a strongly nonlinear phenomenon regarding the wave load on a vertical cylinder, first identified by Grue et al. (1993 Preprint Series. Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, pp. 1–30. University of Oslo, available at http://urn.nb.no/URN:NBN:no-52740; 1994 Ninth International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies (ed. M. Ohkusu), pp. 77–81, available at http://iwwwfb.org). For a total of 2166 single wave events, the force above
is the governing wave frequency) is used to identify and split the strongly nonlinear forces into two peaks: a high-frequency peak closely correlated in time with the wave crest when the total load is positive and a high-frequency peak defining the secondary load cycle which occurs close in time to the wave zero downcrossing when the total load is negative. The two peaks are studied by regression analysis as a function of either the Keulegan–Carpenter number (
) or the Froude number (
). Regarding the secondary load cycle, the best correlation is found with
. The speed of the travelling edge of the undisturbed wave approximates the fluid velocity. A threshold value separating between small and large forces is found for
–5, indicating effects of flow separation. Alternatively, the threshold occurs for
–0.4, indicating local wave effects at the scale of the cylinder diameter. The findings suggest that both effects are present and important.
Engabreen is an outlet glacier of the Svartisen Ice Cap located in Northern Norway. It is a unique glacier due to the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory which allows direct access to the glacier bed. In this study, we combine both sub- and supraglacial observations with ice-flow modelling in order to investigate conditions at the bed of Engabreen both spatially and temporally. We use the full-Stokes model Elmer/Ice and satellite-based surface-velocity maps from 2010 and 2014 to infer patterns of basal friction. Direct measurements of basal sliding and deformation of lower layers of the ice are used to adjust the ice viscosity and provide essential input to the setup of our model and influence the interpretation of the results. We find a clear seasonal cycle in the subglacial conditions at the higher elevation region of the study area and discuss this in relation to the subglacial hydrological system. Our results also reveal an area with an overdeepening where basal friction is significantly lower than elsewhere on the glacier all year round. We attribute this to either water pooling at the base, or saturated sediments and increased strain heating at this location which softens the ice further.
Community-acquired bacteraemia patients (n = 2472), Denmark, 2000–2008. Albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and haemoglobin (Hb) measured 2000–2010. We assessed daily mean levels of albumin, CRP and Hb from 30 days before to 30 days after bacteraemia and correlations between albumin vs. CRP and albumin vs. Hb. In linear regression models, we evaluated the contribution of CRP, Hb, chronic and acute variables to the albumin level variations. The mean albumin level (33.6 g/l) was steady before day 1, declined to 29.3 g/l on day 1 with little increase afterward. The mean CRP increased from day −5, peaked on day 1 and declined thereafter. The mean Hb level was fairly constant during days −30/30. Albumin was inversely (R range, − 0.18/–0.47, P < 10−4) correlated with the CRP level and positively (R = 0.17–0.46, P < 10−4) correlated with the HB level. In most models, CRP was the first variable that contributed to the albumin variations, 34–70% of the full model. The sudden decrease of albumin levels, without sudden fluctuations of CRP or Hb, indicated that hypoalbuminaemia was a marker of trans-capillary leakage.
Dietary carbohydrates constitute a major fraction of the diets for pigs. The carbohydrate fraction consists of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides and two broad classes of polysaccharides – starch and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). The carbohydrate fraction has a diverse composition in terms of constituent sugars (pentoses, hexoses, deoxysugars, etc.), glycosidic linkages (alfa or beta), size (degree of polymerisation from one to several thousand), and physical form (soluble in water, insoluble, cation and adsorbing properties). It is now evidential clear that the composition of the carbohydrate fraction influences the digestion and absorption processes of carbohydrates and other nutrients in the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract, it has a profound influence on the secretory response of the gut to feed intake, the volume flow, the mucosal architecture, the composition of the gut flora and the development of the gastrointestinal tract.
The North Greenland Icecore Project (NorthGRIP) was initiated in 1995 as a joint international programme involving Denmark, Germany, Japan, Belgium, Sweden, Iceland, the U.S.A., France and Switzerland. the main goal was to obtain undisturbed high-resolution information about the Eemian climatic period (115–130 kyr BP). the records from the Greenland Icecore Project (GRIP) and Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) in central Greenland are different and disturbed down in the ice covering this period. Internal radio-echo sounding layers show that NorthGRIP, placed 325 km north-northwest of GRIP at the Summit of the Greenland ice sheet, is located on a gently sloping ice ridge with very flat bedrock and internal layers found so high that an undisturbed Eemian record is possible. Internal layers much farther above bedrock than their apparent counter parts at GRIP suggest that conditions are favourable for recovery of an undisturbed Eemian record. So far, a 1351 mdeep ice core (NorthGRIP1) and a 3001 mdeep ice core (NorthGRIP 2) have been recovered. the ice thickness is expected to be 3080 m, and the ice temperature at 3001 m is –5.6°C, so we expect basal melting at the bedrock. Most of the Eemian ice will be melted away, leaving only the last part and the transition between the Eem and the Last Glacial Period. At 3001 m the age of the ice is 110 kyr BP and the annual layers are of the order 1 cm.With modern methods the annual layers can be resolved, resulting in detailed information on the decline of the warm Eemian period into the Last Glacial Period.
Uniaxial compression tests were performed on samples of the Greenland Ice Gore Project (GRIP) deep ice core, both in the field and later in a cold-room laboratory, in order to understand the ice-flow behavior of large ice sheets. Experiments were conducted under conditions of constant strain rate (type A) and constant load (type B). Fifty-four uniaxial-compression test specimens from 1327-2922 m were selected. Each test specimen (25 mm x 25 mm x 90 mm) was prepared with its uniaxial stress axis inclined 45° from the core axis in order to examine the flow behavior of strong single-maximum ice-core samples with basal planes parallel to the horizontal plane of the ice sheet. The ice-flow enhancement factors show a gradual increase with depth down to approximately 2000 m. These results can be interpreted in terms of an increase in the fourth-order Schmid factor. Below 2000 m depth, the flow-enhancement factor increases to about 20-30 with a relatively high variability When the Schmid factor was > 0.46, the enhancement factor obtained was higher than expected from the .-axis concentrations measured. The higher values of flow-enhancement factor were obtained from specimens with a cloudy band structure. It was revealed that cloudy bands affect ice-deformation processes, but the details remain unclear.
We consider a continuous, infinitely divisible random field in ℝd, d = 1, 2, 3, given as an integral of a kernel function with respect to a Lévy basis with convolution equivalent Lévy measure. For a large class of such random fields, we compute the asymptotic probability that the excursion set at level x contains some rotation of an object with fixed radius as x → ∞. Our main result is that the asymptotic probability is equivalent to the right tail of the underlying Lévy measure.
We present observations of the 11 July 1991 total solar eclipse made from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The 850 μm limb is extended 3380±140 km above the visible limb, and there is a 10% brightening at the extreme limb. The measured limb height agrees with previous work at shorter and longer wavelengths. The run of limb heights with wavelength is well fit by a single electron density scale height. We argue that there is no need to invoke spicule geometry to explain the observations.
Radio-echo sounding surveys over the Greenland ice sheet show clear, extensive internal layering, and comparisons with age–depth scales from deep ice cores allow for dating of the layering along the ice divide. We present one of the first attempts to extend the dated layers beyond the ice core drill sites by locating the depth of the Bølling–Allerød transition in >400 flight-lines using an automated fitting method. Results show that the transition is located in the upper one-third of the ice column in the central part of North Greenland, while the transition lowers towards the margin. This pattern mirrors the present surface accumulation, and also indicates that a substantial amount of pre-Holocene ice must be present in central North Greenland.
Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in foods such as tea, red wine, fruits and vegetables. Higher intakes of specific flavonoids, and flavonoid-rich foods, have been linked to reduced mortality from specific vascular diseases and cancers. However, the importance of flavonoid-rich foods, and flavonoids, in preventing all-cause mortality remains uncertain. As such, we examined the association of intake of flavonoid-rich foods and flavonoids with subsequent mortality among 93 145 young and middle-aged women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. During 1 838 946 person-years of follow-up, 1808 participants died. When compared with non-consumers, frequent consumers of red wine, tea, peppers, blueberries and strawberries were at reduced risk of all-cause mortality (P<0·05), with the strongest associations observed for red wine and tea; multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios 0·60 (95 % CI 0·49, 0·74) and 0·73 (95 % CI 0·65, 0·83), respectively. Conversely, frequent grapefruit consumers were at increased risk of all-cause mortality, compared with their non-grapefruit consuming counterparts (P<0·05). When compared with those in the lowest consumption quintile, participants in the highest quintile of total-flavonoid intake were at reduced risk of all-cause mortality in the age-adjusted model; 0·81 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·93). However, this association was attenuated following multivariable adjustment; 0·92 (95 % CI 0·80, 1·06). Similar results were observed for consumption of flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins. Flavonols, flavanones and flavones were not associated with all-cause mortality in any model. Despite null associations at the compound level and select foods, higher consumption of red wine, tea, peppers, blueberries and strawberries, was associated with reduced risk of total and cause-specific mortality. These findings support the rationale for making food-based dietary recommendations.
This study used four waves of data from a longitudinal study of 749 Mexican origin youths to test a developmental cascades model linking contextual adversity in the family and peer domains in late childhood to a sequence of unfolding processes hypothesized to predict problem substance use and risky sexual activity (greater number of sex partners) in late adolescence. Externalizing and internalizing problems were tested as divergent pathways, with youth-reported and mother-reported symptoms examined in separate models. Youth gender, nativity, and cultural orientation were tested as moderators. Family risk, peer social rejection, and their interaction were prospectively related to externalizing symptoms and deviant peer involvement, although family risk showed stronger effects on parent-reported externalizing and peer social rejection showed stronger effects on youth-reported externalizing. Externalizing symptoms and deviant peers were related, in turn, to risk taking in late adolescence, including problem alcohol–substance use and number of sexual partners. Peer social rejection predicted youth-reported internalizing symptoms, and internalizing was related, in turn, to problem alcohol and substance use in late adolescence. Tests of moderation showed some of these developmental cascades were stronger for adolescents who were female, less oriented to mainstream cultural values, and more oriented to Mexican American cultural values.
Recent studies have highlighted the threat that climate change poses to species, as areas of climatic suitability contract or shift across the landscape. North American Neotropical long-distant migrant bird species present a unique problem compared to sedentary species because climate change may differ significantly across their breeding and wintering grounds. Studying the potential future distributions of these birds is challenging on many levels, including the fact that our understanding of the wintering grounds of these species is quite poor. To address this issue, we analyse available eBird data during the winter season in the Western Hemisphere in an effort to further promote and direct citizen science efforts to focus on areas that are climatically undersampled. We used Mobility-Oriented Parity (MOP) to understand the areas where climates are most dissimilar from climates sampled by existing eBird checklists, creating a map that ranks the western hemisphere at a 10 km resolution for climatic sampling during the winter season. We found that parts of Mexico and Central America, areas of Colombia, almost the entire Amazon Basin, coastal Peru and Chile, and northern Argentina are climatically undersampled. As a test case, we then used the map of survey priorities to simulate additional sampling in Colombia and recalculated the rankings. Guiding additional sampling with the priorities reduced climate dissimilarities between sampled and unsampled grid cells more than when additional sampling expanded in proportion to current sampling efforts or based on geographic undersampling. Analyses of sampling coverage in environmental space, such as this, will be a useful tool for targeting monitoring effort for bird species.