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The theoretical investigation of shocks and solitary structures in a dense quantum plasma containing electrons at finite temperature, nondegenerate cold electrons, and stationary ions has been carried out. A linear dispersion relation is derived for the corresponding electron acoustic waves. The solitary structures of small nonlinearity have been studied by using the standard reductive perturbation method. We have considered collisions to be absent, and the shocks arise out of viscous force. Furthermore, with the help of a standard reductive perturbation technique, a KdV–Burger equation has been derived and analyzed numerically. Under limiting cases, we have also obtained the KdV solitary profiles and studied the parametric dependence. The results are important in explaining the many phenomena of the laser–plasma interaction of dense plasma showing quantum effects.
As in all other areas of the viva examinations, knowing basic definitions gives you an easy starting point when answering questions and gives the impression to the examiners that you have both a logical and clear thought process, and are in command of the subject matter.
A growth or swelling, which enlarges by cellular proliferation more rapidly than surrounding normal tissue and continues to enlarge after the initiating stimuli cease. Usually lacks structural organization and functional coordination with normal tissues and serves no useful purpose to the host.
Background: Buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nal) is a partial opioid agonist/antagonist and recommended first line treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Emergency departments (EDs) are a key point of contact with the healthcare system for patients living with OUD. Aim Statement: We implemented a multi-disciplinary quality improvement project to screen patients for OUD, initiate bup/nal for eligible individuals, and provide rapid next business day walk-in referrals to addiction clinics in the community. Measures & Design: From May to September 2018, our team worked with three ED sites and three addiction clinics to pilot the program. Implementation involved alignment with regulatory requirements, physician education, coordination with pharmacy to ensure in-ED medication access, and nurse education. The project is supported by a full-time project manager, data analyst, operations leaders, physician champions, provincial pharmacy, and the Emergency Strategic Clinical Network leadership team. For our pilot, our evaluation objective was to determine the degree to which our initiation and referral pathway was being utilized. We used administrative data to track the number of patients given bup/nal in ED, their demographics and whether they continued to fill bup/nal prescriptions 30 days after their ED visit. Addiction clinics reported both the number of patients referred to them and the number of patients attending their referral. Evaluation/Results: Administrative data shows 568 opioid-related visits to ED pilot sites during the pilot phase. Bup/nal was given to 60 unique patients in the ED during 66 unique visits. There were 32 (53%) male patients and 28 (47%) female patients. Median patient age was 34 (range: 21 to 79). ED visits where bup/nal was given had a median length of stay of 6 hours 57 minutes (IQR: 6 hours 20 minutes) and Canadian Triage Acuity Scores as follows: Level 1 – 1 (2%), Level 2 – 21 (32%), Level 3 – 32 (48%), Level 4 – 11 (17%), Level 5 – 1 (2%). 51 (77%) of these visits led to discharge. 24 (47%) discharged patients given bup/nal in ED continued to fill bup/nal prescriptions 30 days after their index ED visit. EDs also referred 37 patients with OUD to the 3 community clinics, and 16 of those individuals (43%) attended their first follow-up appointment. Discussion/Impact: Our pilot project demonstrates that with dedicated resources and broad institutional support, ED patients with OUD can be appropriately initiated on bup/nal and referred to community care.
By using reductive perturbation technique we have studied the linear and non-linear properties of ion-acoustic solitary structures in a three-component plasma containing non-thermal electrons and Boltzmann positrons and a comparatively cold ion which has got a streaming motion. The Korteweg–de Vries equation has been obtained and the dependence of small amplitude solitary structures on various plasma parameters such as streaming velocity (v0), non-thermal parameter (β), reciprocal of electron temperature (χ), positron density (p), Mach number (M), and ion density (δ) have been studied. The possibility of formation of enveloping soliton and its characteristic features are further investigated by deriving the non-linear Schrödinger equation.
Using reductive perturbation technique, small-amplitude ion-acoustic solitary wave has been investigated in multi-component dense plasma, in which an electron beam propagates along the general streaming motion. The electrons in plasma have the q-exponential distribution. The positive and negative ions follow a regular Maxwellian distribution. It has been found that the positive and negative ion densities as well as the beam concentration have significant effect on the formation and properties of solitary structures. The streaming velocities of corresponding particles also have pronounced effect on the features of the solitons.
Most nutritional studies on the development of children focus on mother–infant interactions. Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the growth and development of the fetus, but what about the father? The aim is to investigate the effects of paternal methyl-group donor intake (methionine, folate, betaine, choline) on paternal and offspring global DNA (hydroxy)methylation, offspring IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and birth weight. Questionnaires, 7-day estimated dietary records, whole blood samples, and anthropometric measurements from 74 fathers were obtained. A total of 51 cord blood samples were collected and birth weight was obtained. DNA methylation status was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (global DNA (hydroxy)methylation) and pyrosequencing (IGF2 DMR methylation). Paternal betaine intake was positively associated with paternal global DNA hydroxymethylation (0.028% per 100 mg betaine increase, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.053, P=0.03) and cord blood global DNA methylation (0.679% per 100 mg betaine increase, 95% CI: 0.057, 1.302, P=0.03). Paternal methionine intake was positively associated with CpG1 (0.336% per 100 mg methionine increase, 95% CI: 0.103, 0.569, P=0.006), and mean CpG (0.201% per 100 mg methionine increase, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.402, P=0.049) methylation of the IGF2 DMR in cord blood. Further, a negative association between birth weight/birth weight-for-gestational age z-score and paternal betaine/methionine intake was found. In addition, a positive association between choline and birth weight/birth weight-for-gestational age z-score was also observed. Our data indicate a potential impact of paternal methyl-group donor intake on paternal global DNA hydroxymethylation, offspring global and IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and prenatal growth.
Nonlinear amplitude modulation of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) in a fully relativistic unmagnetized two-fluid plasma has been theoretically studied by using complete set of fully relativistic dynamic equations. To describe the nonlinear evolution of the wave envelope a nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is derived by using standard multiple scale perturbation technique. Using this equation it is shown that the wave becomes modulationally unstable as the wavenumber exceeds certain critical value. This critical wavenumber is found to decrease with increase in relativistic effect. The instability growth rate has also been calculated numerically for different values of plasma drift velocity. The growth rate is shown to decrease with increase in the relativistic effect.
This study developed a fast and high throughput dot-blot technique to evaluate the presence of Entamoeba in stool samples (n = 643) followed by a PCR-based method to validate and differentiate the two species E. histolytica and E. dispar. The prevalence rate of the parasite has been detected in a cross-sectional study carried out in the population of the Eastern and Northern parts of India. Of the various demographic features, prevalence was highest in the monsoon season (P = 0·017), in the <15 years age group (P = 0·015). In HIV-positive individuals, the prevalence rate was significantly high (P = 0·008) in patients with a CD4 cell count <200 as well as in patients without antiretroviral therapy (ART) (P = 0·011). Our analysis further confirmed that risk factors such as toilet facilities, living conditions, hygienic practices, drinking water source, occupation and level of education are important predictors as they were found to contribute significantly in the prevalence of the parasite.
Using high resolution powder neutron diffraction data, we show that there is a distinct anomaly in the structural noncentrosymmetry around the magnetic transition point TN for bulk and nanoscale BiFeO3. It appears that the structural noncentrosymmetry - which gives rise to the ferroelectric polarization - is suppressed anomalously by ~1% (of the average noncentrosymmetry at above the magnetic transition) in the bulk sample and by ~12% in the nanoscale sample as the magnetic transition is approached from higher temperature. This observation shows that the multiferroic coupling improves in the nanoscale sample which is expected to brighten the application prospects of nanoscale BiFeO3 in nanospintronics-based sensor devices.
In this paper, we report new phase of crystalline silicon, quasicrystalline silicon thin-film on glass substrate. The surface topography of these films reveal simultaneous existence of sixfold and fivefold symmetry. We found an array of quasi-unit cell in 2-D that formed quasicrystalline solid. This is first time demonstration of quasicrystalline for single element, silicon (Si). Raman spectra suggests that we found crystalline silicon structure on glass substrate that is not single-crystal silicon (c-Si) but very close to c-Si.
In this work, we report the effect of high energy ball milling (HEBM) on Nb doped R2Fe16Nb1 (R= Gd, Er) compounds. The focus of the work is to bring enhancement in magnetic properties of R2Fe17 (2:17) compounds with the ball milling. Specifically, we find that the ball milling increases saturation magnetization, coercivity, and Curie temperature. The increase in the magnetization and Curie temperature upon ball milling is related to the lattice expansion and microstrains while the increase in coercivity is related to the grain refinement.
A single crystal aluminum nitride (AlN) wafer surface was investigated via the use of a novel software-based, Charge-based Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (Q-DLTS) apparatus, both before and after surface bond termination with hydrogen plasma. The sample was cleaned and metalized with a thermoresistive evaporator to create electrical contacts and then annealed in a helium atmosphere at 825 °C. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were performed to investigate the nature of the metal/substrate contacts. The effect of hydrogen termination was investigated and Arrhenius plots were produced from Q-DLTS spectra at temperatures ranging from −15.9 °C to 136.0 °C. Activation energies and capture cross-section values were calculated from the Q-DLTS spectra for traps existing in the AlN substrate surface. Prior to hydrogen termination, four charge traps were observed with activation energies of 0.31 eV, 0.61 eV, 0.56 eV, and 0.18 eV and capture cross sections 5.6 × 10−21 cm2, 1.1 × 10−16 cm2, 3.5 × 10−19 cm2, and 1.3 × 10−21 cm2, respectively After hydrogen termination, five charge traps were observed with activation energies of 0.31 eV, 0.61 eV, 0.52 eV, 0.19 eV, and 0.40 eV, and capture cross sections 4.9 × 10−21 cm2, 1.3 × 10−16 cm2, 2.9 × 10−19 cm2, 3.1 × 10−19 cm2, and 4.7 × 10−19 cm2, respectively. Four of these peaks after termination are matched with the peaks prior to termination and the fifth peak appears to be the result of the hydrogen termination.
Magnetically separable and reusable core-shell CoFe2O4-ZnO photocatalyst nanospheres were prepared via hydrothermal synthesis technique using glucose derived carbon nanospheres as template. The morphology and phase of core-shell hybrid structure of CoFe2O4-ZnO was assessed via TEM, and XRD. The UV-vis photocatalytic activity of the composite was assessed via measuring the degradation rate of modeled pollutant methylene blue in water. The magnetic composite showed high UV photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue. The photocatalytic activity was found to be ZnO shell thickness dependent. Thicker ZnO shells lead to higher rate of photocatalytic activity. Hybrid nanospheres recovered using external magnetic field demonstrated good repeatability of photocatalytic activity. These results promise the reusability of hybrid nanospheres for photocatalytic activity.
We show a novel, bioengineered, moldable platform for bone regeneration composed of porous bionanocomposite scaffolds made of components that are normally found in bone tissue (calcium, collagen, carbonate, sodium, and phosphorous). To accommodate high- or low-stress environments, the hardness and modulus (stiffness) of these scaffolds can be tuned in a wide range in Megapascal (MPa) to Gigapascal (GPa) regions, while maintaining the required viscoelasticity. Our approach to control the mechanical properties is based on a new formulation of mineralized bioscaffolds by incorporation of calcium carbonate in which, calcium and phosphorous are in the form of calcite, calcium polyphosphate (CPP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP). The variation in the calcium carbonate concentration allows tuning of calcite/CPP contents in the bioscaffold to tailor the degree of mineralization and mechanical and viscoelastic properties that closely match those of natural bone. Our results demonstrate an ideal framework for new bone scaffold designs for advanced bone substitute applications.
The interaction between turbulence in a minimal supersonic channel and radiative heat transfer is studied using large-eddy simulation. The working fluid is pure water vapour with temperature-dependent specific heats and molecular transport coefficients. Its line spectra properties are represented with a statistical narrow-band correlated-k model. A grey gas model is also tested. The parallel no-slip channel walls are treated as black surfaces concerning thermal radiation and are kept at a constant temperature of 1000 K. Simulations have been performed for different optical thicknesses (based on the Planck mean absorption coefficient) and different Mach numbers. Results for the mean flow variables, Reynolds stresses and certain terms of their transport equations indicate that thermal radiation effects counteract compressibility (Mach number) effects. An analysis of the total energy balance reveals the importance of radiative heat transfer, compared to the turbulent and mean molecular heat transport.
Faecal specimens of diarrhoea cases (n=2495, collected between November 2007 and October 2009) from Infectious Diseases and Beliaghata General (ID&BG) Hospital, Kolkata, India, were screened by RT–PCR using specific primers targeting region C of the capsid gene of noroviruses (NoVs) to determine the seasonal distribution and clinical characteristics of NoVs associated with diarrhoea. NoV infection was detected in 78 cases, mostly in children aged <2 years. In 22/78 positive cases, the virus was detected as the sole agent; others were as mixed infections with other enteric pathogens. Sequencing of NVGII strains showed clustering with GII.4 NoVs followed by GII.13 and GII.6 NoVs. Clinical characteristics of the diarrhoeic children and adults in Kolkata indicated that NoV infections were detected throughout the year and were associated with a mild degree of dehydration.
Over a 2-year period, 25 families comprising of 181 individuals of all ages were longitudinally observed for the excretion of Campylobacter species. Faecal samples were taken from all persons with diarrhoea. Specimens were also taken from apparently healthy individuals and from domestic animals living within the confines of the study families at monthly intervals.
The overall diarrhoea attack rate was 19 episodes per 100 person-years with peak incidence in the 1- to 4-year-old age group (76/100 person-years). Eight (11·5%) of the total episodes were campylobacter-associated and the overall rate of campylobacter positive diarrhoeal episodes were 2·2 per 100 person-years. Of the 1002 stool samples from healthy individuals 32 (3·2/100 samples) were positive for campylobacter. The organism was most frequently isolated from children under 1 year of age both during diarrhoeal episodes (11·5 per 100 person-years) and non-diarrhoeal (11·1 per 100 samples). Multiple infections in a family were rare. In 19·4% of the occasions one or more animals were campylobacter positive. However, only in 7·7% of these occasions was a human infection recorded within 1 month after the animal was found to be positive.
The study showed that the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in this community was distinct compared to that observed in developed countries.
Escherichia coli O 27 H 7 was found in 16 stool samples submitted during a Caribbean cruise (Cruise Z) by 29 patients reporting with diarrhoea. A retrospective search revealed E. coli O 27 H 7 in 11 of 20 and 2 of 14 stool cultures from patients on two previous cruises (Y and X respectively) and in a culture from fresh cream (Cruise Y). The repeated occurrence of E. coli O 27 H 7 in the absence of any other apparent cause suggested that this serotype may have been responsible for the diarrhoea. The results of pathogenicity tests suggested that this strain elaborated heat-stable (ST) enterotoxin.
The possibility that food may have been the vector is discussed.
Tri-County Health Department investigated an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis linked to a community swimming pool. A cohort study was conducted in 37 persons who were invited to the pool party; 12 (57%) of 21 attendees had primary cryptosporidiosis infection. Risk factors for illness included swimming, getting water in mouth, and swallowing water. The pool met chlorination guidelines and used UV light irradiation, a supplemental disinfection technology that inactivates Cryptosporidium. A follow-up survey of the cohort was completed 7–8 weeks after the pool party; four (25%) of 16 non-attendees had secondary cryptosporidiosis infection. The median duration of illness, including patients with recurring symptoms, was 26 days. Clinical response rate to nitazoxanide, a therapeutic agent, was 67%. This study is unique because it describes a cryptosporidiosis outbreak from a well-maintained community swimming pool using supplemental disinfection. It also reports information on disease burden and treatment response.
Nonlinear behaviour of azimuthally symmetric compressional hydromagnetic waves propagating along a cylindrical cold magnetized plasma-filled waveguide is investigated. A nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing the nonlinear evolution of such waves is derived. Numerical evaluation of the dispersive and nonlinear terms reveals that such waves are modulationally stable in the fundamental radial mode of propagation. Calculations are presented for the amplitude dependent frequency and wavenumber shifts.