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In this paper, a reduced-size dielectric resonator antenna with switchable diversity patterns is proposed. Ring- and linear-shaped slots are etched in the ground plane of the antenna so as to generate two modes
at a center frequency of 19 GHz. Moreover, two groups of PIN diodes are integrated into these slots to short one group of slots, and let the other group generates the required mode. Thus, the antenna is able to generate two switchable patterns with an envelope correlation coefficient of 0.4. Furthermore, the antenna size is reduced to half of its original size by placing a copper sheet over certain plane of the antenna structure. The antenna achieves wide bandwidths of 17.6–20.9 GHz (17.1
) and 18.3–21.6 GHz (13.8
) in cases of exciting
modes, respectively. The antenna also attainsa high gain of 7.1 and 3.2 dB at the center frequency.
The present analysis has been developed to investigate the heat transfer phenomenon in peristaltic flow of Carreau fluid in a curved channel with rhythmic contraction and expansion of waves along the walls (similar to blood flow in tubes). Magnetic field is imposed in radial direction. The heat transfer aspect is further studied with viscous dissipation effect. The curved channel walls are influenced by flow and thermal partial slip. In addition the flow stream comprised porous medium. The system of relevant non-linear PDEs have been reduced to ODEs by utilizing the long wavelength approximation. The striking features of flow and temperature characteristics under the involved parameters are examined by plotting graphs. The generation of fluid temperature and velocity due to viscous dissipation and gravitational efforts are recorded respectively. Moreover indicated results signify activation of velocity, temperature and heat transfer rate with Darcy number.
Across the history of radiotherapy, with gradual technological progress and various methods of irradiation, the purpose has always been to deliver homogeneously 100% of the prescribed dose to 100% of the target volume containing the identifiable tumour and/or tumour cells potentially present while limiting the dose to adjacent normal tissues.
Material and methods
The formula for triple point conformity scale is: CS3=(V95+V100+V105)/3VT. (a) Lower limit determination: CS3=(VT+0·93 VT+0·0)/3VT=0·643; (b) Upper limit determination: in order to find out an empirical relation in between V105 and VT, we studied over 593 cancer patients of various sites by taking planning target volume as target, and an empirical relation is derived out as: V105/VT=0·0007. Hence, CS3=(VT+VT+0·0007 VT)/3VT=0·6667~0·667.
Upper and lower limits of CS3 have been calculated at 0·643 and 0·667, respectively. Maximum value of CS3 index is recorded 0·656 while minimum value is 0·478.
The CS3 scale constitutes an attractive tool because it could facilitate decisions during analysis of various treatment plans proposed for conformal radiotherapy. Its major advantages are its simplicity and integration of multiple parameters.
The triple point conformity scale (CS3) provides better qualitative information about radiotherapy plans as compared to other conformity indices. This study advises the users to use the CS3 scale to evaluate a conformal radiotherapy plan which encompasses a wide range of relevant clinical volumes, and is able to extract qualitative dosimetric information.
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of North-West Pakistan has endured increased levels of violence in recent years. The psychological sequelae of such trauma including the presence of dissociative symptoms has been minimally investigated to date. The study examines psychopathology experienced including the presence of dissociative symptoms, and ascertain what factors are potentially predictive of these symptoms.
Third-level students (n=303) completed psychometric instruments relating to their experience of traumatic events and assessed depression, anxiety and dissociative symptoms.
Symptoms suggestive of post-traumatic stress disorder were evident in 28% of individuals. Symptoms relating to intrusive experiences and alterations in reactivity predicted dissociative, depressive and anxiety symptoms (p<0.01).
Trauma related to violence in this study was associated with significant pathology including dissociative symptoms. Identification and subsequent treatment of dissociative symptoms in individuals who have experienced trauma, may have a significant ameliorating effect on levels of functioning and thus should be included in clinical assessment.
The Pindari Glacier is situated in the heart of the Kumaon Hills in lat. 30° 17′ N. and long. 80° 0′ E. This glacier was visited by the authors in October 1959 when morphological and other observations were made. On the basis of these observations, it appears that during the last hundred years the rate of retreat of this glacier has been phenomenal, and it may be as much as 132 ft. (40.2 m.)/yr. There is also evidence that in the past the Pindari valley suffered at least two glacial advances.
Stimulated Brillouin backscattering of an intense hollow Gaussian laser beam (HGLB) from collisionless plasma has been investigated under relativistic–ponderomotive regime. The main feature of considered hollow Gaussian laser beam is having the same power at different beam orders with null intensity at the center. Backscattered radiation is generated due to nonlinear interaction between main beam (pump beam) with pre-excited ion acoustic wave (IAW). Modified coupled equations has been set up for the beam width parameters of the main beam, ion-acoustic wave, back-scattered wave, and back reflectivity of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) with the help of the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin approximation, fluid equations and paraxial theory approach. These coupled equations are solved analytically and numerically to study the laser intensity in the plasma, the variation of amplitude of the excited IAW and back reflectivity of SBS. The back reflectivity of SBS is found to be highly sensitive to the order of the HGLB, intensity of main laser beam, and plasma density for typical laser and plasma parameters. The focusing of main laser beam (hollow Gaussian) and IAW significantly affected the back reflectivity of SBS. The results show that the self-focusing and back reflectivity is enhanced for higher order modes of HGLB.
We examined functional outcomes and quality of life of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with integrated fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy boost (FSRT) for brain metastases treatment. Methods Eighty seven people with 1-3 brain metastases were enrolled on this Phase II trial of WBRT (30Gy/10)+simultaneous FSRT, (60Gy/10). Results Mean (Min-Max) baseline KPS, Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and FACT-BR quality of life were 83 (70-100), 28 (21-30) and 143 (98-153). Lower baseline MMSE (but not KPS or FACT-Br) was associated with worse survival after adjusting for age, number of metastases, primary and extra-cranial disease status. Crude rates of deterioration (>10 points decrease from baseline for KPS and FACT-Br, MMSE fall to<27) ranged from 26-38% for KPS, 32-59% for FACT-Br and 0-16%for MMSE depending on the time-point assessed with higher rates generally noted at earlier time points (<6months post-treatment). Using a linear mixed models analysis, significant declines from baseline were noted for KPS and FACT-Br (largest effects at 6 weeks to 3 months) with no significant change in MMSE. Conclusions The effects on function and quality of life of this integrated treatment of WBRT+simultaneous FSRT were similar to other published series combining WBRT+SRS.
We made preliminary AMS measurements of 41Ca/Ca ratios in bone and limestone specimens with the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). We were able to avoid pre-enrichment of 41Ca used in previous experiments due to a substantial increase in Ca-beam intensity. Most of the measured ratios lie in the 10-14 range, with a few values below 10-14. In general, these values are higher than the ones observed by the AMS group at the University of Pennsylvania. We discuss possible implications of these results. We also present the current status of half-life measurements of 41Ca and discuss 41Ca production processes on earth.
This study aimed to determine the relationship between quality of life and satisfaction with care among cancer patients in palliative care in Saudi Arabia.
A total of 130 palliative cancer patients were invited to participate in our cross-sectional study. Patients were recruited from a large tertiary hospital within the Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia. All eligible participants answered a three-part questionnaire that included demographic data and the validated European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ–C15–PAL) and (EORTC IN-PATSAT32) questionnaires.
Participants were mostly female (103/130, 79%) and married (93/130, 71%), and more than half had breast cancer (69/130, 53%). They were between 17 and 86 years of age (mean = 46.7, SD = 16.50). The correlation test showed that the relationship with physical function was weak, while emotional function and global health status had a moderate relationship with general satisfaction (r = 0.21, p < 0.01; r = 0.32, p < 0.001; r = 0.26, p < 0.01, respectively). Our results suggest that emotional function is the more important factor in predicting satisfaction with care among palliative cancer patients. An increase in emotional function leads to increased general satisfaction.
Significance of results:
The emotional function of palliative cancer patients was more closely associated with overall satisfaction with care than physical function or global health status. All palliative care team members are thus required to provide adequate psychosocial support. It is recommended that interdisciplinary and collaborative approaches be integrated in palliative care of cancer patients.
Background: One of the major risk factors for spine infection is IV drug use and HIV infection. An increase in these risk factors has coincided with increased rates of spinal infection in Saskatchewan. However, the exact incidence and the clinical significance of spine infection associated with high-risk behavior is poorly understood. Methods: A retrospective review was completed for adult patients with discitis, osteomyelitis, or epidural abscess admitted to the Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan over the last eight years. Results: This study included 176 patients consisting of 41% with discitis, 69% with osteomyelitis and 45% with epidural abscess. Overall mortality was 3% and 16% of patients developed severe disability.40% of patients were intravenous drug users, 45% were hepatitis C positive and 12% were HIV positive. For the initial four years of our study we experienced 72 patients. We experienced 91 cases over the past four years. Geographical analysis showed high incidence areas within the city of Saskatoon. Conclusions: High rates of IV drug use, Hepatitis C, and HIV have important implications in terms of what measures would assist in prevention of this condition. Secondary prevention or early identification of patients may reduce the number of patients who require lengthy admission, surgery and long term care for disablity.
Background: Infection to the facet joints has been reported sporadically but the significance of this type of infection has not been clarified. In our study on spine infection, we identified the cases of spinal epidural abscess with septic joints and was able to compare to cases of epidural abscess with discitis and osteomyelitis. Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, we experienced 176 cases of spine infection including discitis, osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Retrospective review of the clinical data and radiological findings was performed. Among 176 cases, 80 patients had epidural abscess. They were divided to two groups, one with septic joint and the other with discitis and osteomyelitis. Results: 23 patients were found to have septic joints with epidural abscess based on the MRI findings. Mean age was 45.5. 15 of 23 patients (65%) required surgery and all treated with laminectomy. 78% had a good neurological outcome.
57 patients had epidural abscess with discitis and osteomyelitis. Mean age was 54. 51% required surgery. Only 62 % was treated with laminectomy alone. Good neurological outcome was seen in 67% of the patients. Conclusions: Infected facet joints are not as rare as generally believed. The patients with septic joints are younger. Surgery was done more often and laminectomy provided better neurological outcome
To evaluate our results in treating Zenker's diverticulum via the transcervical approach, and to compare our experiences with a recent systematic review of both open and endoscopic approaches to the pharyngeal pouch.
An audit yielded 41 consecutive cases of Zenker's diverticulum treated between 2003 and 2013.
All 41 patients underwent transcervical cricopharyngeal myotomy; 29 sacs also required ‘inversion’. The median and mean length of hospital stay was 1 night and 2.5 nights respectively. The recurrence rate was 2.4 per cent and the complication rate was 9.8 per cent.
When compared to reported endoscopic techniques, transcervical cricopharyngeal myotomy (with or without inversion) in our unit resulted in: shorter hospital stay, a comparable complication rate and fewer recurrences.
We aimed to reparameterize and validate an existing dengue model, comprising an entomological component (CIMSiM) and a disease component (DENSiM) for application in Malaysia. With the model we aimed to measure the effect of importation rate on dengue incidence, and to determine the potential impact of moderate climate change (a 1 °C temperature increase) on dengue activity. Dengue models (comprising CIMSiM and DENSiM) were reparameterized for a simulated Malaysian village of 10 000 people, and validated against monthly dengue case data from the district of Petaling Jaya in the state of Selangor. Simulations were also performed for 2008-2012 for variable virus importation rates (ranging from 1 to 25 per week) and dengue incidence determined. Dengue incidence in the period 2010–2012 was modelled, twice, with observed daily weather and with a 1 °C increase, the latter to simulate moderate climate change. Strong concordance between simulated and observed monthly dengue cases was observed (up to r = 0·72). There was a linear relationship between importation and incidence. However, a doubling of dengue importation did not equate to a doubling of dengue activity. The largest individual dengue outbreak was observed with the lowest dengue importation rate. Moderate climate change resulted in an overall decrease in dengue activity over a 3-year period, linked to high human seroprevalence early on in the simulation. Our results suggest that moderate reductions in importation with control programmes may not reduce the frequency of large outbreaks. Moderate increases in temperature do not necessarily lead to greater dengue incidence.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO), which will be launched onboard the
Lomonosov spacecraft, contains two crucial instruments: UFFO Burst
Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) for detection and localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts
(GRBs) and the fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) designed for the observation
of the prompt optical/UV counterparts. Here we discuss the in-space calibrations of the
UBAT detector and SMT telescope. After the launch, the observations of the standard X-ray
sources such as pulsar in Crab nebula will provide data for necessary calibrations of
UBAT. Several standard stars will be used for the photometric calibration of SMT. The
celestial X-ray sources, e.g. X-ray binaries with bright optical sources
in their close angular vicinity will serve for the cross-calibration of UBAT and SMT.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Pathfinder for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) consists
of two telescopes. The UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) handles the
detection and localization of GRBs, and the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) conducts the
measurement of the UV/optical afterglow. UBAT is equipped with an X-ray detector, analog
and digital signal readout electronics that detects X-rays from GRBs and determines the
location. SMT is equipped with a stepping motor and the associated electronics to rotate
the slewing mirror targeting the GRBs identified by UBAT. First the slewing mirror points
to a GRB, then SMT obtains the optical image of the GRB using the intensified CCD and its
readout electronics. The UFFO Data Acquisition system (UDAQ) is responsible for the
overall function and operation of the observatory and the communication with the satellite
main processor. In this paper we present the design and implementation of the electronics
of UBAT and SMT as well as the architecture and implementation of UDAQ.
One of the unexplored domains in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the early time
phase of the optical light curve. We have proposed Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) to
address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of small
space missions. The UFFO is equipped with a fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope that
uses a rapidly moving mirror or mirror array to redirect the optical beam rather than
slewing the entire spacecraft or telescope to aim the optical instrument at the GRB
position. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs with sub-second response, for
the first time, opening a completely new frontier in GRB and transient studies. Its fast
response measurements of the optical emission of dozens of GRB each year will provide
unique probes of the burst mechanism and test the prospect of GRB as a new standard
candle, potentially opening up the z > 10 universe. We describe the current limit in
early photon measurements, the aspects of early photon physics, our soon-to-be-launched
UFFO-pathfinder mission, and our next planned mission, the UFFO-100.
The UFFO (Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory) is a GRB detector on board the Lomonosov
satellite, to be launched in 2013. The GRB trigger is provided by an X-ray detector,
called UBAT (UFFO Burst Alarm & Trigger Telescope), which detects X-rays from the GRB
and then triggers to determine the direction of the GRB and then alerts the Slewing Mirror
Telescope (SMT) to turn in the direction of the GRB and record the optical photon fluxes.
This report details the calibration of the two components: the MAPMTs and the YSO crystals
and simulations of the UBAT. The results shows that this design can observe a GRB within a
field of view of ±35° and can trigger in a time scale as short as 0.2 – 1.0 s
after the appearance of a GRB X-ray spike.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space observatory for optical follow-ups of
gamma ray bursts (GRBs), aiming to explore the first 60 seconds of GRBs optical emission.
UFFO is utilized to catch early optical emissions from GRBs within few sec after trigger
using a Gimbal mirror which redirects the optical path rather than slewing entire
spacecraft. We have developed a 15 cm two-axis Gimbal mirror stage for the UFFO-Pathfinder
which is going to be on board the Lomonosov satellite which is to be launched in 2013. The
stage is designed for fast and accurate motion with given budgets of 3 kg of mass and 3
Watt of power. By employing stepping motors, the slewing mirror can rotate faster than 15
deg/sec so that objects in the UFFO coverage (60 deg × 60 deg) can be targeted in
~1 sec. The obtained targeting resolution is better 2 arcmin using a close-loop
control with high precision rotary encoder. In this presentation, we will discuss details
of design, manufacturing, space qualification tests, as well as performance tests.