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The Middle Upper Palaeolithic (MUP) in eastern Central Europe (ECE) comprises three variants of Gravettian culture: Early Gravettian, Pavlovian, and Late Gravettian. While Early Gravettian and Pavlovian are merely located in Lower Austria and Moravia, the Late Gravettian occupations occurred over the entire territory of ECE. Compared to the number of sites the radiocarbon dating and the absolute chronology of the Late Gravettian is rather poor. The results presented here bring a new set of radiocarbon (14C) dates for the Late Gravettian period in ECE and propose that this period began and ended earlier than previously suggested.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Compound heterozygotes occur when different variants at the same locus on both maternal and paternal chromosomes produce a recessive trait. Here we present the tool VarCount for the quantification of variants at the individual level. We used VarCount to characterize compound heterozygous coding variants in patients with epileptic encephalopathy and in the 1000 Genomes Project participants. The Epi4k data contains variants identified by whole exome sequencing in patients with either Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) or infantile spasms (IS), as well as their parents. We queried the Epi4k dataset (264 trios) and the phased 1000 Genomes Project data (2504 participants) for recessive variants. To assess enrichment, transcript counts were compared between the Epi4k and 1000 Genomes Project participants using minor allele frequency (MAF) cutoffs of 0.5 and 1.0%, and including all ancestries or only probands of European ancestry. In the Epi4k participants, we found enrichment for rare, compound heterozygous variants in six genes, including three involved in neuronal growth and development – PRTG (p = 0.00086, 1% MAF, combined ancestries), TNC (p = 0.022, 1% MAF, combined ancestries) and MACF1 (p = 0.0245, 0.5% MAF, EU ancestry). Due to the total number of transcripts considered in these analyses, the enrichment detected was not significant after correction for multiple testing and higher powered or prospective studies are necessary to validate the candidacy of these genes. However, PRTG, TNC and MACF1 are potential novel recessive epilepsy genes and our results highlight that compound heterozygous variants should be considered in sporadic epilepsy.
Neutron powder diffraction techniques have been used to characterize the pseudo-macro (PM) residual stresses in ZrO2(CeO2)/Al2O3 ceramic composites as a function of ZrO2(CeO2) volume fraction and fabrication procedures. The diffraction data were analyzed using the Rietveld structure refinement technique. From the refinement, we found that the CeO2 stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 particles were in tension and the Al2O3 matrix was in compression. Different sintering time had little impact on the PM stresses. On the other hand, the magnitude of the PM stresses in both ZrO2 and Al2O3 decreased linearly with the increase of their volume fractions.
An engineer's viewpoint on psychiatry asks: What are the failure modes that underlie psychiatric dysfunction? And: How can we modify the system? Psychiatry has made great strides in understanding and treating disorders using biology; however, failure modes and modification access points can also exist extrinsically in environmental interactions. The network analysis suggested by Borsboom et al. in the target article provides a new viewpoint that should be incorporated into current theoretical constructs, not placed in opposition to them.
The Neognathodus Index (NI) is developed as a primary biostratigraphic indicator for the Desmoinesian Series of the Illinois Basin in Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky. It is based on the gradual evolutionary morphotypic variations of P1 elements of named species of Neognathodus Dunn, 1970. The NI analyses and zonations presented herein are constructed from 472 productive conodont samples from 105 different localities. NIs for the Illinois Basin show morphologic drift in Indiana from the Perth Limestone Member of the Staunton Formation (NI = 2.03) to the Velpen Limestone and Mecca Quarry Shale members of the Linton Formation (NI = 5.04) followed by stability through the Alum Cave (NI = 4.83). Further morphologic drift then occurred through the Providence Limestone Member of the Dugger Formation (NI = 5.43) and continued through the West Franklin Limestone Member of the Shelburn Formation (NI = 6.32) until the extinction of Neognathodus at the end of Desmoinesian. The patterns of drift and stability translate to Neognathodus biozones and are supported by Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests of standardized Neognathodus morphotype distributions. Localized NI variations are due to morphologic shifts and differential evolution in response to localized environmental conditions. Examination of the NI differences in the states of Illinois, Kentucky, and Indiana reflect similar morphologic simplification of the P1 element from Perth to Velpen and Mecca Quarry in Indiana (NI = 2.03–5.04) and from Seville to Brereton in Illinois and Kentucky (NI = 2.80–5.00). Post-Brereton in Illinois and Kentucky (NI = 5.00–5.65) and post-Providence in Indiana (NI = 5.43–6.32) saw progressive P1 simplification, but it was much more pronounced in Indiana.
The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) measures three aspects of catastrophic cognitions about pain—rumination, magnification, and helplessness. To facilitate assessment and clinical application, we aimed to (a) develop a short version on the basis of its factorial structure and the items’ correlations with key pain-related outcomes, and (b) identify the threshold on the short form indicative of risk for depression.
Social centers for older people.
664 Chinese older adults with chronic pain.
Besides the PCS, pain intensity, pain disability, and depressive symptoms were assessed.
For the full scale, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the hypothesized 3-factor model fit the data moderately well. On the basis of the factor loadings, two items were selected from each of the three dimensions. An additional item significantly associated with pain disability and depressive symptoms, over and above these six items, was identified through regression analyses. A short-PCS composed of seven items was formed, which correlated at r=0.97 with the full scale. Subsequently, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted against clinically significant depressive symptoms, defined as a score of ≥12 on a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. This analysis showed a score of ≥7 to be the optimal cutoff for the short-PCS, with sensitivity = 81.6% and specificity = 78.3% when predicting clinically significant depressive symptoms.
The short-PCS may be used in lieu of the full scale and as a brief screen to identify individuals with serious catastrophizing.
Environmental and biological factors contribute to sleep development during infancy. Parenting plays a particularly important role in modulating infant sleep, potentially via the serotonin system, which is itself involved in regulating infant sleep. We hypothesized that maternal neglect and serotonin system dysregulation would be associated with daytime sleep in infant rhesus monkeys. Subjects were nursery-reared infant rhesus macaques (n = 287). During the first month of life, daytime sleep-wake states were rated bihourly (0800–2100). Infants were considered neglected (n = 16) if before nursery-rearing, their mother repeatedly failed to retrieve them. Serotonin transporter genotype and concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were used as markers of central serotonin system functioning. t tests showed that neglected infants were observed sleeping less frequently, weighed less, and had higher 5-HIAA than non-neglected nursery-reared infants. Regression revealed that serotonin transporter genotype moderated the relationship between 5-HIAA and daytime sleep: in subjects possessing the Ls genotype, there was a positive correlation between 5-HIAA and daytime sleep, whereas in subjects possessing the LL genotype there was no association. These results highlight the pivotal roles that parents and the serotonin system play in sleep development. Daytime sleep alterations observed in neglected infants may partially derive from serotonin system dysregulation.
Belomarinaite, ideally KNaSO4, is a new sulfate mineral discovered in the Toludskoe lava field, formed during the 2012–2013 Tolbachik Fissure eruption. The mineral occurs as arborescent aggregates of tabular crystals (1 mm × 0.3 mm × 0.1 mm) comprising hematite impurities. The average size of the aggregates is 0.5–0.7 mm. The empirical formula is (K0.95Na0.92Cu0.04)Σ1.91S1.01O4. The crystal structure of belomarinaite was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data; the space group is P3m1, a = 5.6072(3), c = 7.1781(4) Å, V = 195.45(2) Å3, Z = 2 and R1 = 2.6%. In the crystal structure of belomarinaite, there are six cation sites: the S1 and S2 sites are occupied by S, the Na and K sites are occupied by Na and K, respectively, giving Na0.5K0.5 apfu and the M1 and M2 sites are occupied by Na0.78K0.22 and K0.78Na0.22 apfu, respectively. The crystal structure is a framework of SO4 tetrahedra, Na octahedra and K, M1 and M2 polyhedra. Belomarinaite is isostructural with the synthetic compound KNaSO4. In belomarinaite, Na and K are disordered over M1 and M2 sites; in its synthetic analogue, Na and K are ordered over M1 and M2 sites, respectively. The Mohs’ hardness is 2–3. The mineral is uniaxial (+), with ω = 1.485(3) and ε = 1.488(3) (λ = 589 nm). The strongest lines of the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 4.022(31)(101); 3.591(26)(002); 2.884(74)(102); 2.800(100)(110); 2.391(16)(003); 2.296(8)201; 2.008(38)(022); and 1.634(10)(212). The mineral was named in honour of Russian volcanologist Marina Gennadievna Belousova (b. 1960) for her significant contributions to the monitoring of the Tolbachik Fissure eruption.