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To investigate the possible associations between the food environment and dietary intake in the Mexican population.
Four databases (PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Science and SCIelo) were used to retrieve relevant articles using an open timeframe. Articles were reviewed if they contained a systematic measure (i.e. food checklist) of the food environment (e.g. food availability) and dietary intake.
Urban and rural communities in Mexico.
Population-based studies of Mexican communities.
Twenty studies that assessed at least one food environment level, and at least one dietary outcome, were reviewed. Findings from these studies showed that changes in the Mexican food environment seem to be associated with higher availability of energy-dense foods. Energy-dense foods can be linked to a high consumption in household, environment and community food environments. When both nutrient-dense and energy-dense foods were present, individuals were more likely to consume foods with added sugars, fats and salt options than nutrient-dense items.
The various levels of the food environment (i.e. household, school, community) exposed participants to energy-dense foods. Although nutrient-dense foods were present in all three levels, individuals were more likely to consume energy-dense food items. Not all three levels of the food environment are well represented in the urban and rural settings. Most studies on the community food environment were done in rural areas, whereas most studies on the school food environment were done in urban settings. Additional rigorously designed studies are needed to document the relationship between the food environment and dietary intake in the Mexican population.
Exercise modifies energy intake (EI) in adolescents with obesity, but whether this is mediated by the exercise-induced energy deficit remains unknown. The present study examined the effect of exercise with and without dietary replacement of the exercise energy expenditure on appetite, EI and food reward in adolescents with obesity. Fourteen 12–15-year-old adolescents with obesity (eight girls; Tanner 3–4; BMI 34·8 (sd 5·7) kg/m2; BMI z score 2·3 (sd 0·4)) randomly completed three experimental conditions: (i) rest control (CON); (ii) 30-min cycling (EX) and (iii) 30-min cycling with dietary energy replacement (EX + R). Ad libitum EI was assessed at lunch and dinner, and food reward (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire) before and after lunch. Appetite was assessed at regular intervals. Lunch, evening and total EI (excluding the post-exercise snack in EX − R) were similar across conditions. Lunch and total EI including the post-exercise snack in EX + R were higher in EX − R than CON and EX; EX and CON were similar. Total relative EI was lower in EX (6284 (sd 2042) kJ) compared with CON (7167 (sd 2218) kJ; P < 0·05) and higher in EX + R (7736 (sd 2033) kJ) compared with CON (P < 0·001). Appetite and satiety quotients did not differ across conditions (P ≥ 0·10). Pre-meal explicit liking for fat was lower in EX compared with CON and EX + R (P = 0·05). There was time by condition interaction between EX and CON for explicit wanting and liking for fat (P = 0·01). Despite similar appetite and EI, adolescents with obesity do not adapt their post-exercise food intake to account for immediate dietary replacement of the exercise-induced energy deficit, favouring a short-term positive energy balance.
With still limited information on vitamin requirements and considering that many commercial practices adopt dietary vitamin levels above the values suggested by nutritional tables, this study aimed to assess the effect of administering vitamin supplementation to sows in gestation and lactation and to their litters on the reproductive performance and body condition of the sows and on the performance and immune profile of the litters until slaughter. The trial was split into two phases. The first phase used 104 sows, assigned to be randomized to blocks according to parity, submitted until 21 days of lactation to two treatments: control–standard (standard levels of vitamins) and test–elevated (elevated levels of vitamins). Each sow and its respective farrow were considered an experimental unit. The sows underwent evaluations of body condition score, back fat thickness and reproductive performance. In the second phase, 60 barrows and 60 gilts at 21 days of age and mean initial weight of 5.33 ± 1.5 kg until slaughter at 164 days of age. The piglets were assigned to randomized blocks according to the weight and sex of the animals in a 2 × 2 factorial model, with 10 replicates per treatment, where a pen with three animals represented the experimental unit. Following the same treatments of the first phase, the piglets were evaluated for daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate and humoral immune response. Vitamin supplementation had no positive effects on the reproductive parameters or body composition of sows. However, it positively impacted the performance of the litters in the early nursery stage, but did not lead to superior effects on the immune responses to vaccination against circovirus or mycoplasma.
Many school-based interventions for obesity prevention have been proposed with positive changes in behaviour, but with unsatisfactory results on weight change. The objective was to verify the effectiveness of a combined school- and home-based obesity prevention programme on excessive weight gain in adolescents. Teachers delivered the school-based primary prevention programme to fifth- and sixth-graders (nine schools, forty-eight control classes, forty-nine intervention classes), which included encouraging healthy eating habits and physical activity. A subgroup of overweight or obese adolescents also received a home-based secondary prevention programme delivered by community health professionals. Schools were randomised to intervention or control group. Intent-to-treat analysis used mixed models for repeated continuous measures and considered the cluster effect. The main outcomes were changes in BMI and percentage body fat (%body fat) after one school-year of intervention and follow-up. Against our hypothesis, BMI increased more in the intervention group than in the control group (Δ = 0·3 kg/m2; P = 0·05) with a greater decrease in %body fat among boys (Δ = –0·6 %; P = 0·03) in the control group. The intervention group increased physical activity by 12·5 min per week compared with the control group. Female adolescents in the intervention group ate healthier items more frequently than in the control group. The subgroup that received both the school and home interventions had an increase in %body fat than in the control group (Δ = 0·89 %; P = 0·01). In the present study, a behavioural change led to a small increase in physical activity and healthy eating habits but also to an overall increase in food intake.
Vitamins play an essential role in broiler nutrition. They are fundamental for normal metabolic and physiological process, and their requirements for poultry are not fixed and can be affected by multiple factors. In contrast, mycotoxins are a challenging issue because they hinder performance and the immune system. Vitamin supplementation above minimum requirements would permit improvement in productive potential, health, bone and meat quality in a situation of mycotoxin challenge. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of optimum vitamin nutrition in diets contaminated with aflatoxin in broilers from 1 to 44 days of age. A total of 1800 Cobb 500 male chicks were randomized to 15 sets of eight treatment groups, each containing 15 birds using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design (commercial vitamin levels and high vitamin levels, two levels of aflatoxin – 0 and 0.5 ppm with binder levels of 0 and 10 000 mg/kg). The mash diets were corn and soybean meal based, formulated according to commercial practices. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were analyzed for birds from 1 to 44 days of age. To determine carcass characteristics (carcass yield, breast yield and leg yield) and black bone syndrome, two birds were slaughtered from each group at 45 days. Other analyses included breast tenderness, water loss by dripping and malonaldehyde concentrations. The results demonstrated that broilers that were fed high levels of vitamins showed better weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield and breast yield than broilers that were fed diets with commercial vitamin levels (P < 0.05); also, broilers that were fed diets containing 0.5 ppm aflatoxin had lower weight gain, carcass yield and breast yield (P < 0.05). The use of 10 000 mg/kg of binder improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion throughout the rearing period. We conclude that aflatoxin negatively affects performance and carcass yield; however, feeding optimum vitamin nutrition improved these performance traits.
Differences in forage nutritive value between morning and afternoon are related to patterns of dehydration and carbohydrate accumulation throughout the day. In this way, management strategies that maximize grazing time during the afternoon could increase forage nutritive value and consequently nutrient intake. The aim of the current experiment was to evaluate the effect of the time of day (06.00 h [designated AM] or 15.00 h [PM]) that cattle are moved to a new paddock on forage nutritive value, grazing behaviour and animal performance of beef cattle on rotationally stocked Marandu palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu Syn. Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu) pastures. A spring and summer study was conducted in Pirassununga, SP, Brazil from October 2012 to March 2013 (182 days). Treatments were distributed in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Herbage mass, morphological composition, herbage allowance and stocking rates were similar between treatments during spring and summer. Moving animals to a new paddock, regardless of the time of day – 06.00 h (AM) or 15.00 h (PM) – stimulated grazing, modifying the distribution of meals throughout the day. However, compensatory mechanisms among grazing time, bite rate and forage nutritive value throughout the day operated in order to generate similar performance between animals offered a new paddock in the morning or in the afternoon.
Intake, digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, microbial protein synthesis, weight gain, yields of the main commercial cuts and carcass morphometric measurements were evaluated in lambs fed diets containing different levels of chitosan. Sixty Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an average body weight (BW) of 24 ± 2.2 kg were assigned to three treatments (diets containing 0, 136 or 272 mg chitosan/kg BW) in a completely randomized design. There was no effect of chitosan on dry matter (DM) intake. Ingested and retained N showed a quadratic response, with the highest values estimated at the chitosan levels of 142 and 152 mg/kg BW, respectively. Similar to N balance, microbial protein synthesis showed the same quadratic response, in which the level of 136 mg/kg BW resulted in higher synthesis when compared with the other levels. No effect of chitosan was detected on average daily gain, final weight, or carcass variables (hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, yield of commercial cuts and morphometric measurements of the carcass). Conformation, visceral fat content and fatness of carcasses were also not altered by the use of chitosan. Chitosan improves the digestibility of DM, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre, and increases N balance and microbial protein synthesis but does not change the production performance of feedlot lambs.
TorsinA is a member of the AAA+ superfamily of adenosine triphosphatases. These AAA+ proteins have numerous biological functions, including vesicle fusion, cytoskeleton dynamics, intracellular trafficking, protein folding, and degradation as well as organelle biogenesis. Of particular interest is torsinA, which is mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope (NE). Interestingly, mutations in the TOR1A gene (the gene encoding torsinA) are associated with DYT1 dystonia and with the preferential localization of mutated torsinA at the NE, where it is associated with lamina-associated polypeptide 1. A bioinformatics study of the torsinA interactome revealed reproductive processes to be highly relevant, as proteins in this class were found to interact with the former. Interestingly, the torsin protein family had never been previously described to be associated with the mammalian spermatogenic process. Histological staining of torsinA in human testis tissue revealed a granular cytoplasmic localization in mid- and late spermatocytes. We further sought to understand this newly discovered expression of torsinA in the meiotic phase of human spermatogenesis by studying its specific subcellular distribution. TorsinA is not present in the ER as commonly described. The proposal that torsinA might relocate to the pro-acrosomal vesicles in the Golgi apparatus is discussed.
Using abundances from the available largest, homogeneous sample of high resolution Barium (Ba) star spectra we calculated the ratios of different hs-like to ls-like elemental ratios and compared to different AGB nucleosynthesis models. The Ba star data show an incontestable increase of the hs-type/ls-type element ratio (for example, [Ce/Y]) with decreasing metallicity. This trend in the Ba star observations is predicted by low mass, non-rotating AGB models where 13C is the main neutron source and is in agreement with Kepler asteroseismology observations.
Forage is the primary feed source for livestock in tropical regions and energy is one of the most important nutrients for ruminant nutrition. The effects of harvest management of Marandu palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu Syn. Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu) on non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations were evaluated. A plot (Experiment 1) and a greenhouse study (Experiment 2) were conducted in 2013–14. In Experiment 1, treatments were the factorial arrangement of two harvest times and two vertical canopy layers (upper and intermediate), distributed in a completely randomized design with five replicates. In Experiment 2, treatments were the factorial arrangement of six harvest times and two morphological fractions (leaf blade and pseudostem). In both experiments, NSC concentration increased during the day. Upper and intermediate canopy layers had greater NSC concentration at 15.00 than 06.00 h during spring and summer. In addition, the magnitude of NSC increase was greater in the upper than intermediate canopy layer and in spring than summer. Marandu palisade grass shows greater digestibility in the afternoon than morning, representing an opportunity to optimize energy concentration through harvest management.
Forage cactus is an important dry-season feed source for livestock in semi-arid regions, but in north-eastern Brazil, its contribution is limited by susceptibility to the carmine cochineal [Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell)] insect. New cactus germplasm shows superior agronomic performance, but the nutritive value of this material has not been adequately described. The objective of the current study was to assess the divergence in chemical composition and rate and extent of in vitro degradation of these genotypes. The treatments were 13 spineless cactus genotypes, eight of which were insect resistant types, two semi-resistant and three susceptible to the carmine cochineal. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design and were replicated three times. Nutritional divergence was assessed using canonical variate analysis and hierarchical agglomerative clustering, using the variables: crude protein, total and non-fibrous carbohydrates, degradation rate and potential dry matter degradation. Five distinct nutritional groups were identified: Group I (OO), Group II (F-13 and F-15), Group III (OEA, OEM, COP, IPA 20 and GG), Group IV (V-16 and F-08) and Group V (Miuda, IS and F-21). Group II (F-13 and F-15; resistant genotypes) showed a chemical composition degradability in vitro suggesting it may have the greatest nutritive value as ruminant feed, while Group I had the least. Spineless cactus genotypes resistant to the carmine cochineal showed nutritional characteristics similar to or better than traditionally used cactus genotypes, such as Gigante and IPA 20, which can expand the range of options for using this forage.
This study evaluated the effects of diet containing taro flour on hormone levels and the seminiferous tubules morphology of rats. After weaning, the male rats were divided into two groups (n=12 each): control group (CG) treated with control diet and taro group (TG), fed with 25% taro flour for 90 days. Food, caloric intake, mass and body length were evaluated at experiment end. Testis followed the standard histological processing. Immunostaining was performed using an anti-vimentin antibody to identify Sertoli cells. In histomorphometry, total diameter, total area, epithelial height, luminal height and luminal area were analyzed. The testosterone levels were performed using the radioimmunoassay method. Group TG presented (P<0.05): increase in mass, body length, testicular weight, histomorphometric parameters and hormonal levels. Food intake, calorie and Sertoli cells not presented statistical differences. The taro promoted increase in the testicles parameters and hormones.
The present study aimed to (i) assess the appetitive drives evoked by the visual cues of ultra-processed food and drink products and (ii) investigate whether text warnings reduce appetitive drives and consumers’ reported intentions to eat or drink ultra-processed products.
In Study I, a well-established psychometric tool was applied to estimate the appetitive drives associated with ultra-processed products using sixty-four image representations. Sixteen product types with four exemplars of a given product were included. Pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) served as controls. The two exemplars of each product type rated as more appetitive were selected for investigation in the second study. Study II assessed the impact of textual warnings on the appetitive drive towards these thirty-two exemplars. Each participant was exposed to two picture exemplars of the same product type preceded by a text warning or a control text. After viewing each displayed picture, the participants reported their emotional reactions and their intention to consume the product.
Controlled classroom experiments
Undergraduate students (Study I: n 215, 135 women; Study II: n 98, 52 women).
In Study I, the pictures of ultra-processed products prompted an appetitive motivation associated with the products’ nutritional content. In Study II, text warnings were effective in reducing the intention to consume and the appetitive drive evoked by ultra-processed products.
This research provides initial evidence favouring the use of text warnings as a public policy tool to curb the powerful influence of highly appetitive ultra-processed food cues.
The present study aimed to describe the reproductive cycle and estimate the size at sexual maturity of the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) in the Tagus Estuary (Portugal). Specimens were collected monthly from September 2013 to December 2015 during fishing surveys using bivalve dredges. The gametogenic cycle was described in detail using gonad histology and monitored throughout the study period by the monthly variation in the frequency of gonad maturation stages, mean gonadal index and mean oocyte diameter. This invasive population of R. philippinarum displayed synchronous gonadal development between sexes, with ripening occurring mainly in April and May followed by an extensive spawning period until November–December. Individuals reached the size at first sexual maturity at 29.4 mm in shell length (i.e. before 1 year old). Furthermore, the reproductive strategy, dynamics and potential were compared between the invasive R. philippinarum and the native congeneric carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus). Overall, the data gathered in this study constitutes valuable baseline information to propose conservation strategies and implement management measures to minimize the harmful impacts caused by this invasive species on local ecosystems and native biodiversity, particularly over populations of autochthonous bivalves.
In this study, we isolate and analyse a new set of microsatellite loci for Cattleya walkeriana. Twenty-two primer pairs were screened for C. walkeriana (n = 32) and assessed for their transferability to Cattleya loddigesii (n = 12) and Cattleya nobilior (n = 06). All loci amplified for C. walkeriana; however, for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior, four and five primers, respectively, did not present amplification. The polymorphic loci presented between 2 and 13 alleles per locus for both C. walkeriana and C. loddigesii, with respective averages of 5.1 and 4.2. For C. nobilior, we found between two and five alleles per locus, with an average of 2.6. For C. walkeriana, observed heterozygosity varied from 0.100 to 0.966, whereas expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.097 to 0.900. The observed and expected heterozygosity for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior were also estimated. We found no significant linkage disequilibrium between any pair of loci, and evidence of null alleles at four loci (Cw16, Cw24, Cw30 and Cw31) for C. walkeriana. The combined power to exclude the first parent and combined non-exclusion probability of identity were 0.999 and 2.3 × 10−20, respectively. These new loci can be used in studies of germplasm resources, and assessments of genotypic and genetic diversity and population structure, thus improving the accuracy of such analyses and their applicability in the conservation and protection of these endangered species.
Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum have been associated with genital infections. The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of ureaplasmas and other sexually transmitted infections in sexually active women from Brazil and relate these data to demographic and sexual health, and cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β. Samples of cervical swab of 302 women were examined at the Family Health Units in Vitória da Conquista. The frequency of detection by conventional PCR was 76·2% for Mollicutes. In qPCR, the frequency found was 16·6% for U. urealyticum and 60·6% U. parvum and the bacterial load of these microorganisms was not significantly associated with signs and symptoms of genital infection. The frequency found for Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Chlamydia trachomatis was 3·0%, 21·5%, 42·4% and 1·7%, respectively. Higher levels of IL-1β were associated with control women colonized by U. urealyticum and U. parvum. Increased levels of IL-6 were associated with women who exhibited U. parvum. Sexually active women, with more than one sexual partner in the last 3 months, living in a rural area were associated with increased odds of certain U. parvum serovar infection.
The research about the benefits of early diagnosis and treatment of first-episode psychosis had significantly increased in last decades. There have been several early intervention programs in psychotic disease, implemented worldwide, in order to improve the prognosis of these psychotic patients.
To present a brief description of the first-episode psychosis intervention team of Tondela-Viseu Hospital Centre–Portugal and its model. We aim to further characterize our population and describe its evolution since 2008.
We aim to clarify the benefits of an early intervention in psychosis.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients being followed by our team from November 2008 to September 2016. Demographic and medical data were collected (such as diagnosis, duration of untreated psychosis, treatments and its clinical effectiveness, relapse rate and hospital admissions) in patient's clinical records. The intervention model protocol of this team was also described and analyzed.
This multidisciplinary team consists of three psychiatrists, one child Psychiatrist, one psychologist and five reference therapists (areas of nursing, social service and occupational therapy). It includes patients diagnosed with first-episode psychosis, aged 16 to 42 years old, followed for five years. The team followed, since its foundation, 123 patients, mostly male. The most prevalent diagnosis are schizophrenia and schizophreniform psychosis. The team is currently following 51 patients.
This team's intervention have progressively assumed a more relevant importance in the prognosis of patients with first-episode psychosis, by reducing the duration of untreated psychosis, the relapse rate and by promoting social reintegration.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
College students are known for their variable sleep schedules. Such schedules, along with other common student practices are associated with poor sleep hygiene. The persistence of the precipitating stressor is one of the factors involved in the persistence of insomnia.
To examine the role of the perceived stress, perseverative thinking, strategies of cognitive emotion regulation and negative affect as predictors of sleep difficulties.
The sample comprises 549 college students.
PSS-10, PTQ, CERQ and POMS-58. Three questions were used to access difficulties in initiating sleep (DIS), maintaining sleep (DMS) and early morning wakening (EMA). A Sleep Difficulties Index (SDI) was calculated by summing DIS, DMS and EMA scores.
In total sample, the multiple linear regression explained 27.7% of the SDI total variance (R2 = .277, F(9, 375) = 15,942, P < .0001). The significant predictors of the total variance of SDI were perceived distress (B = .246, P = .0001), repetitive thought (B = .189, P = .005), cognitive interference and unproductiveness (B = −.188, P = .006), rumination (B = .130, P = .044) and negative affect (B = .156, P = .018).
Preventive interventions focused on predictor factors (perceived stress, perseverative thinking, rumination and negative affect) should be considered in order to promote better mental health in college students.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The F-Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale is a widely used instrument to assess perfectionism trait. The original scale comprises 35-items that measure the six dimensions of Frost et al (1990) conceptualization of perfectionism: personal standards (PS), concern over mistakes (CM), doubts about actions (DA), parental criticism (PC), Parental expectations (PE) and Organization (O).
To examine the factor structure of the 24-items short form of the F-MPS using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), in a sample of Portuguese university students.
The sample comprises 344 university students (68.4% females), with an average age of 20.69 years (SD = 1.59; range = 17–24). They completed a version of F-MPS with 24 items that results from the selection of the four items with highest loadings in the respective six dimensions of the original Portuguese version (Amaral et al., 2013).
After correlated errors, we obtained a good fit for the FMPS with six factors (X2/df = 2.125; CFI = .936; GFI = .891, RMSEA = .057; P[rmsea≤ .05] = .043). The 24-item F-MPS short form revealed good internal consistency (α = .825). The six dimensions showed acceptable or good internal consistency, as revealed by Cronbach's alpha (α: PS = .80; CM = .76; DA = .82; PC = .84; PE = .89, O = .85).
The F-MPS 24 items short form CFA confirmed the six factor model as a reliable and valid measure to assess multidimensional perfectionism in Portuguese university students.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In the context of untimely access to community formal services, unmet needs of persons with dementia (PwD) and their carers may compromise their quality of life.
The Actifcare EU-JPND project (www.actifcare.eu) focuses on access to and (non) utilization of dementia formal care in eight countries (The Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Ireland, Italy, Portugal), as related to unmet needs and quality of life. Evaluations included systematic reviews, qualitative explorations, and a European cohort study (PwD in early/intermediate phases and their primary carers; n = 453 days; 1 year follow-up). Preliminary Portuguese results are presented here (FCT-JPND-HC/0001/2012).
(1) extensive systematic searches on access to/utilization of services; (2) focus groups of PwD, carers and health/social professionals; (3) prospective study (n = 66 days from e.g., primary care, hospital outpatient services, Alzheimer Portugal).
In Portugal, nationally representative data is scarce regarding health/social services utilization in dementia. There are important barriers to access to community services, according to users, carers and professionals, whose views not always coincide. The Portuguese cohort participants were 66 PwD (62.1% female, 77.3 ± 6.2 years, 55.5% Alzheimer's/mixed subtypes, MMSE 17.8 ± 4.8, CDR1 89.4%) and 66 carers (66.7% female, 64.9 ± 15.0 years, 56.1% spouses), with considerable unmet needs in some domains.
All Actifcare milestones are being reached. The consortium is now analyzing international differences in (un) timely access to services and its impact on quality of life and needs for care (e.g., formal community support is weaker in Portugal than in many European countries). National best-practice recommendations in dementia are also in preparation.
Abstract submitted on behalf of the Actifcare Eu-JPND consortium.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.