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The loss of natural habitats is a major threat to biodiversity, and protected area designation is one of the standard responses to this threat. However, greater understanding of the drivers of habitat loss and of the circumstances under which protected areas succeed or fail is still needed. We use visual assessment of satellite images to quantify land-cover change over periods of up to 30 years in and around a matched sample of protected and unprotected Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) in Africa. We modelled the annual survival of forests and other natural land covers as a function of a range of environmental and anthropic predictors of plausible drivers. The best-supported model indicated that survival rates of natural land cover were highest in steeper areas, at higher altitudes, in areas with lower human population densities and in areas where the cover of natural habitats was already higher at the start of the period. Survival rates of natural land cover in protected areas were, on average, around twice those in unprotected areas, but the differences between them varied along different environmental gradients. The overall survival rates of both protected and unprotected forests were significantly lower than those of other natural land-cover types, but the net benefit of protection, in terms of the absolute difference in rates of loss between protected and unprotected sites, was higher in forests. Interaction terms indicated that as slope and altitude increased, the natural protection offered by topography increasingly nullified the additional benefits of legislative protection. Furthermore, protected area designation offered reduced additional benefits to the survival of natural land cover in areas where rates of conversion were higher at the start of the observation period. Variation in the impacts of protected area status along different environmental gradients indicates that targets to improve the world's protected area network, such as Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity, need to look beyond simple area-based metrics. Our methods and results contribute to the development of a protocol for prioritizing places where protection is likely to have the greatest effect.
The mechanical behavior of superconductor lamellar-like BaFe2As2 single crystals was investigated at nanoscale by instrumented indentation. The unique responses of the ab- and a(b)c-crystallographic planes were discussed based on their influence in hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E). The results allowed two main conclusions. (i) The choice of testing parameters strongly affected the scaling of mechanical properties on the lamellar surfaces. Lamellar cracking was the leading mechanism of deformation, featuring a brittle-like behavior and affecting considerably H and E. However, the plastic deformation history allowed different elastic–plastic responses on the ab-plane owing to the compaction of the material. Threshold loads for cracking depended on both loading rate and penetration velocity, pointing out to time-dependent plastic deformation mechanisms. (ii) Proper estimates were achieved for H in multiple loading tests [3.4 GPa for ab- and ∼1 GPa for a(b)c-planes], and for E under loads less than 3 mN (∼55 GPa for both planes).
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
The deposition of in-situ YBa2CU3O7-δ Superconducting films on polycrystalline diamond thin films has been demonstrated for the first time. Three different composite buffer layer systems have been explored for this purpose: (1) Diamond/Zr/YSZ/YBCO, (2) Diamond/Si3N4/YSZ/YBCO, and (3) Diamond/SiO2/YSZ/YBCO. The Zr was deposited by dc sputtering on the diamond films at 450 to 820 °C. The YSZ was deposited by reactive on-axis rf sputtering at 680 to 750 °C. The Si3N4 and SiO2 were also deposited by on-axis rf sputtering at 400 to 700 °C. YBCO films were grown on the buffer layers by off-axis rf sputtering at substrate temperatures between 690 °C and 750 °C. In all cases, the as-deposited YBCO films were superconducting above 77 K. This demonstration enables the fabrication of low heat capacity, fast response time bolometric IR detectors and paves the way for the use of HTSC on diamond for interconnect layers in multichip modules.
The interaction of the diamond (100) surface with pure CH4 and CF4 gases was investigated as a function of temperature and total gas exposure. We found that sp2 carbon does not form on the diamond (100) surface after exposures of up to lO9L of CH4 or 106 L of CF4 in a UHV system over the range of temperatures from room temperature to 900°C. When a high energy electron beam (5keV) intersected the path of the impinging gas or the diamond surface was exposed to a high energy electron beam before gas exposures, sp2 carbon was not produced at levels detectable by Auger spectroscopy. However, sp2 carbon was formed when the gas exposure was coincident with the electron beam on the diamond surface. The mechanisms responsible for these observations are discussed.
We report a set of CH4 pyrolysis experiments in a UHV system on diamond surfaces having varying degrees of surface roughness or perfection. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) were used to examine the formation of graphite and the resulting surface morphologies. A (100) type Ha natural diamond having 3 sputtered craters on the surface was used as the substrate, sp2 carbon was formed preferentially on the structurally defective crater surfaces after ∼3×1010 L of CH4 exposure at 900°C, whereas essentially no sp2 carbon was found on the flat portions of the diamond surface. Similar experiments were also carried out on a polycrystalline CVD diamond film and sp2 carbon was formed on that surface afte ∼4×109 L of CH4 exposure at 900°C. These results indicate that structural defects on diamond surfaces are a crucial factor in the preferential nucleation of sp2 carbon during CH4 pyrolysis.
A system to grow heteroepitaxial thin-films of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes on single crystal substrates was developed. The cathode composition investigated was 20% strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on single crystal (111) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. By combining electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy XAS measurements, we conclude that electrically driven cation migration away from the two-phase gas-cathode interface results in improved electrochemical performance. Our results provide support to the premise that the removal of surface passivating phases containing Sr2+ and Mn2+, which readily form at elevated temperatures even in O2 atmospheric pressures, is responsible for the improved cathodic performance upon application of a bias.
Cognitive biases, especially jumping to conclusions (JTC), are ascribed a vital role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This study set out to explore motivational factors for JTC using a newly developed paradigm.
Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients and 32 healthy controls were shown 15 classical paintings, divided into three blocks. Four alternative titles (one correct and three lure titles) had to be appraised according to plausibility (0–10). Optionally, participants could decide for one option and reject one or more alternatives. In random order across blocks, anxiety-evoking music, happy music or no music was played in the background.
Patients with schizophrenia, particularly those with delusions, made more decisions than healthy subjects. In line with the liberal acceptance (LA) account of schizophrenia, the decision threshold was significantly lowered in patients relative to controls. Patients were also more prone than healthy controls to making a decision when the distance between the first and second best alternative was close. Furthermore, implausible alternatives were judged as significantly more plausible by patients. Anxiety-evoking music resulted in more decisions in currently deluded patients relative to non-deluded patients and healthy controls.
The results confirm predictions derived from the LA account and assert that schizophrenia patients decide hastily under conditions of continued uncertainty. The fact that mood induction did not exert an overall effect could be due to the explicit nature of the manipulation, which might have evoked strategies to counteract their influence.
It is in vain for me to run into a collection of stories, where the variety is infinite, and things vary as every particular man's circumstances vary …. my business is not preaching, I am making observations and reflections, let those make enlargements who read it.
Serious Reflections of Robinson Crusoe, pp. 213–14
The just application of every incident … must legitimate all the part that may be called invention or parable in the story.
Preface to Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, p. vii
Let the Naturalists explain these Things, and the Reason and Manner of them; all I can say to them, is, to describe the Fact.
Robinson Crusoe, p. 188
Should we … say nothing of God is to be understood, because we cannot understand it? or that nothing in Nature is intelligible but what we can understand? Who can understand the reason, and much less the manner, of the needle tending to the pole by being touched with the lodestone, and by what operation the magnetic virtue is conveyed with a touch? …. Yet we see all these things in their operations and events; we know they must be reconcilable in nature, though we cannot reconcile them; and intelligible in nature, though we cannot understand them.
Serious Reflections of Robinson Crusoe, p. 207
There was a strange concurrence … in the various providences which befel me.
It will be impossible to bring vice out of fashion if we cannot bring men to an understanding of what it really is; but could we prevail upon a man to examine his vice, to dissect its parts, and view the anatomy of it; to see how disagreeable it is … how despicable and contemptible in its highest fruition; how destructive to his senses, estate, and reputation; how dishonorable, and how beastly, in its public appearances: such a man would certainly be out of love with it.
Serious Reflections of Robinson Crusoe, p. 87
I was in a kind of Stupidity … I had a Mind full of Horrour … but my Thoughts got no Vent … I had a silent sullen kind of Grief, which cou'd not break out either in Words or Tears.
You go upon different Notions from all the World; and tho' you reason upon it so strongly, that a Man knows hardly what to answer, yet I must own, there is something in it shocking to Nature, and something very unkind to yourself.
Roxana, pp. 129, 156
Such is the power of words, that mankind is able to act as much evil by their tongues as by their hands; the ideas that are formed in the mind from what we hear are most piercing and permanent.
Serious Reflections of Robinson Crusoe, p. 81
The knowledge of things, not words, makes a scholar.
The dialogic means of seeking truth is counterposed to official monologism, which pretends to possess a ready-made truth, and it is also counterposed to the naive self-confidence of those people who think that they know something, that is, who think that they possess certain truths. Truth is not born nor is it to be found inside the head of an individual person, it is born between people collectively searching for truth, in the process of their dialogic interaction.
Mikhail Bakhtin, Problems of Dostoyevsky's Poetics, ed. and tr. Caryl Emerson (Minneapolis, 1984), p. 110
The novel's spirit is the spirit of complexity. Every novel says to the reader: “Things are not as simple as you think.” That is the novel's eternal truth, but it grows steadily harder to hear amid the din of easy, quick answers that come faster than the question and block it off.
Milan Kundera, The Art of the Novel, tr. Linda Asher (New York, 1986), p. 18
I would not have you … complain … of the Contradiction of your Character, since that is of a Piece with the whole Design of my Book.
I hate all that's common, even to common Sense.
Defoe to Robinson Crusoe, in Charles Gildon, The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Mr. D— De F—, of London, Hosier (1719), pp. xvi, xv
[In novels] the Author sits down and invents Characters that never were in Nature: He frames a long Story or Intrigue full of Events and Incidents, like the Turns in a Comedy; and if he can but surprise and delight you enough to lead you on to the End of his Book, he is not so unreasonable to expect you should believe it to be true.
?Defoe, A Collection of Miscellany Letters Selected Out of Mist's Weekly Journal (1722–7), 4: 124–5
The way I have taken … is entirely new, and at first perhaps it may appear as something odd, and the method may be contemned; but let such blame their own more irregular tempers, that must have everything turned into new models; must be touched with novelty, and have their fancies humoured with the dress of a thing; so that if it be what has been said over and over a thousand times, yet if it has but a different coloured coat, or a new feather in its cap, it pleases and wins upon them.
The Family Instructor, 15: 2
The success the former part of this work has met with in the world … is acknowledged to be due to the surprising variety of the subject and to the agreeable manner of the performance.
Preface to Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, p. vii
The Brother argued, That, as the End and Use of every Fable was in the Moral, so a Fiction, or what they call'd a Romance, told only with Design to deceive the Reader … that the Fact related was true must be … criminal and wicked, and making a Lye …. But on the contrary, when the Moral of the Tale is duly annex'd, and the End directed right … Fables, feigned Histories, invented Tales, and even such as we call Romances, have always been allow'd as the most pungent Way of writing or speaking; the most apt to make Impressions on the Mind, and open the Door to the just Inferences and Improvement which was to be made of them.
Defoe, A New Family Instructor (1727), pp. 51–3
The pretended Abridgement of this Book … consists only of some scatter'd Passages incoherently tacked together; wherein the Author's Sense throughout is wholly mistaken, the Matters of Fact misrepresented, and the Moral Reflections misapplied.
Advertisement for Robinson Crusoe, the Daily Courant and Applebee's Original Weekly Journal, 8 August 1719
This work is chiefly recommended to those who know how to Read it, and how to make the good Uses of it, which the Story all along recommends to them … it is to be hop'd that such Readers will be much more pleas'd with the Moral, than the Fable; with the Application, than the Relation, and with the End of the Writer, than with the Life of the Person written of.
Perhaps the major problem in attempting to place Defoe in his time involves a more precise definition of Defoe's relation with his audience … we may never discover in the fragmentary records we have what enabled Defoe to find a style which his contemporaries recognized as original and exciting and which brought the end of the romance and the beginning of the novel.
Maximillian Novak, “Defoe,” in The English Novel: Select Bibliographical Guides, ed. A. E. Dyson (London, 1974), p. 30
To understand the true Meaning of any ancient Writing, we ought to be acquainted with the Usages and Customs of the Time and Nation in which it was wrote, those Accidents and Circumstances which occasioned the writing of it, and (since the Sense of Words is continually changing), the Meaning in which such and such Words were used at the Time when the Author flourished.
?Defoe, A Collection of Miscellany Letters Selected out of Mist's Weekly Journal (1722–7), 2: 114
Discourse in the novel is structured on an uninterrupted mutual interaction with the discourse of life.
M. M. Bakhtin, “Discourse in the Novel,” in The Dialogic Imagination, ed. Michael Holquist, tr. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist (Austin, Tex., 1981), p. 383
Poetry … is perpetual confrontation of lexicon with the world of things.
Jan Mukařovsky, “Poetic Reference,” in Semiotics of Art, ed. Ladislav Matejka and Irwin R. Titunik (Cambridge, Mass., 1976), p. 162
Defoe lived in a period notably troubled and greatly fascinated by crime.