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The European Southern Observatory Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera v2 is one of the workhorse instruments on ESO’s New Technology Telescope, and is one of the most popular instruments at La Silla observatory. It is mounted at a Nasmyth focus, and therefore exhibits strong, wavelength and pointing-direction-dependent instrumental polarisation. In this document, we describe our efforts to calibrate the broadband imaging polarimetry mode, and provide a calibration for broadband B, V, and R filters to a level that satisfies most use cases (i.e. polarimetric calibration uncertainty ~0.1%). We make our calibration codes public. This calibration effort can be used to enhance the yield of future polarimetric programmes with the European Southern Observatory Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera v2, by allowing good calibration with a greatly reduced number of standard star observations. Similarly, our calibration model can be combined with archival calibration observations to post-process data taken in past years, to form the European Southern Observatory Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera v2 legacy archive with substantial scientific potential.
The History, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Age, Risk Factors, and Troponin (HEART) score is a decision aid designed to risk stratify emergency department (ED) patients with acute chest pain. It has been validated for ED use, but it has yet to be evaluated in a prehospital setting.
A prehospital modified HEART score can predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE) among undifferentiated chest pain patients transported to the ED.
A retrospective cohort study of patients with chest pain transported by two county-based Emergency Medical Service (EMS) agencies to a tertiary care center was conducted. Adults without ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included. Inter-facility transfers and those without a prehospital 12-lead ECG or an ED troponin measurement were excluded. Modified HEART scores were calculated by study investigators using a standardized data collection tool for each patient. All MACE (death, myocardial infarction [MI], or coronary revascularization) were determined by record review at 30 days. The sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPVs) for MACE at 30 days were calculated.
Over the study period, 794 patients met inclusion criteria. A MACE at 30 days was present in 10.7% (85/794) of patients with 12 deaths (1.5%), 66 MIs (8.3%), and 12 coronary revascularizations without MI (1.5%). The modified HEART score identified 33.2% (264/794) of patients as low risk. Among low-risk patients, 1.9% (5/264) had MACE (two MIs and three revascularizations without MI). The sensitivity and NPV for 30-day MACE was 94.1% (95% CI, 86.8-98.1) and 98.1% (95% CI, 95.6-99.4), respectively.
Prehospital modified HEART scores have a high NPV for MACE at 30 days. A study in which prehospital providers prospectively apply this decision aid is warranted.
Twenty-first-century humanity seems to have both far too much and far too little invested in symbolism. On one hand, the culture of late capitalism seems obsessively intent on insinuating increasingly manipulative and hard-to-ignore symbols – on increasingly diverse platforms – into the inner sanctum of our lives. In this sense, the human world is a veritable tangled thicket of symbols gone wild, one that literally calls out for Alfred North Whitehead's injunction to engage in a ‘continuous process of pruning’ so as to keep from being ‘overwhelmed by our symbolic accessories’ (S 61). It seems that everywhere we turn someone is trying to manipulate us with symbols.
On the other hand, it seems equally true that we are starved for the kinds of symbols that can provide real sustenance and connective power for the hard work we face of rescuing our vulnerable planet from imminent disaster. One might even ask whether our growing cynicism in the face of the manipulative symbols of the market has damaged our capacity to invest ourselves in more worthwhile symbols. Given that most of us have honed our critical thinking skills in the crucible of predatory market capitalism, is it any wonder that we feel cynical in the face of so many attempts to symbolise our higher ideals, whether they appear in the form of religious affirmations of universal love or ethico-political visions of global ecological unity? It does not help that justice-pursuing organisations of various kinds (including religious ones) feel compelled to resort to many of the same marketing techniques that are used to sell commercial products. By this logic, we might even be able to comprehend that bizarre conservative delusion that contemporary environmentalist calls to care for the health of our living biosphere originate in a liberal conspiratorial hoax to bolster the tyrannical power of ‘big government’.
In this cultural milieu it would seem vastly preferable to position oneself as a manipulator of symbols rather than submit to being manipulated by them. Within the terms of this perhaps more cynical but also more practical logic, the meanings of our symbols would ultimately be reducible to some underlying set of knowable realities.
To explore the mental health tribunal experiences of people admitted involuntarily under the Mental Health Act 2001.
Employing a qualitative descriptive study design, data were collected from 23 service users who had experienced mental health tribunals during a recent involuntary admission. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted ~3 months post-revocation of their involuntary admission order. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic process.
The majority of participants reported mixed experiences comprising positive and negative aspects in relation to information provision, emotional support and an inclusive atmosphere. Some participants reported receiving accessible information about the tribunal process, felt emotionally supported throughout, and encountered respectful and dignifying practices during the tribunal proceedings. However, many participants described experiencing non-inclusive practices, reported feeling ill-informed regarding the tribunal process, emotionally unsupported during and after the tribunal, and distressed by what they perceived as adversarial tribunal proceedings.
Systemic changes could ensure that the positive experiences encountered by the minority of participants in this study are more consistently experienced. Ongoing education and training of stakeholders in the provision of inclusive tribunal practices, and the provision of accessible information and emotional support to service users through the stages of the involuntary admission process appear likely to be beneficial. Service users should automatically be offered the option of having a support person of their choosing present during tribunals.
Windpumping has been identified as a process that could potentially enhance sublimation of surface snow at high forcing frequency and spawn air movement deeper in firn at lower frequencies. We performed an experiment to examine the relationship between high-frequency wind and pressure measurements within the top meter of an alpine snowpack and compared experimental results with two theoretical predictions. We find that both theoretical predictions underestimate high-frequency perturbation pressure attenuation with depth in the near-surface snowpack and the discrepancy between theory and measurement increases with perturbation pressure frequency. The impact of this result for near-surface snow is that potential enhanced sublimation will occur over a shallower snow depth than these two theories predict. Correspondingly, interstitial air mixing at depth in firn will be driven by lower frequencies than these two theories predict. While direct measurement of these energy-rich lower frequencies is beyond the scope of this paper, stationary pressure measurements validate the presence of a pressure field that could drive near-surface circulation.
To evaluate and compare the opinions of key stakeholders involved in the involuntary admission and treatment of patients under the Mental Health Act (MHA) 2001 regarding their views towards the operation of the legislation.
We employed a descriptive survey design. A questionnaire was distributed to stakeholders involved in the operation of the MHA 2001 (except service users, whose views were explored in a separate qualitative study) via paper or online versions evaluating their opinions regarding the operation of the MHA 2001 in relation to assessment, care, rights, transfer and information available.
Stakeholders agreed that in their opinion that patients generally benefit from the care they receive (79%) and that the MHA 2001 ensures an independent and fair review of the person’s detention (65%). However, only 23% of stakeholders were satisfied with the process of transferring patients to hospital and with the clinical assessment procedures therein (37%), with the greatest levels of dissatisfaction amongst Gardai (Police), general practitioners (GPs) and family members.
While the introduction of the MHA 2001 has assisted delivery of care to patients with improved adherence to international human rights frameworks applicable at the time of its enactment, substantial dissatisfaction with the implementation of the MHA 2001 in practice is experienced by stakeholders particularly at the distressing phase of clinical assessment and transfer to hospital.
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is associated with intellectual disability, but the risk pathways are poorly understood.
The Tuberous Sclerosis 2000 Study is a prospective longitudinal study of the natural history of TSC. One hundred and twenty-five UK children age 0–16 years with TSC and born between January 2001 and December 2006 were studied. Intelligence was assessed using standardized measures at ≥2 years of age. The age of onset of epilepsy, the type of seizure disorder, the frequency and duration of seizures, as well as the response to treatment was assessed at interview and by review of medical records. The severity of epilepsy in the early years was estimated using the E-Chess score. Genetic studies identified the mutations and the number of cortical tubers was determined from brain scans.
TSC2 mutations were associated with significantly higher cortical tuber count than TSC1 mutations. The extent of brain involvement, as indexed by cortical tuber count, was associated with an earlier age of onset and severity of epilepsy. In turn, the severity of epilepsy was strongly associated with the degree of intellectual impairment. Structural equation modelling supported a causal pathway from genetic abnormality to cortical tuber count to epilepsy severity to intellectual outcome. Infantile spasms and status epilepticus were important contributors to seizure severity.
The findings support the proposition that severe, early onset epilepsy may impair intellectual development in TSC and highlight the potential importance of early, prompt and effective treatment or prevention of epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis.
We report on an influenza B outbreak in an Ontario long-term care facility in which 2 immunized residents receiving oseltamivir prophylaxis for at least 5 days developed laboratory-confirmed influenza B infection. All isolates were tested for the most common oseltamivir resistance, and none of them had resistance identified.
The synthesis of materials with void volumes in excess of 50% is an ongoing challenge in molecular sieve science. It has been shown that a correlation exists between the minimum framework density (FD) and the smallest ring in which all tetrahedral atoms reside (MINR). Based on this evidence it appears that materials containing 3-membered rings (3MR) will be necessary in order to obtain FDs lower than those currently attainable. Several framework beryllosilicate minerals including the natural zeolite, lovdarite, contain 3MRs. Unfortunately, beryllium can form highly toxic compounds that limit its suitability for many applications. Thus, in this study we have searched for a replacement for Be and have found that zinc is a suitable substitute with respect to the formation of three-membered rings.
We report here VPI-7, a novel zincosilicate molecular sieve which contains three-membered rings. The VPI-7 framework contains rings composed of 3–, 4– and 5 T-atoms which form unidimensional 8– and intersecting 9MR channels.
Simple alkanedithiols exhibit the same molecular conductance whether measured in air, under vacuum or under liquids of different polarity. Here, we show that the presence of water ‘gates’ the conductance of a family of oligothiophene–containing molecular wires, and that the longer the oligothiophene, the larger is the effect; for the longest example studied, the molecular conductance is over two orders of magnitude larger in the presence of water, an unprecedented result suggesting that ambient water is a crucial factor to be taken into account when measuring single molecule conductances (SMC), or in the design of future molecular electronic devices. Theoretical investigation of electron transport through the molecules, using the ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function (SMEAGOL) method, shows that water molecules interact with the thiophene rings, shifting the transport resonances enough to increase greatly the SMC of the longer, more conjugated examples.
A field experiment – the Snow Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (SnoHATS) – has been performed over an extensive glacier in Switzerland in order to study small-scale turbulence in the stable atmospheric surface layer, and to investigate the role, dynamics and modelling of the subgrid scales (SGSs) in the context of large-eddy simulations. The a priori data analysis aims at comparing the role and behaviour of the SGSs under stable conditions with previous studies under neutral or unstable conditions. It is found that the SGSs in a stable surface layer remain an important sink of temperature variance and turbulent kinetic energy from the resolved scales and carry a significant portion of the fluxes when the filter scale is larger than the distance to the wall. The fraction of SGS fluxes (out of the total fluxes) is found to be independent of stability. In addition, the stress–strain alignment is similar to the alignment under neutral and unstable conditions. The model coefficients vary considerably with stability but in a manner consistent with previous findings, which also showed that scale-dependent dynamic models can capture this variation. Furthermore, the variation of the coefficients for both momentum and heat SGS fluxes can be shown to be better explained by stability parameters based on vertical gradients, rather than vertical fluxes. These findings suggest that small-scale turbulence dynamics and SGS modelling under stable conditions share many important properties with neutral and convective conditions, and that a unified approach is thus possible. This paper concludes with a discussion of some other challenges for stable boundary-layer simulations that are not encountered in the neutral or unstable cases.
Among the psychiatric disorders that involve norepinephrine (NE), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most widespread and clinically significant. There is general agreement that neurological and genetic factors related to central nervous system NE and dopamine (DA) function are primary in its etiology. There have been multiple studies, some controlled and positive, of NE agents in the treatment of ADHD. However, the success of these studies has not diminished the wide popularity of the dual-acting stimulants, methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, as first-line agents for the treatment of ADHD. Except for special populations or as second-line agents, many clinicians use NE agents infrequently. Many believe that NE's clinical effects are distinctly less robust than those of stimulants. The success of atomoxetine has produced questions about this belief and raised important theoretical concerns regarding the role for NE in ADHD. There is still controversy regarding its efficacy versus that of stimulants, and the relative efficacy of atomoxetine versus stimulants has not been carefully tested.
While there are earlier literary references to maladies similar to ADHD, the first description in the medical literature is attributed to Sir George Still in a 1902 publication. Still described 20 children using adjectives such as aggressive, passionate, lawless, inattentive, impulsive, and overactive. Several of his most important observations regarding the disorder have been corroborated over the following decades.
The direct initiation of gaseous detonation is investigated experimentally in the cylindrical geometry. By using a long source of energy deposition along a line (i.e. pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN) detonating cord), undesirable charge initiation and confinement effects are eliminated. This permitted the different flow fields of direct initiation of detonation to be studied unambiguously. Although the detonation velocity in the detonating cord is finite, it was sufficiently large compared to the acoustic velocity in the surrounding gas to permit the different flow fields to be investigated within the hypersonic analogy framework, by which the detonating cord synchronizes a continuous series of cylindrical initiation events along its length. The hypersonic approximation was validated in experiments conducted in a non-reactive medium (air). In the supercritical regime of initiation in combustible gas, stable oblique detonations were observed, confirming their existence and stability. In the critical regime, the onset of detonation was observed to occur consistently from stochastic detonative centres. These centres appeared during the initial decay of the blast wave to sub-Chapman–Jouguet (CJ) velocities. The photographic evidence revealed the three-dimensional details of the detonation kernels' amplification. The present results in the cylindrical geometry are further used to discuss criteria for direct initiation of detonations. In conjunction with previous experiments in the spherical and planar geometries, a criterion for direct initiation is found to involve a critical decay rate of the reacting blast wave. In light of the experimental evidence of the inherent three-dimensional effects during the initiation phase, the strict one-dimensionality of current theoretical models is discussed.
Field trials evaluated sequential applications of plant growth retardants (PGRs) to bahiagrass for a 3-yr period at two Florida locations: Newberry (north Florida) and Okeechobee (south Florida). Seven PGRs from various chemical families were used: glyphosate, fluazifop, sethoxydim, maleic hydrazide, trinexapac-ethyl, imazapic, and imazaquin. In 1991 and 1992, PGRs reduced turf color for 2 to 4 wk after treatment (WAT) at the Newberry location but remained above acceptable levels (> 5.0) and recovered by 6 WAT. In 1993, glyphosate, fluazifop, and maleic hydrazide reduced turf color below acceptable levels (< 5.0) 4 WAT, but turf color was acceptable by 6 WAT. Turf color was slightly reduced following single and sequential imazapic applications in Okeechobee; however, turf recovered by 8 WAT. Cumulative seedhead suppression at both locations increased during the 3 yr resulting in at least a 60% reduction in seedhead numbers. Seedhead production each year was 10 to 50% less at 12 WAT in treated plots than in the previous year. Single applications of imazapic and imazapic + imazaquin provided 85 to 100% seedhead suppression for 12 WAT and 100% suppression for up to 16 wk following sequential applications made 8 wk after the initial application (WAI). Single applications of glyphosate, fluazifop, and maleic hydrazide provided ≥ 70% seedhead suppression for 4 to 8 WAT. Sequential applications of fluazifop made 8 WAI provided > 70% control of seedheads through 8 to 16 WAI for 3 yr.
A 3-yr study investigated highbush blackberry control in bahiagrass turf using selective herbicides. Triclopyr applied alone at ≤ 0.56 kg/ha and in combination with other herbicides provided best (75 to 95%) control for up to 52 wk after treatment with minimal damage to bahiagrass turf. Triclopyr formulations (3A vs 4EC) provided similar highbush blackberry control and bahiagrass tolerance. The addition of either 2,4-D, dicamba, hexazinone, or sulfometuron to triclopyr provided slightly better blackberry control, but increased bahiagrass turf damage. Fluroxypyr applied at 0.14 to 0.28 kg/ha provided 60 to 80% control of highbush blackberry 12 WAT. Glyphosate and glufosinate treatments provided unacceptable highbush blackberry control and/or unacceptable bahiagrass turf injury. The addition of oxadiazon for residual control of subsequent highbush blackberry emergence was ineffective.
Torpedograss has invaded fine turfgrasses in the Southern U.S. due to its tolerance to most commonly used turfgrass herbicides. Research was conducted to determine torpedograss and ‘Tifway’ bermudagrass tolerance to quinclorac and tank-mix combinations with other turf herbicides. Quinclorac rates in excess of 2.2 kg ai/ha were required for control (≥ 80%) of torpedograss. Sequential applications were more effective than single applications. Generally, sequential applications made 3 wk after the initial were more effective than delaying sequential applications until 4 wk after the initial application. Tifway bermudagrass injury from quinclorac applied at 4.5 kg/ha, or at 2.2 kg/ha followed by a sequential application of 1.1 or 2.2 kg/ha, was observed at 4 to 10 wk; however, turf recovered thereafter. Sequential applications of quinclorac plus imazaquin (1.1 + 0.6 kg/ha) increased torpedograss control (approximate 35%) as compared to quinclorac plus MSMA (1.1 + 1.1 kg/ha) but also decreased turf quality versus quinclorac applied alone or in combination with MSMA. Quinclorac applied at 2.2 kg/ha followed by 1.1 kg/ha applied 3 or 6 wk after the initial controlled torpedograss best with least reduction in bermudagrass quality. Quinclorac is the first herbicide reported to selectively control torpedograss in bermudagrass turf.
1. When fractionated by sodium dodecylsulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), strained rumen fluid from sheep fed on pelleted lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay showed no major protein components that stain with Coomassie Blue. This feature made it possible to monitor the fate of individual polypeptides within a protein mixture incubated in rumen fluid in vitro.
2. Extracts from a number of seed meals (sunflower (Helianthus annuus), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), rape (Brassica napus) and pea (Pisum sativum L.)), as well as casein and bovine serum albumin, were examined in this system. The protein components of each seed type showed a wide range of resistances to degradation. One protein in pea seeds (pea albumin 1), which is particularly rich in cysteine, was almost as resistant to rumen degradation as bovine serum albumin.
3. Analysis of synthetic-fibre-bag experiments by SDS-PAGE showed that the rate of loss of total protein from solid meal residues does not provide an index of the resistance of individual protein components of the meal to rumen degradation. While there was no qualitative change in the protein profile of residual pea-seed meal inside a synthetic-fibre bag, there was considerable variation in the rate at which individual, solubilized protein components were degraded in the surrounding rumen fluid.
The collection of all self-maps on a non-empty set X under composition is known in algebraic semigroup theory as the full transformation semigroup on X and is written x. Its importance lies in the fact that any semigroup S can be embedded in the full transformation semigroup (where S1 is the semigroup S with identity 1 adjoined, if S does not already possess one). The proof is similar to Cayley's Theorem that a group G can be embedded in SG, the group of all bijections of G to itself. In this paper X will be a finite set of order n, which we take to be and so we shall write Tn for X.
Studies of experimentally induced respiratory infections and illnesses showed that influenza impaired performance on a visual search task but had no effect on a simple motor task, whereas colds impaired the motor task but not the search task. The effect of influenza on the search task was observed in both volunteers with significant clinical symptoms and volunteers who were shown, by virological techniques, to be infected but who had no significant clinical illness. Performance was also impaired during the incubation period of this illness, which confirms that subclinical influenza virus infections can have behavioural effects. In contrast to influenza, the effects of colds were restricted to volunteers who had significant clinical symptoms, and the impairments in performance were observed only when the symptoms were apparent.