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To assess produce availability, quality and price in a large sample of food stores in low-income neighbourhoods in California.
Cross-sectional statewide survey.
Between 2011 and 2015, local health departments assessed store type, WIC (Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children)/SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) participation, produce availability, quality and price of selected items in stores in low-income neighbourhoods. Secondary data provided reference chain supermarket produce prices matched by county and month. t Tests and ANOVA examined differences by store type; regression models examined factors associated with price.
Large grocery stores (n 231), small markets (n 621) and convenience stores (n 622) in 225 neighbourhoods.
Produce in most large groceries was rated high quality (97 % of fruits, 98 % of vegetables), but not in convenience stores (25 % fruits, 14 % vegetables). Small markets and convenience stores participating in WIC and/or SNAP had better produce availability, variety and quality than non-participating stores. Produce prices across store types were, on average, higher than reference prices from matched chain supermarkets (27 % higher in large groceries, 37 % higher in small markets, 102 % higher in convenience stores). Price was significantly inversely associated with produce variety, adjusting for quality, store type, and SNAP and WIC participation.
The study finds that fresh produce is more expensive in low-income neighbourhoods and that convenience stores offer more expensive, poorer-quality produce than other stores. Variety is associated with price and most limited in convenience stores, suggesting more work is needed to determine how convenience stores can provide low-income consumers with access to affordable, high-quality produce. WIC and SNAP can contribute to the solution.
The evolution of planetary nebulae is controlled largely by hardening of the radiation field from the central star and by hydrodynamic interactions between the “fast wind” and the slower red giant wind. These processes also result in the heating and dissociation of H2 and in the production of H2 vibration–rotation lines in the near-infrared. Both mechanisms tend to produce high gas temperatures and, at high densities, a thermal population of states. Kinematic studies provide vital information on the geometry and expansion of the nebulae and offer a discriminant between shocked and photodissociated regions.
Since the previous edition of these guidelines, significant changes have taken place in the training and assessment of surgeons and oncologists who treat patients with head and neck cancer. For those intending to become head and neck surgeons, a fellowship in head and neck surgery is virtually mandatory. This paper summarises the current career structure to specialise in head and neck oncology and surgery in the UK.
• Trainees applying for head and neck surgical oncology consultant posts should have completed additional training in the subspecialty.
Processing speed predicts functional outcome and is a potential endophenotype for schizophrenia. Establishing the neural basis of processing speed impairment may inform the treatment and etiology of schizophrenia. Neuroimaging investigations in healthy subjects have linked processing speed to brain anatomical connectivity. However, the relationship between processing speed impairment and white matter (WM) integrity in schizophrenia is unclear.
Individuals with schizophrenia and healthy subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and completed a brief neuropsychological assessment that included measures of processing speed, verbal learning, working memory and executive functioning. Group differences in WM integrity, inferred from fractional anisotropy (FA), were examined throughout the brain and the hypothesis that processing speed impairment in schizophrenia is mediated by diminished WM integrity was tested.
WM integrity of the corpus callosum, cingulum, superior and inferior frontal gyri, and precuneus was reduced in schizophrenia. Average FA in these regions mediated group differences in processing speed but not in other cognitive domains. Diminished WM integrity in schizophrenia was accounted for, in large part, by individual differences in processing speed.
Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia was mediated by reduced WM integrity. This relationship was strongest for processing speed because deficits in working memory, verbal learning and executive functioning were not mediated by WM integrity. Larger sample sizes may be required to detect more subtle mediation effects in these domains. Interventions that preserve WM integrity or ameliorate WM disruption may enhance processing speed and functional outcome in schizophrenia.
The appearance of a further instalment of these ‘Studies’ has been regrettably delayed, owing to several reasons. The present article is planned on different lines from its predecessor (JHS li (1931), 139–63), for, instead of offering a comprehensive study of one reconstructed stele, it attempts to review the post-Euclidean Hekatompedon-lists down to 390/89 as a group, and to establish their chronological sequence, in the light of fresh discoveries. It is proposed, also, to deal in subsequent articles with the corresponding lists for the Parthenon and the Opisthodomos in this period, and to continue the study of the later lists both of the Treasures of Athena and of those of the ‘Other Gods’ into the second half of the fourth century.
The opportunity of working continuously in the Epigraphical Museum for several weeks during the summer of 1931 enabled me to recognise that in many instances two or more fragments of these Traditiones which had been published separately could be assigned to one stele, and also to identify a few still unpublished pieces belonging to this series.
In 1922 we recorded sixteen species of non-marine mollusca from Hoxne but of these only eight were known from extant examples, the remainder being listed on the authority of either Prof. Prestwich, or the late Clement Reid, and we noted that two horizons were present, Early Pleistocene and Late Pleistocene (Proc. Geol. Assoc, Vol. XXXIII (1922), pp. 137–165.) Through the kindness of Prof. P. G. H. Boswell and Mr. J. Reid Moir samples of peaty earth containing shells from Hoxne were submitted to us for examination. There came from Section 4, layer G (see Proc. Prehistoric Soc., East Anglia, Vol. V (1926), p. 145) and we are greatly indebted to these gentlemen for their kindness.
The presence of 10 virulence genes was examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 365 European O157 and non-O157 Escherichia coli isolates associated with verotoxin production. Strain-specific PCR data were analysed using hierarchical clustering. The resulting dendrogram clearly separated O157 from non-O157 strains. The former clustered typical high-risk seropathotype (SPT) A strains from all regions, including Sweden and Spain, which were homogenous by Cramer's V statistic, and strains with less typical O157 features mostly from Hungary. The non-O157 strains divided into a high-risk SPTB harbouring O26, O111 and O103 strains, a group pathogenic to pigs, and a group with few virulence genes other than for verotoxin. The data demonstrate SPT designation and selected PCR separated verotoxigenic E. coli of high and low risk to humans; although more virulence genes or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis will need to be included to separate high-risk strains further for epidemiological tracing.
Sandwich panels are widely used in the aerospace industry instead of solid plates due to their high flexural stiffness-to-weight and flexural strength-to-weight ratios. However due to the mismatch of properties between the face sheets and the core, stress concentrations can occur at the face sheet/core interfaces, often leading to delamination. One possible solution to this problem is the introduction of a graded core — a core in which the properties vary gradually from the face sheets to the core centre, eliminating any abrupt changes in properties. In this paper a 3D finite element method, fully validated through comparison with results from the literature and a 3D elasticity solution, is applied to modelling of sandwich panels with graded core. The approach makes use of graded elements to study the effect of varying the boundary conditions on the elastic deformation of the panel subject to uniformly distributed loading. Comparative analysis of stress and displacement fields in sandwich panels with homogeneous and graded cores is carried out under various combinations of simply supported, clamped and free edges.
We present Spitzer spectroscopy of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi obtained on several occasions between 2006 and 2009. The spectra show variability in the silicate dust features at 9.7 μm and 18 μm, which form in the wind of the red giant in the system. We fit the spectra with Dusty models and find changes in the dust temperature, due to changes in the luminosity of the central source. The mass-loss rate of the secondary is a few 10−7M⊙yr−1, typical of a red giant of its type.
The corrosion behavior of TiCode-12 (Ti-0.3 Mo-0.8 Ni) high level nuclear waste container alloy has been studied for a simulated WIPP brine at a temperature of 150°C or below. Crevice corrosion was identified as a potentially important failure mode for this material. Within a mechanical crevice, a thick oxide film was found and shown to be the rutile form of TiO2, with a trace of lower oxide also present. Acidic conditions were found to cause a breakdown of the passive oxide layer. Solution aeration and increased acidity accelerate the corrosion rate. In hydrogen embrittlement studies, it was found that hydrogen causes a significant decrease in the apparent stress intensity level in fracture mechanics samples. Hydride formation is thought to be responsible for crack initiation. Stress corrosion cracking under static loads was not observed. Attention has also been given to methods for extrapolating short term uniform corrosion rate data to extended times.
A novel ceramic synthesis technique, flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) was investigated for the production of nanophosphor particles. Among the various types of synthesis technique for phosphors, FSP is a powerful method which is capable of producing particles with good crystallinity and high luminescence efficiency. Red light emitting Eu3+ doped Y2O3 nanophosphor was prepared by FSP from nitrate based liquid precursors with high flame temperature. Flame temperature is an important factor to obtain phosphor particles with dense and spherical shape. Different molar percentage of urea was added into the precursor, addition of urea increases the temperature in the flame zone and promotes the formation of nano-size and spherical shaped particles. The importance of urea in the precursor to obtain well dispersed Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphor has been studied. The characteristics of nanophosphor such as crystallinity, morphology and photoluminescence in the presence of different moles of urea in nitrate based aqueous solution were investigated. On varying the overall concentration of the precursor, both the optical properties and crystallinity were investigated. XRD spectra showed as-prepared phosphors were obtained directly as cubic phase Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphor with high crystallinity and without any post-heat treatments. Luminescence intensity of nanophosphor increased with the amount of urea till 2 M percentages, further increase in urea concentration was found to reduce the PL intensity. We have developed a continuous single-step fabrication method for nanocrystalline Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphor without any post-heat treatments procedure.
Cognitive biases, especially jumping to conclusions (JTC), are ascribed a vital role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This study set out to explore motivational factors for JTC using a newly developed paradigm.
Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients and 32 healthy controls were shown 15 classical paintings, divided into three blocks. Four alternative titles (one correct and three lure titles) had to be appraised according to plausibility (0–10). Optionally, participants could decide for one option and reject one or more alternatives. In random order across blocks, anxiety-evoking music, happy music or no music was played in the background.
Patients with schizophrenia, particularly those with delusions, made more decisions than healthy subjects. In line with the liberal acceptance (LA) account of schizophrenia, the decision threshold was significantly lowered in patients relative to controls. Patients were also more prone than healthy controls to making a decision when the distance between the first and second best alternative was close. Furthermore, implausible alternatives were judged as significantly more plausible by patients. Anxiety-evoking music resulted in more decisions in currently deluded patients relative to non-deluded patients and healthy controls.
The results confirm predictions derived from the LA account and assert that schizophrenia patients decide hastily under conditions of continued uncertainty. The fact that mood induction did not exert an overall effect could be due to the explicit nature of the manipulation, which might have evoked strategies to counteract their influence.
Twelve mature and six 2-year-old Arabian horses were used to determine the effect of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma fatty acids and lameness. Lameness scores and stride lengths were measured on day 0. Horses were striated and pair-matched according to age, gender, stride length and, for mature horses, lameness score, and each horse was fed either a treatment diet containing 5.95 g of stabilized omega-3 fatty acids plus a fat carrier (FA), for a total of 19.4 g fat, or a control diet containing 49 g of corn oil (CO) for 75 days. Horses were exercised 5 d week− 1, and blood samples were drawn and body weights recorded on days 0, 25, 50 and 75. Lameness scores and stride lengths were recorded again on day 75. Total plasma omega-3 fatty acid concentrations were higher on all days in FA horses than in CO horses. Total plasma omega-6 fatty acids increased from days 0 to 25, remained elevated through day 50 and returned to baseline on day 75 in all horses. The ratio of plasma omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids was lower in FA horses. Horses on FA had increased plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on days 25, 50 and 75. No difference in walk stride length was noted; however, FA horses tended to have a longer trot stride after supplementation when compared with CO horses. No differences were seen in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) metabolite or tumour necrosis factor-α as measured in blood serum. In summary, supplementing omega-3 fatty acids increases plasma DHA, although there was no overall increase in omega-3 in FA horses. While a trend to increase trot stride length was seen, no differences in lameness scores between treatments were noted.
We report the clinical, microbiological, and epidemiological features of an emerging serotype, Shigella boydii 20. We interviewed patients about symptoms, and history of travel and visitors during the week before illness onset. Seventy-five per cent of the 56 patients were Hispanic. During the week before illness onset, 18 (32%) travelled abroad; 17 (94%) had visited Mexico. Eight (21%) out of 38 who had not travelled had foreign visitors. There were eight closely related patterns by PFGE with XbaI. S. boydii 20 may be related to travel to Mexico and Hispanic ethnicity. Prompt epidemiological investigation of clusters of S. boydii 20 infection may help identify specific vehicles and risk factors for infection.