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Food insecurity, or self-reports of inadequate food access due to limited financial resources, remains prevalent among people living with HIV (PLHIV). We examined the impact of food insecurity on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence within an integrated care programme that provides services to PLHIV, including two meals per day.
Adjusted OR (aOR) were estimated by generalized estimating equations, quantifying the relationship between food insecurity (exposure) and cART adherence (outcome) with multivariable logistic regression.
We drew on survey data collected between February 2014 and March 2016 from the Dr. Peter Centre Study based in Vancouver, Canada.
The study included 116 PLHIV at baseline, with ninety-nine participants completing a 12-month follow-up interview. The median (quartile 1–quartile 3) age was 46 (39–52) years at baseline and 87 % (n 101) were biologically male at birth.
At baseline, 74 % (n 86) of participants were food insecure (≥2 affirmative responses on Health Canada’s Household Food Security Survey Module) and 67 % (n 78) were adherent to cART ≥95 % of the time. In the adjusted regression analysis, food insecurity was associated with suboptimal cART adherence (aOR = 0·47, 95 % CI 0·24, 0·93).
While food provision may reduce some health-related harms, there remains a relationship between this prevalent experience and suboptimal cART adherence in this integrated care programme. Future studies that elucidate strategies to mitigate food insecurity and its effects on cART adherence among PLHIV in this setting and in other similar environments are necessary.
The co-occurrence of hepatic cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is extremely rare. Here, we present the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of three cases with co-occurring CE and AE in the liver. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging and 18FFluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-CT were used for preoperative diagnosis. Specimens were taken intraoperatively and sent for pathological studies to confirm the coexistence of CE and AE by laminated membrane, daughter cysts or germinal layer and infiltration structure. Albendazole was prescribed after operation for 12 months. All patients were completely recovered and showed no recurrence at last follow-up. Therefore, surgical intervention and postoperative application of albendazole are recommended for patients with concurrence of hepatic AE and CE.
Crystal structure and electronic structure of YMnO3 were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy related techniques. According to the density of states (DOS), the individual interband transitions to energy loss peaks in the low energy loss spectrum were assigned. The hybridization of O 2p with Mn 3d and Y 4d analyzed by the partial DOS was critical to the ferroelectric nature of YMnO3. From the simulation of the energy loss near-edge structure, the fine structure of O K-edge was in good agreement with the experimental spectrum. The valence state of Mn (+3) in YMnO3 was determined by a comparison between experiment and calculations.
We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
Anisocotyly, the unequal development of cotyledons post germination, is a unique trait observed only in Old World Gesneriaceae (Lamiales). New World Gesneriaceae have isocotylous seedlings. In both Old and New World Gesneriaceae, cotyledons initially grow equally for a short period just after germination. In the New World species, both cotyledons cease their growth at the same time early on, whereas in Old World species one cotyledon continues to expand to become a macrocotyledon while the other withers away. In this study, cotyledon growth was observed in two European Old World Gesneriaceae: Haberlea rhodopensis and Ramonda myconi. The results were compared with those for the typical anisocotylous species Streptocarpus rexii and the typical isocotylous species Corytoplectus speciosus. We found that the cotyledon growth patterns in Haberlea rhodopensis and Ramonda myconi were intermediate between the typical anisocotylous or isocotylous species. Haberlea rhodopensis and Ramonda myconi showed irregular growth patterns, with some plants being slightly anisocotylous but most being isocotylous. The developmental basis for the residual anisocotyly, the extended basal meristem activity in the macrocotyledon, appeared to be identical in the European species to that in the typical Old World Streptocarpus rexii but weakly expressed, rare and terminated early. In conclusion, European Gesneriaceae retain a reduced anisocotylous growth that may be linked to their early plumule development.
The Lung Cam expanded stratigraphic succession in Vietnam is correlated herein to the Meishan D section in China, the GSSP for the Permian–Triassic boundary. The first appearance datum of the conodont Hindeodus parvus at Meishan defines the Permian–Triassic boundary, and using published graphic correlation, the Permian–Triassic boundary level has been projected into the Lung Cam section. Using time-series analysis of magnetic susceptibility (χ) data, it is determined that H. parvus arrived at Lung Cam ∼18 kyr before the Permian–Triassic boundary. Data indicate that the Lung Cam section is expanded by ∼90 % relative to the GSSP section at Meishan. Given the expanded Lung Cam section, it is possible to resolve the timing of significant events during the Permian–Triassic transition with high precision. These events include major stepped extinctions, beginning at ∼135 kyr and ending at ∼110 kyr below the Permian–Triassic boundary, with a duration of ∼25 kyr, followed by deposition of Lung Cam ash Bed + 13, which is equivalent to Siberian Traps volcanism is graphically correlated to a precession Time-series model, placing onset of this major volcanic event at ~242 kyr before the PTB. The Meishan Beds 25 and 26, at ∼100 kyr before the Permian–Triassic boundary. In addition, the elemental geochemical, carbon and oxygen isotope stratigraphy, and magnetostratigraphy susceptibility datasets from Lung Cam allow good correlation to other Permian–Triassic boundary succession. These datasets are helpful when the conodont biostratigraphy is poorly known in sections with problems such as lithofacies variability, or is undefined, owing possibly to lithofacies exclusions, anoxia or for other reasons. The Lung Pu Permian–Triassic boundary section, ∼45 km from Lung Cam, is used to test these problems.
To compare the epidemiologic features (e.g. settings and transmission mode) and patient clinical characteristics associated with outbreaks of different norovirus (Nov) strains, we retrospectively analysed data of Nov outbreaks occurring in Guangzhou, China from 2012 to 2018. The results suggested that outbreaks of Nov GII.2, GII.17 and GII.4 Sydney exhibited different outbreak settings, transmission modes and symptoms. GII.2 outbreaks mainly occurred in kindergartens, elementary and high schools and were transmitted mainly through person-to-person contact. By contrast, GII.4 Sydney outbreaks frequently occurred in colleges and were primarily associated with foodborne transmission. Cases from GII.2 and GII.17 outbreaks reported vomiting more frequently than those from outbreaks associated with GII.4 Sydney.
Guangxi, a province in southwestern China, has the second highest reported number of HIV/AIDS cases in China. This study aimed to develop an accurate and effective model to describe the tendency of HIV and to predict its incidence in Guangxi. HIV incidence data of Guangxi from 2005 to 2016 were obtained from the database of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, generalised regression neural network (GRNN) models and exponential smoothing (ES) were used to fit the incidence data. Data from 2015 and 2016 were used to validate the most suitable models. The model performances were evaluated by evaluating metrics, including mean square error (MSE), root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error. The LSTM model had the lowest MSE when the N value (time step) was 12. The most appropriate ARIMA models for incidence in 2015 and 2016 were ARIMA (1, 1, 2) (0, 1, 2)12 and ARIMA (2, 1, 0) (1, 1, 2)12, respectively. The accuracy of GRNN and ES models in forecasting HIV incidence in Guangxi was relatively poor. Four performance metrics of the LSTM model were all lower than the ARIMA, GRNN and ES models. The LSTM model was more effective than other time-series models and is important for the monitoring and control of local HIV epidemics.
Introduction: Mental health and addiction presentations are on the increase in Canadian Emergency Departments (EDs) and are placing strains on existing resources. The purpose of this study is to examine practice variations and opportunities for improved mental health (MH) consultation practices across four adult EDs. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of administrative data from Alberta Health Services (AHS) at urban Calgary Zone EDs from 2015 to 2018 regarding MH consults requested and patients admitted to inpatient psych. Individual MD and overall referral rates as well as admission rates for patients consulted to MH were considered. Time of day and patient ETOH level were also examined as potential influencing factors. CEDIS codes were used to identify MH complaints. Results: 73,536 MH related visits were included, 29,228 received a MH consult with 10,648 admitted to an inpatient MH unit (36.4%). The admission rate among consults requested varied considerably among the 200 MDs who evaluated more than 50 patients with MH complaints; median 35.9%, IQR – 25.0 to 47.5. The average consultation rate for ETOH positive patients was 28.4% median 26.35%, IQR – 21.2 to 35.0% During regular working hours (08:00-17:00), there were 33,599 MH visits, 15,035 received a psych consult with 5,976 admitted to an inpatient MH unit. The admission rate among consults was 39.8%. For the remaining hours(17:01-07:59) there were 39,939 MH visits, 14,191 received a psych consult with 4,672 admitted to an inpatient MH unit. The admission rate among consults was 32.9%. Conclusion: Varying MD thresholds for MH consultation are reflected in a wide range of admission rates among patients consulted for MH evaluation in the ED. ETOH and timing of presentation are factors which modulate the likelihood of admission. There may be opportunities to improve MH referrals from the ED by providing consultation feedback to providers.
The Weihe Basin is an intracontinental rift basin in central China that provides an ideal location for studying the interactions between regional tectonics and monsoonal climate change. In this paper, we present detrital zircon U–Pb ages from sediments from Core LYH drilled in the northern margin of the basin. We use these to illuminate changing sediment transport processes, provenance and palaeo-environments during the Quaternary. The sediments are dominated by zircon age groups of 100–400 Ma and 400–550 Ma, and three secondary age peaks at 700–1100 Ma, 1700–2100 Ma and 2400–2600 Ma. Multidimensional scaling plots support the conclusion that the Central Loess Plateau and the Luo River are the dominant sources of sediments to the core site. Before c. 1.06 Ma, the Qinling Mountains and the Wei River, as well as the Yellow River, had minor influence on the sedimentation at the core site. These results are consistent with the existence of a palaeolake prior to 1.06 Ma, which allowed sediments supplied to the south and east edge of the basin to be reworked to the northern side of the Weihe Basin. Subsequently, the Luo River has provided a steady source of sediments to the northern Weihe Basin.
Whereas genetic susceptibility increases the risk for major depressive disorder (MDD), non-genetic protective factors may mitigate this risk. In a large-scale prospective study of US Army soldiers, we examined whether trait resilience and/or unit cohesion could protect against the onset of MDD following combat deployment, even in soldiers at high polygenic risk.
Data were analyzed from 3079 soldiers of European ancestry assessed before and after their deployment to Afghanistan. Incident MDD was defined as no MDD episode at pre-deployment, followed by a MDD episode following deployment. Polygenic risk scores were constructed from a large-scale genome-wide association study of major depression. We first examined the main effects of the MDD PRS and each protective factor on incident MDD. We then tested the effects of each protective factor on incident MDD across strata of polygenic risk.
Polygenic risk showed a dose–response relationship to depression, such that soldiers at high polygenic risk had greatest odds for incident MDD. Both unit cohesion and trait resilience were prospectively associated with reduced risk for incident MDD. Notably, the protective effect of unit cohesion persisted even in soldiers at highest polygenic risk.
Polygenic risk was associated with new-onset MDD in deployed soldiers. However, unit cohesion – an index of perceived support and morale – was protective against incident MDD even among those at highest genetic risk, and may represent a potent target for promoting resilience in vulnerable soldiers. Findings illustrate the value of combining genomic and environmental data in a prospective design to identify robust protective factors for mental health.
Baissogryllidae is an extinct family of the insect superfamily Grylloidea, previously known from Late Jurassic – Early Cretaceous time. A new genus and species, Sinagryllus xinjiangensis gen. et sp. nov., is described here based on a well-preserved forewing from the Lower Jurassic Sangonghe Formation of Xinjiang, northwestern China. It can be attributed to Baissogryllidae based on the combination of the following characteristics: a true mirror in the male tegminal stridulatory apparatus; and a distinct widening of the area between CuA2, lateral part of the diagonal vein, and proximal part of the proximal branch of MP+CuA1. This find represents not only the earliest record of Baissogryllidae, but also the first fossil wing of Grylloidea reported from China.
Atom probe tomography (APT) is a powerful technique to characterize buried three-dimensional nanostructures in a variety of materials. Accurate characterization of those nanometer-scale clusters and precipitates is of great scientific significance to understand the structure–property relationships and the microstructural evolution. The current widely used cluster analysis method, a variant of the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise algorithm, can only accurately extract clusters of the same atomic density, neglecting several experimental realities, such as density variations within and between clusters and the nonuniformity of the atomic density in the APT reconstruction itself (e.g., crystallographic poles and other field evaporation artifacts). This clustering method relies heavily on multiple input parameters, but ideal selection of those parameters is challenging and oftentimes ambiguous. In this study, we utilize a well-known cluster analysis algorithm, called ordering points to identify the clustering structures, and an automatic cluster extraction algorithm to analyze clusters of varying atomic density in APT data. This approach requires only one free parameter, and other inputs can be estimated or bounded based on physical parameters, such as the lattice parameter and solute concentration. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by application to several small-scale model datasets and a real APT dataset obtained from an oxide-dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy specimen.
It is well known that x-ray diffraction techniques provide one of the most direct means of analyzing superlattice periodicity, layer thickness, strain, and defect structure. This suitability of x-rays is a consequence of the fact that most superlattice periods are in the range of 10 to 50 times the typical wavelength (Cuκα=1.54 Å) and are hence measurable by x-ray diffraction, and also that x-rays are non-destructive within the energy and dosage ranges needed for these studies. Applications of x-ray techniques to supperlattices have been discussed in many publications in the open literature.