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Coronary artery anomalies are a heterogeneous group of congenital disorders presenting with a wide spectrum of symptoms, ranging from vague chest pain to sudden cardiac death. Despite available data, there is no consensus about the classification, nomenclature, and outcomes of coronary anomalies in the normally connected heart. In this study, we aimed to investigate clinical and angiographic characteristics of coronary arterial anomalies, as well as the frequency of atherosclerotic involvement in anomalous coronaries, diagnosed at a tertiary referral centre.
We retrospectively reviewed coronary angiograms performed between 2011 and 2015 for the presence of a coronary anomaly. A total of 111 patients with a final diagnosis of coronary anomaly were included in the study group. We also recruited 110 age- and sex-matched patients who underwent coronary angiography because of symptomatic coronary artery disease as controls.
Among 36,893 coronary angiograms, 111 (0.30%) major coronary anomalies were found. Compared with controls, the prevalence of significant atherosclerotic coronary disease was lower in patients with coronary anomalies and stable symptoms (p=0.02); however, the prevalence of significant coronary atherosclerosis was similar among patients admitted with unstable angina or myocardial infarction (p>0.05). Compared with controls, patients with an anomalous left anterior descending coronary artery had significantly less atherosclerotic involvement than those in whom the left anterior descending artery was not anomalous (p=0.005).
Although coronary artery anomalies are cited as a cause for myocardial ischaemia, atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is also frequent and may offer an alternative explanation to ischaemic symptoms. No predisposition to accelerated atherosclerosis was found, however, and atherosclerotic involvement was less frequent in some anomalous vessels.
Azelastine nasal spray is a topical antihistaminic drug for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinitis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of azelastine on nasal and nasopharyngeal microflora.
Swab samples from 25 patients prescribed azelastine nasal spray monotherapy were collected just before treatment and after 1 month of treatment. After incubation of inoculates, the number of bacteria present in cultures was measured (in colony-forming units per millilitre).
Evaluation of the number of microflora revealed increased bacterial reproduction after treatment, but this difference was not statistically significant. The use of azelastine nasal spray decreased the reproduction of three potentially pathogenic bacteria; however, it did not affect the reproduction of other potentially pathogenic bacteria.
The use of azelastine nasal spray for one month did not have a statistically significant effect on the numbers of nasal and nasopharyngeal microflora; it is therefore safe from a microbiological viewpoint.
To investigate whether thymoquinone has any eliminative effects against inner-ear damage caused by acoustic trauma.
Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was only exposed to acoustic trauma. Group 2 was given thymoquinone 24 hours before acoustic trauma and continued to receive it for 10 days after the trauma. Group 3 was only treated with thymoquinone, for 10 days. Group 4, the control group, suffered no trauma and received saline instead of thymoquinone. Groups 1 and 2 were exposed to acoustic trauma using 105 dB SPL white noise for 4 hours.
There was a significant decrease in distortion product otoacoustic emission values and an increase in auditory brainstem response thresholds in group 1 on days 1, 5 and 10, compared with baseline measurements. In group 2, a decrease in distortion product otoacoustic emission values and an increase in auditory brainstem response threshold were observed on day 1 after acoustic trauma, but measurements were comparable to baseline values on days 5 and 10. In group 3, thymoquinone had no detrimental effects on hearing. Similarly, the control group showed stable results.
Thymoquinone was demonstrated to be a reparative rather than preventive treatment that could be used to relieve acoustic trauma.
Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck constitute a high risk group for synchronous and metachronous tumours.
This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of white light and autofluorescence bronchoscopy in the evaluation of pre-malignant and early neoplastic lesions in patients with laryngeal cancer, who are at high risk of concomitant lung cancer.
This prospective, cross-sectional study included 30 patients who had undergone total laryngectomy for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. The tracheobronchial system was investigated for the presence of pre-malignant and malignant lesions, using a combination of white light and autofluorescence bronchoscopy. Biopsies were obtained from areas with a pathological appearance, and histopathological studies were performed.
All patients had a permanent tracheostomy. Light and autofluorescence bronchoscopy indicated that the tracheobronchial system was normal in 11 patients. A total of 27 biopsies was taken from the remaining 19 patients, and revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma in one patient and pre-malignant changes in six.
Bronchoscopy is a valuable and practical tool for screening patients at high risk of lung cancer, and requires minimal intervention especially in patients with a permanent tracheostomy. Of the various bronchoscopic techniques becoming available, autofluorescence bronchoscopy shows promise for the detection of pre-invasive malignant changes of the tracheobronchial system in patients previously operated upon for laryngeal cancer.
To compare the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency and monopolar electrocautery tonsillectomy, regarding operation duration and tonsillectomy morbidity, including post-operative pain and haemorrhage and tonsillar fossa healing, in patients with recurrent chronic tonsillitis.
A prospective, randomised, double-blind, controlled clinical study.
Fifty patients aged over 10 years who required tonsillectomy were randomly assigned to have one tonsil removed by radiofrequency and the other by monopolar electrocautery. Operation duration, post-operative haemorrhage, post-operative pain and tonsillar fossa wound healing were compared.
The mean ± standard deviation of the operation duration required for the radiofrequency method was significantly longer than that for monopolar electrocautery: 8.1 ± 1.6 minutes vs 7.3 ± 1.5 minutes, respectively (p = 0.034). Post-operative haemorrhage was observed in only three patients (13.6 per cent). Inter-group analysis showed no significant differences in post-operative pain scores for the radiofrequency vs monopolar electrocautery methods (3.7 ± 1.6 vs 3.3 ± 1.4, respectively; p < 0.126). Inter-group analysis showed that tonsillar fossa wound healing scores evaluated on the fifth, 10th and 14th post-operative days were significantly higher in the radiofrequency group compared with the monopolar electrocautery group (p < 0.001).
The present study results indicated that monopolar electrocautery tonsillectomy was superior to radiofrequency tonsillectomy in terms of post-operative tonsillar fossa wound healing; however, both techniques were comparable in terms of post-operative pain.
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