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In this paper, we present a model characterizing the interaction of a radiative shock (RS) with a solid material, as described in a recent paper (Koenig et al., Phys. Plasmas, 24, 082707 (2017)), the new model is then related to recent experiments performed on the GEKKO XII laser facility. The RS generated in a xenon gas cell propagates towards a solid obstacle that is ablated by radiation coming from the shock front and the radiative precursor, mimicking processes occurring in astrophysical phenomena. The model presented here calculates the dynamics of the obstacle expansion, which depends on several parameters, notably the geometry and the temperature of the shock. All parameters required for the model have been obtained from experiments. Good agreement between experimental data and the model is found when spherical geometry is taken into account. As a consequence, this model is a useful and easy tool to infer parameters from experimental data (such as the shock temperature), and also to design future experiments.
A new target design is presented to model high-energy radiative accretion shocks in polars. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained on the GEKKO XII laser facility for the POLAR project. The experimental results are compared with 2D FCI2 simulations to characterize the dynamics and the structure of plasma flow before and after the collision. The good agreement between simulations and experimental data confirms the formation of a reverse shock where cooling losses start modifying the post-shock region. With the multi-material structure of the target, a hydrodynamic collimation is exhibited and a radiative structure coupled with the reverse shock is highlighted in both experimental data and simulations. The flexibility of the laser energy produced on GEKKO XII allowed us to produce high-velocity flows and study new and interesting radiation hydrodynamic regimes between those obtained on the LULI2000 and Orion laser facilities.
Background: The surgical risk factors and neuro-imaging characteristics associated with cerebellar mutism (CM) remain unclear and require further investigation. We aimed to examine surgical and MRI findings associated with CM in children following posterior fossa tumor resection. Methods: Using our data registry, we retrospectively collected data from pediatric patients who acquired CM and were matched based on age and pathology type with patients not acquiring CM after posterior fossa surgery. The strength of association between surgical and MRI variables and CM were examined using odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A total of 22 patients were included. Medulloblastoma was the most common pathology among CM patients (91%). Tumor attachment to the floor of the fourth ventricle (OR, 6; 95% CI, 0.7-276), calcification/hemosiderin deposition (OR 7; 95% CI 0.9-315.5), and post-operative peri-ventricular ischemia on MRI (OR, 5; 95% CI, 0.5-236.5) were found to have the highest association with CM. Conclusions: Our results may suggest that tumor attachment to the floor of the fourth ventricle, pathological calcification, and post-operative ischemia are relatively more prevalent in patients with CM. Collectively, our work calls for a larger multi-institutional study of CM patients to further investigate the determinants and management of CM to potentially minimize its development and predict onset.
Harvesting solar energy, is only one of the incentives of incorporating photosynthetic proteins in electrochemical devices. Understanding the interface of photosynthetic protein complexes and organic\inorganic underlying electrodes can give rise to development of new generation of nano-bioelectronics for other applications such as sensing, as well. Previous approaches in fabricating photosynthetic bio-hybrid electrochemical solar cells were mainly based on metallic electrodes with protein complexes attached, either directly or through linker molecules. Due to the energy band structure in semiconductors, they potentially can be useful for selective charge transfer in an electrochemical device. In the current study, a two terminal sealed bio-hybrid solar cell device was fabricated comprising of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanowires on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass working electrode, a Pt counter electrode, and methyl viologen (MV) as a single diffusible redox mediator. The ZnO working electrode was initially characterized using scanning electron microscopy (XRD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A solution of dimeric Rhodobacter sphaeroides – light harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complexes and redox electrolyte was injected into the cavity between working and counter electrodes. Such structure resulted in ∼0.64 µA.cm-2 photocurrent density and ∼0.24 V open circuit potential difference in the dark and under illumination. Additionally, the device stability tests demonstrated that the current response of such devices remained unchanged after 33 hours storage in the dark.
To quantify the impact that mild to moderate tonsillitis has on quality of life in children and compare it to that of severe tonsillitis.
In this prospective study, parents of children aged 0–16 years completed the Paediatric Throat Disorders Outcome Test, and quality of life scores in the tonsillitis groups were compared.
A hundred children were recruited: 58 had severe tonsillitis and were offered surgery, and 42 had mild to moderate tonsillitis and were managed conservatively. The mean outcome test scores in those children undergoing surgery were 36.7 for tonsillectomy patients and 36.9 for adenotonsillectomy patients, compared with a score of 31.5 for the mild to moderate tonsillitis patients (p = 0.019).
Children with mild to moderate disease had significantly better quality of life scores than those with severe disease. It is thought that those with mild to moderate disease have short-term improvements in general quality of life after surgery, which disappear in the medium term. This transient improvement needs to be balanced against the morbidity of the surgery and the cost burden to the National Health Service. The results of this study support the national drive towards limiting tonsillectomy to children with severe tonsillitis or obstructive sleep apnoea.
Chagas’ disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and constitutes a serious public health problem for Latin America. Its unsatisfactory chemotherapy stimulates the search for novel antiparasitic compounds. Amidines and related compounds exhibit well-known activity towards different microbes including T. cruzi. In this vein, our present aim was to evaluate the biological effect of 10 novel structurally related amidines in vitro against bloodstream and intracellular forms of the parasite as well as their potential toxicity on cardiac cell cultures. Our results show that although active against the extracellular forms, with some of them like DB2247 being 6-fold more effective than benznidazole and displaying very low toxicity (>96 μm), none presented superior trypanocidal effect against intracellular forms as compared with the reference drug. These results may be due to differences in susceptibility profiles related to distinct uptake/extrusion mechanisms and cellular targets between bloodstream and amastigote forms. The present study adds to the knowledge base for the future design of novel amidines that may provide promising activity against T. cruzi.
Dengue is regarded as the most important arboviral disease. Although sporadic cases have been reported, serotypes responsible for outbreaks have not been identified from central India over the last 20 years. We investigated two outbreaks of febrile illness, in August and November 2012, from Korea district (Chhattisgarh) and Narsinghpur district (Madhya Pradesh), respectively. Fever and entomological surveys were conducted in the affected regions. Molecular and serological tests were conducted on collected serum samples. Dengue-specific amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. In Korea and Narsinghpur districts 37·3% and 59% of cases were positive, respectively, for dengue infection, with adults being the worst affected. RT–PCR confirmed dengue virus serotype 1 genotype III as the aetiology. Ninety-six percent of infections were primary. This is the first time that dengue virus 1 outbreaks have been documented from central India. Introduction of the virus into the population and a conducive mosquitogenic environment favouring increased vector density caused the outbreak. Timely diagnosis and strengthening vector control measures are essential to avoid future outbreaks.
Identification of climate-smart nutrient management practices will overcome the ill effects of extreme climate variability on agricultural production under projected climate change scenarios. The rice–wheat cropping system is the major system used in India: using long-term yield data from Integrated Nutrient Management experiments on this system, the present study analysed trends in weather parameters and grain yield under different nutrient management practices. Twelve treatments with different combinations of inorganic (chemical fertilizer) and organic (farmyard manure (FYM), green manure (GM) and crop residue) sources of nutrients were compared with farmers’ conventional practices. A significant increasing trend was noticed for rainfall during the rice season at Kalyani and Navsari, of the order of 137·7 and 154·2 mm/decade, respectively. The highest increase in maximum temperature was seen at Palampur (1·62 °C/decade) followed by Ludhiana (1·14 °C/decade). At all the sites except Ludhiana and Kanpur, the yield of the rice–wheat system showed an increasing trend ranging from 0·08 t/ha/year in Jabalpur to 0·011 t/ha/year in Navsari, under the recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer application. A significant decreasing trend of 0·055 t/ha was found in Ludhiana. For most of the sites, a combination of half the recommended dose of inorganic fertilizer and either FYM or GM to provide the remainder of the N required was sufficient to maintain productivity. The top three climate-resilient integrated nutrient management practices were identified for all the study sites. Thus, the present study highlights the adaptive capacity of different integrated nutrient management practices to rainfall and temperature extremes under rice–wheat cropping system in distinctive agro-ecological zones of India.
We present multiwavelength study of a sample of radio loud early-type galaxies chosen from the B2 sample. We performed surface photometry in BVR broad band filters and Hα narrow band filter on CCD images of sample galaxies using IGO 2m telescope, Pune (INDIA), to get radial profiles of various photometric and geometrical parameters that describe elliptical isophotes fitted to the 2D light distribution of the galaxies. The analysis of radial profiles of quantities such as the (local) surface brightness, the ellipticity, and the deviations from elliptical isophotes parametrized by the Fourier coefficients are main focus of our study. We generated color maps, residual maps, and dust extinction maps, Hα emission maps of the galaxies to study the morphology of the dust and ionized gas content present in the galaxies. We carried out detailed analysis of the properties of the dust present in our sample galaxies. Additionaly, we investigated properties of the dust in the central ~10 arcsec region of our sample galaxies using optical images available from the HST (WFPC2) data archive. We estimated mass and temperature of the dust, molecular gas mass, in the sample galaxies using FIR fluxes of the galaxies obtained from IRAS.
We used spectroscopic data available from the SDSS (DR7) to get an estimate of the mass of the central super massive black-hole for B2 1257+28 (NGC 4874). We plotted rotation curve for coma cluster (Abell 1656), which indicates the presence of dark matter halo around the galaxy B2 1257+28.
The UBVRI photometric follow-up of SN 2011fu has been initiated a few days after the explosion, shows a rise followed by steep decay in all bands and shares properties very similar to that seen in case of SN 1993J, with a possible detection of the adiabatic cooling phase at very early epochs. The spectral modeling performed with SYNOW suggests that the early-phase line velocities for H and Fe ii features were ~ 16000 km s−1 and ~ 14000 km s−1, respectively. Studies of rare class of type IIb SNe are important to understand the evolution of the possible progenitors of core-collapse SNe in more details.
We report an interesting case of a right temporal pre-auricular arteriovenous fistula (cirsoid aneurysm) causing intractable tinnitus successfully managed by transarterial n-butyl cyanoacrylate glue embolisation.
A 52-year-old female presented with a one-year history of tinnitus and pulsatile swelling in the right pre-auricular region. A colour Doppler ultrasound test and magnetic resonance angiography revealed a high-flow scalp arteriovenous fistula with a feeder vessel from the distal superficial temporal artery, which drained into the corresponding, dilated, tortuous vein. The patient underwent diagnostic digital subtraction angiography. This was followed by transarterial embolisation of the fistula using a 50 per cent mixture of n-butyl cyanoacrylate glue and Lipiodol®, with manual distal venous occlusion. A successful outcome was achieved with instant relief of symptoms.
Cirsoid aneurysms of the facial region, an uncommon cause of tinnitus, can be effectively managed by endovascular embolisation. This treatment obviates the need for surgery, which is associated with an increased risk of complications such as scarring, deformity and bleeding.
Comparative studies have been carried out on the performance of the photovoltaic devices with dissimilar shapes of the InN nanostructures fabricated on p-Si (100). The devices fabricated with the nanodots show a superior performance compared to the devices fabricated with the nanorods. The discussions have been carried out on the superior junction property, larger effective junction area and inherent random pyramidal topographical texture of the cell fabricated with nanodots. Such single junction devices exhibit a promising fill factor and external quantum efficiency of 38% and 27%, respectively, under concentrated AM1.5 illumination.
Nonpolar a-plane InN/GaN heterostructures were grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The growth of nonpolar a- plane InN / GaN heterostructures were confirmed by high resolution x-ray diffraction study. Reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns show the reasonably smooth surface of a-plane GaN and island-like growth for nonpolar a-plane InN film, which is further confirmed by scanning electron micrographs. An absorption edge in the optical spectra has the energy of 0.74 eV, showing blueshifts from the fundamental band gap of 0.7 eV. The rectifying behavior of the I-V curve indicates the existence of Schottky barrier at the InN and GaN interface. The Schottky barrier height (φb) and the ideality factor (η) for the InN/GaN heterostructures found to be 0.58 eV and 2.05 respectively.
Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS), an acute, fatal and septicemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by Pasteurella multocida, is important in tropical regions of the world, especially in African and Asian countries. The prevalence of disease has been well documented with predominant isolation of P. multocida serotypes B:2 and E:2. Conventional methods of identification such as serotyping, biotyping, antibiogram determination and pathogenicity as well as molecular methods (P. multocida-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a serogroup B-specific PCR assay, multiplex capsular typing system and loop-mediated isothermal amplification techniques) and characterization (restriction endonuclease analysis, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, repetitive extragenic palidromic PCR and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR analysis) are applied in parallel for rapid epidemiological investigations of HS outbreaks. Although several vaccine formulations including alum precipitated, oil adjuvant and multiple emulsion vaccines are commercially available, the quest for suitable broadly protective HS vaccines with long-lasting immunity is on the upsurge. Concurrently, attempts are being made to unravel the mysteries of the pathogen and its virulence factors, pathogenesis and determinants of protective immunity as well as diversity among strains of P. multocida. This review highlights the advances in these various aspects of HS.