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In a time-lagged study with independent measures (N=115, paired responses), we examined the interactive effects of perceived organizational politics and overall satisfaction on job stress, interpersonal conflict, job performance, and creativity. The data were collected from a diverse sample of employees from various workplaces in Pakistan. The findings showed that perceived politics had a positive effect on job stress, while overall satisfaction had a negative effect on interpersonal conflict and a positive effect on creative performance. The results also revealed that in the face of high politics, highly satisfied individuals demonstrated higher levels of creativity and job performance. However, in this context of high politics negative effects were also observed, namely that highly satisfied individuals participated in interpersonal conflict and experienced high stress.
Studies have produced conflicting evidence regarding whether cognitive
control deficits in patients with schizophrenia result from dysfunction
within the cognitive control network (CCN; top-down) and/or unisensory
To investigate CCN and sensory cortex involvement during multisensory
cognitive control in patients with schizophrenia.
Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls underwent functional
magnetic resonance imaging while performing a multisensory Stroop task
involving auditory and visual distracters.
Patients with schizophrenia exhibited an overall pattern of response
slowing, and these behavioural deficits were associated with a pattern of
patient hyperactivation within auditory, sensorimotor and posterior
parietal cortex. In contrast, there were no group differences in
functional activation within prefrontal nodes of the CCN, with small
effect sizes observed (incongruent–congruent trials). Patients with
schizophrenia also failed to upregulate auditory cortex with concomitant
increased attentional demands.
Results suggest a prominent role for dysfunction within auditory,
sensorimotor and parietal areas relative to prefrontal CCN nodes during
multisensory cognitive control.
Spontaneous regression of solid malignancy is extremely rare. It is virtually unheard of in the last half century in the published literature. The overwhelming majority of medical professionals do not know that this phenomenon exists.
This paper reports such a case involving a patient with proven laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in New Zealand. Whilst waiting for definitive treatment, he was afflicted with prolonged septicaemia secondary to peritonitis from percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion. Following a total laryngectomy, histology of the specimen did not contain any evidence of neoplasia.
Based predominantly on work established by Dr William Coley, we believe that a period of prolonged pyrexia preceding definitive surgery contributed to this apparent ‘miracle’. The time may be ripe to further debate on whether the medical profession should consider pyrexia therapy as a last resort treatment for patients deemed incurable by conventional methods.
In this study, a liquid larval diet as an artificial rearing medium was successfully tested for the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock. The biological parameters studied were pupal weight, adult emergence and fliers, sex ratio, fecundity and fertility. The insects performed most satisfactorily if corn (maize) oil was added to the liquid medium. Compared with the standard sponge ‘Kalle’ cloth, three locally available absorbent materials showed promise as a support matrix for feeding larvae.
Although neurogenic cough is increasingly recognised, its pathophysiology remains obscure. We describe two cases of chronic cough following laryngeal herpes zoster, a rarely described manifestation of varicella-zoster virus reactivation, and suggest that this may be analogous to post-herpetic neuralgia. The same mechanisms may cause both phenomena.
We describe two cases of chronic cough persisting for more than three months following an acute attack of laryngeal herpes zoster.
Neuronal damage by varicella-zoster virus results in irritable nociceptors and deafferentation, mechanisms known to cause post-herpetic neuralgia. When the vagus nerve is affected, as in laryngeal herpes zoster, the result may be a chronic cough. Similar damage may underlie chronic neurogenic cough in other contexts.
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on p-GaN/ZnO heterojunction were fabricated. GaN was deposited on sapphire using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), and two kinds of ZnO i.e. ZnO thin film deposited by sputtering and ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown by hydrothermal method were used as n-type layer respectively. MgO film with the thickness around 10 nm was deposited by electron-beam deposition to act as an interlayer between GaN and ZnO. Photoluminescence, electroluminescence and I-V curves were measured to compare the properties of GaN based heterojunction LEDs with different architectures. The existence of MgO interlayer as well as the morphology of ZnO obviously influenced the electrical and optical properties of GaN based LEDs. The effect of MgO interlayer on ZnO growth, properties and I-V curves and emission spectra of LEDs is discussed in detail.
ZnS quantum dots (QDs) chemically synthesized in PVP stabilizing medium have been coated with Zn(OH)2, SiO2and polystyrene (PS) shells as inorganic and organic passivation agents. to synthesize ZnS/Zn(OH)2, ZnS/SiO2and ZnS/PS QDs. PL properties of inorganically passivated ZnS/Zn(OH)2 and ZnS/SiO2 had reported band edge enhancement of 8-10 times, while organically passivated ZnS/PS QDs exhibit tremendous enhancement of band edge emission as much as 10-15 times,. Therefore inorganic and organic coating can passivate trap states of different energies on the surface of ZnS QDs.
The development of new chemically based growth techniques has opened the range of possible GaN applications. This paper reviews some of the challenges in the chemically based growth of GaN and related materials. Ammonothermal-based growth, hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) are chemically complex systems wherein the underlying mechanisms of growth are not well understood at present. All these systems require substantial experimental and theoretical efforts to determine the nature and kinetics of GaN growth. In the case of metal organic vapor phase epitaxy, the application of computational techniques based on density functional theory have augmented the more conventional experimental approaches to determining the growth chemistry. These chemical reaction schemes, when combined with computational thermal-fluid models of the reactor environment, provide the opportunity to predict growth rates, uniformity and eve ntually materials properties.
A study is made of irradiation effects on α-quartz crystals using the techniques of electrical conductivity and dielectric loss measurements. The initial radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) induced by X-ray irradiation over the temperature range from 94 to 250 K is found to have a nearly constant activation energy of 0.29 ± 0.02 eV. Since a large RIC still results from irradiation at temperatures too low for alkalis to be liberated, it is proposed that the RIC is due to holes (as small polarons) rather than to alkalis. The dielectric loss measurements in Na-swept quartz are used to follow the changes in the relaxation peaks due to the Al-Na defect as a function of radiation dose and annealing. At the same time a low-temperature “irradiation peak” is studied. Restoration of the main Al-Na peak during annealing occurs in two stages: one near 500 K and the other above 600 K. From the observed behavior of the irradiation peak in various crystals, it is concluded that this peak is probably due to alkali centers. Finally, a defect model interpreting the two annealing stages is presented.
The stress-induced crystalline α⇌β phase transition found in poly(butylene terephthalate) and its copolymers with poly(tetramethylene oxide) has been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy coupled with mechanical measurements. The phase transformation behavior was explained in terms of a cooperative model which considered both intermolecular as well as intramolecular interactions within the crystal. It was shown that the strength of the intramolecular interactions increased with length of the hard segments and that the strength of the intermolecular interactions increased with perfection and lateral size of the crystals. The intermolecular interaction was assumed to be dominated by the interaction between neighboring terephthalate groups. The “mean” intramolecular energy was estimated at 0.40 Kcal/mole. This calculation was based on the potential energy of rotations of a carbonyl group about a benzene-carbonyl bond. Cooperativity between chains diminished when the surface to volume ratio increased above 2 x 10-2 Å-1.
In an immiscible Cu-Nb system, an amorphous alloy and two metastable crystalline phases were obtained by solid-state reaction of Cu-Nb multilayered films, and the formation of the alloy phases was found to be quite sensitive to the average composition of the films. At Nb concentration of 75at%, amorphization was achieved by 250°C annealing for 50 min, while in the films with compositions of 70 and 80 at% Nb, a simple cubic (a=0.405±0.005nm) and an orthorhombic phase (a=0.421, b=0.334, c=0.291±0.005nm) were observed, respectively. Thermodynamic calculation was conducted for the Nb-Cu alloy phases and the energetic state of the multilayers, which consisted of 9 Cu/Nb bilayers. It turned out that the excess free energy originating from the interfacial atoms could raise the multilayers to an energy level being higher than that of the amorphous or/and metastable crystalline phases both with a convex shape, and thus provided a major driving force for alloy phase formation in such immiscible system.
Refractory metal silicides, such as tungsten silicide (WSix), have been used for integrated circuit interconnect and self-aligned MESFET gates because of their low resistivity and thermal and chemical stability. These same characteristics make refractory metal silicides interesting materials for prospective use in micromechanical structures. However, little information on residual stresses, elastic moduli, or other micromechanical properties has been available for refractory metal silicide films.
This paper presents morphology and stress characteristics of sputter-deposited tungsten silicide films, including orientation-dependent variations, as functions of deposition parameters. The biaxial elastic modulus and thermal coefficient of expansion are found for our sputtered films. Stress-measurement methods and annealing are discussed. Released diaphragms of different sizes and shapes, having controlled residual stress, have been fabricated.
Control of alloy composition and processing to achieve grain coarsening resistance in rapidly solidified alloys is examined via the theory of grain boundary pinning and particle coarsening. The principles are illustrated for the case of manganese sulfides in steels. A thermodynamic survey of potential stable dispersed phases identifies TiN and rare-earth sulfides as particularly promising for alloy development via rapid solidification.
Low dielectric constant polymers offer many advantages in circuit performance, such as power dissipation, crosstalk and RC delay, when used as inter-layer dielectrics (ILDs). Silicon dioxide, a material commonly used as an ILD has a dielectric constant of 4.0. Organic polymers that have dielectric constant values ranging from 2.0 to 3.0 offer attractive alternatives to SiO2. However, it has been a great challenge to find organic polymers with thermal stability up to 450 °C. We have characterized thermal properties of polymers using thermal desorption analysis. isothermal TGA and FTIR to identify weak functional groups. In addition, we have measured the hardnesses and moduli of these polymers and found that the values are much lower than those of SiO2.Stress distributions in the interconnect system were analyzed using finite element modeling in order to understand potential reliability problems.
Hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) or incoherent second-order light scattering technique has been used to investigate the second-order optical nonlinearities of nanoparticles and seems sensitive to nanoparticle aggregation. In the present work, CdS and ZnS nanoparticle colloids are prepared by the method of colloidal chemistry. From absorption spectra their average diameters are determined to be 5.0 nm for CdS and 2.5 nm for ZnS. Composite CdS-ZnS colloids are obtained by mixing the two colloids at different concentration ratio. The formation of the composites is confirmed by fluorescence measurement. The reduction of emission intensity of the ZnS colloid at 428 nm is observed with increasing CdS concentration, due to fluorescence quenching of the ZnS colloid after forming CdS-ZnS composites. The apparent combining constant of the two nanoparticles is determined to be 8.1×104 mol−1.L by fitting the relative fluorescence intensity of F0/F vs. the added CdS concentration. Upon 1064 nm laser pulse excitation, HRS signal is determined at frequency-doubling wavelength (532 nm) using photomultiplier tube (PMT). HRS experiments show that the composite CdS-ZnS colloids exhibit stronger HRS signal than both CdS and ZnS colloids, and a maximum of HRS signal appears at concentration ratio of [CdS]/[ZnS]=1. This is attributed to that the composite CdS-ZnS nanoparticles have lower symmetry which contributes substantially to the second-order optical nonlinearity of nanoparticles in the electric dipole approximation.
Multilayer bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells using chlorotricarbonyl rhenium (I) bis(phenylimino)acenaphthene (Re-DIAN) complex as photosensitizer were studied. The complex is sublimable, has lower band gap, good thermal stability and good processibility. It has broad absorption in UV-visible region. Therefore, Re-DIAN exhibits good photosensitising property for photovoltaic cells. Multilayer bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells with simple structures were fabricated base on Re-DIAN complex. The active layer consists of a blend of Re-DIAN and fullerene that were co-deposited in the same layer by vacuum deposition. The photovoltaic properties of the devices were studied by irradiaton under AM1.5 simulated solar light. The effects of changing the co-deposition film thickness, amount of Re-DIAN photosensitizer, and hole transporting materials were studied.