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Disease surveillance in wildlife populations presents a logistical challenge, yet is critical in gaining a deeper understanding of the presence and impact of wildlife pathogens. Erinaceus coronavirus (EriCoV), a clade C Betacoronavirus, was first described in Western European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in Germany. Here, our objective was to determine whether EriCoV is present, and if it is associated with disease, in Great Britain (GB). An EriCoV-specific BRYT-Green® real-time reverse transcription PCR assay was used to test 351 samples of faeces or distal large intestinal tract contents collected from casualty or dead hedgehogs from a wide area across GB. Viral RNA was detected in 10.8% (38) samples; however, the virus was not detected in any of the 61 samples tested from Scotland. The full genome sequence of the British EriCoV strain was determined using next generation sequencing; it shared 94% identity with a German EriCoV sequence. Multivariate statistical models using hedgehog case history data, faecal specimen descriptions and post-mortem examination findings found no significant associations indicative of disease associated with EriCoV in hedgehogs. These findings indicate that the Western European hedgehog is a reservoir host of EriCoV in the absence of apparent disease.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our research hypothesis is that resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) data can be used to identify regions of the brain which are associated with cognitive decline in patients – thereby providing a tool by which to characterize AD progression in patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We used data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) to analyze Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) questionnaire scores from 14 patients diagnosed with AD at two measurement occasions. RsfMRI data was available at the first of these occasions for these patients. These rsfMRI data were summarized into 264 node-based graph theory measures of clustering coefficient and eigenvector centrality. To address our research hypothesis, we modeled changes in patient MMSE scores over time as a function of these rsfMRI data, controlling for relevant confounding factors. This model accounted for the high-dimensionality of our predictor data, the longitudinal nature of the outcome, and our desire to identify a subset of regions in the brain most associated with the MMSE outcome. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The use of either the clustering coefficient or eigenvector centrality rsfMRI predictors in modeling MMSE scores for patients over time resulted in the identification of different subsets of brain regions associated with cognitive decline. This suggests that these predictors capture different information on patient propensity for cognitive decline. Further work is warranted to validate these results on a larger sample of ADNI patients. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We conclude that different rsfMRI graph theory measures capture different aspects of cognitive function and decline in patients, which could be a future consideration in clinical practice.
Variation in parental care by child's sex is evident across cultures. Evolutionary theory provides a functional explanation for this phenomenon, predicting that parents will favour specific children if this results in greater fitness payoffs. Here, we explore evidence for sex-biased parental care in a high-fertility, patriarchal and polygynous population in Tanzania, predicting that both mothers and fathers will favour sons in this cultural setting. Our data come from a cross-sectional study in rural northwestern Tanzania, which included surveys with mothers/guardians of 808 children under age 5. We focus on early childhood, a period with high mortality risk which is fundamental in establishing later-life physical and cognitive development. Examining multiple measures of direct/physical care provision (washing, feeding, playing with, supervising, co-sleeping and caring when sick), we demonstrate that fathers favour sons for washing, feeding and supervising, while maternal care is both more intensive and unrelated to child sex. We find no difference in parental care between girls and boys regarding the allocation of material resources and the duration of breastfeeding; or in terms of parental marital and co-residence status. This bias towards sons may result from higher returns to investment for fathers than mothers, and local gender norms about physical care provision.
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) due to Staphylococcus aureus have become increasingly common in the outpatient setting; however, risk factors for differentiating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) SSTIs are needed to better inform antibiotic treatment decisions. We performed a case-case-control study within 14 primary-care clinics in South Texas from 2007 to 2015. Overall, 325 patients [S. aureus SSTI cases (case group 1, n = 175); MRSA SSTI cases (case group 2, n = 115); MSSA SSTI cases (case group 3, n = 60); uninfected control group (control, n = 150)] were evaluated. Each case group was compared to the control group, and then qualitatively contrasted to identify unique risk factors associated with S. aureus, MRSA, and MSSA SSTIs. Overall, prior SSTIs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7·60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·31–17·45], male gender (aOR 1·74, 95% CI 1·06–2·85), and absence of healthcare occupation status (aOR 0·14, 95% CI 0·03–0·68) were independently associated with S. aureus SSTIs. The only unique risk factor for community-associated (CA)-MRSA SSTIs was a high body weight (⩾110 kg) (aOR 2·03, 95% CI 1·01–4·09).
We describe the serendipitous discovery of two new lithium-rich M5 members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association (Sco-Cen). Both stars exhibit large 12 and 22 μm excesses and strong, variable Hα emission which we attribute to accretion from circumstellar discs. Such stars are thought to be incredibly rare at the ~16 Myr median age of much of Sco-Cen. The serendipitous discovery of two accreting stars hosting large quantities of circumstellar material may be indicative of a sizeable age spread in Sco-Cen, or further evidence that disc dispersal and planet formation time-scales are longer around lower-mass stars.
Paterson showed how to construct an étale groupoid from an inverse semigroup using ideas from functional analysis. This construction was later simplified by Lenz. We show that Lenz’s construction can itself be further simplified by using filters: the topological groupoid associated with an inverse semigroup is precisely a groupoid of filters. In addition, idempotent filters are closed inverse subsemigroups and so determine transitive representations by means of partial bijections. This connection between filters and representations by partial bijections is exploited to show how linear representations of inverse semigroups can be constructed from the groups occurring in the associated topological groupoid.
Objectives: Alterations in serotonin impact bone metabolism in animal models, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been associated with increased fracture risk in older adults. SSRIs are commonly used in anorexia nervosa (AN), a condition that predisposes to low bone mineral density (BMD). Our objective was to determine whether SSRI use is associated with low BMD in AN.
Methods: We examined Z-scores for spine, hip, and whole body (WB) BMD, spine bone mineral apparent density, and WB bone mineral content/height (BMC/Ht) in females 12–21 years of age with AN who had never been on SSRIs, had been on SSRIs for <6 months (<6M), or had been on SSRIs for >6 months (>6M).
Results: Subjects on SSRIs for >6M had lower spine, femoral-neck, and WBBMD Z-scores than those on SSRIs for <6M. Hip BMD and WBBMC/Ht Z-scores were lowest in subjects on SSRIs for >6M. Duration of SSRI use, duration since AN diagnosis and duration of amenorrhea inversely predicted BMD, whereas BMI was a positive predictor. In a regression model, duration of SSRI use remained an independent negative predictor of BMD.
Discussion: Duration of SSRI use >6M is associated with low BMD in AN.
Conclusion: It may be necessary to monitor BMD more rigorously when duration of SSRI use exceeds 6M.
Objective: To better understand the efficacy and tolerability of atypical antipsychotics among racial groups, we reviewed data from four short-term (4–6 weeks), fixed-dose, placebo-controlled trials of ziprasidone for black, white, and overall populations of patients with schizophrenia.
Methods: Efficacy of ziprasidone in the black, white, and overall schizophrenic populations was compared to placebo using standard efficacy measures (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] total, PANSS negative, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale [BPRS], Clinical Global Impression-Severity [CGI-S], CGI-Improvement [CGI-I]).
Results: Black patients receiving ziprasidone demonstrated statistically significant improvements from baseline in PANSS total, PANSS negative, and BPRS, and improvements in CGI-S and CGI-I (n=99–149) compared with placebo (n=41–66); improvements were comparable to those observed in the overall population (n=451–639) and the white population (n=310–430). Interaction effect (treatment by race) was not significant for any efficacy variables. Ziprasidone was well-tolerated among black patients (n=175). Adjusted mean (least squares mean) overall weight gain in black patients receiving ziprasidone (n=124) was 1.8 kg. There were no increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, or random glucose in the black population.
Conclusion: Ziprasidone has similar efficacy and safety in black patients with schizophrenia compared with patients in the white and overall populations.
Creative writing is a multifaceted endeavor requiring verbal skills, extensive content knowledge, and the motivation to persist in spite of obstacles. In this chapter we focus particularly on creative writing in the form of science fiction and fantasy. We begin with a presentation of a particular view of creativity, namely the creative cognition approach that emphasizes knowledge and how it is used. We then consider ways in which access to that knowledge can, on the negative side, limit and, on the positive side, guide the originality and believability of new stories that authors generate. Along the way, we also make suggestions about ways in which novice and experienced writers can produce texts that are more engaging as well as informative and compelling.
Creative cognition is an approach to understanding and fostering creativity that focuses on fundamental cognitive processes, such as retrieval, conceptual combination, and analogical mapping, and on the conceptual structures on which those processes operate to yield novel and appropriate ideas (Finke, Ward, & Smith, 1992; Ward, Smith, & Finke, 1999). Its goal is to provide a rich theoretical account of the factors that underlie the production of new thoughts; that is, the mental representations that are the raw materials of creativity in all its forms, ranging from the most mundane to the most exalted.
The creative cognition approach recognizes that conceptual structures are developed and that cognitive processes operate within a broader context of individual differences, developmental trends, and environmental influences, among other factors.
The United States is becoming more diverse, ethnically and culturally. This process is happening primarily through immigration and also to some extent from differential birth rates of various ethnic groups. Over a third of today's Americans are considered ethnic minorities. Currently Hispanics and African Americans each make up about 15% of the population. It is anticipated that individuals of European ancestry will become less than a majority in 2050 (US Census, 2000).
These population changes have important implications for pharmacotherapy. It is now widely accepted that genetic differences between the various ethnic groups are quite small and probably less than individual differences. The recent experience with the newly approved congestive heart failure medication, BiDil, suggests that even minor differences can have significant pharmacological consequences.
The concept for BiDil developed from studies conducted in veterans administration hospitals on the effectiveness of the combination of two older drugs, hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate, on congestive heart failure. Neither drug had an indication for congestive heart failure. No significant effect was seen in these studies on the general veteran population with congestive heart failure. However, a post-hoc analysis showed that the combination agents were effective for the African Americans in the study (Carson et al., 1999). A subsequent larger study, the African American Heart Failure Trial confirmed the efficacy of the combination medication in a patient population with congestive heart failure that was exclusively African American (Taylor et al., 2004).
Changing management in UK lowland pasture systems has lead to larger fertiliser inputs, increased intensity and frequency of cutting and a movement towards silage rather than hay based systems. This has lead to changes in both floral diversity and the seasonal characteristics of sward architectural complexity, which include the loss of key vegetation structures at critical times of the year. e.g., seed heads. This has had large impacts on invertebrate communities in pasture systems and is thought to be the cause of large-scale declines in both the abundances and diversity of invertebrates (Duffey et al., 1974). This decline in invertebrate abundance has also been linked to a concomitant decline in farmland bird populations reliant on invertebrates as a food sources (Vickery et al., 2001). By manipulating cattle grazing, cutting and fertiliser regimes in intensively managed pasture systems the role of vegetation structure for a variety of invertebrate communities has been investigated.
Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses of the complete nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b gene (cytb) were used to examine the phylogenetic position of the rare snake Xenophidionschaeferi within the alethinophidian snakes. The cytochrome b sequence of this representative of the poorly known family Xenophiidae was compared with those of a large and comprehensive suite of alethinophidian taxa. The research presented here represents the first time all families of alethinophidian and caenophidian snakes have been included in a single molecular phylogenetic study. Results from ML and BI analyses suggest a possible sister taxon relationship between Xenophidion schaeferi and the Bolyeridae. Moreover, strong statistical support also indicates that Xenophiidae is a member of a clade that contains Pythonidae, Loxocemidae, Uropeltidae, Xenopeltidae and Bolyeriidae. Additionally, maximum parsimony and BI analyses of previously published morphological data revealed that these anatomical character states and potentially low taxonomic sampling produced little phylogenetic information valuable to understanding the relationship of Xenophiidae among the Alethinophidia.
The incidence, survival patterns, and presenting symptoms of children with medulloblastoma were studied. Data were ascertained from the Manchester Tumour Registry which is population-based and has collected data on all childhood malignancies in northwest England since 1954. Incidence rates standardized to the European standard population were calculated and Poisson regression models were used to examine temporal changes in the incidence rates during the period 1954 to 1997. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were derived and used to study changes in survival patterns. World-standardized incidence rates were 5.5 per million child years in males and 3.4 per million child years in females. Incidence rates increased from the 1950s to the 1980s but have declined recently. The 5-year survival rate has improved from 29 to 58% with similar rates for males and females. The 1-year survival rate has also improved, but females had worse survival at this point (58%) than males (75%). The type of symptom or sign at presentation is strongly affected by age, with 10 of the 22 recorded symptoms or signs showing significant age differences. The older the child is, the more likely is the presentation to show pressure features of headache, vomiting, and ophthalmic signs. Younger children present with non-specific features such as lethargy, behavioural disturbance, or increasing head size. Ataxia is seen in about 75% of children across the age range.