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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
The catastrophic declines of three species of ‘Critically Endangered’ Gyps vultures in South Asia were caused by unintentional poisoning by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac. Despite a ban on its veterinary use in 2006 (India, Nepal, Pakistan) and 2010 (Bangladesh), residues of diclofenac have continued to be found in cattle carcasses and in dead wild vultures. Another NSAID, meloxicam, has been shown to be safe to vultures. From 2012 to 2018, we undertook covert surveys of pharmacies in India, Nepal and Bangladesh to investigate the availability and prevalence of NSAIDs for the treatment of livestock. The purpose of the study was to establish whether diclofenac continued to be sold for veterinary use, whether the availability of meloxicam had increased and to determine which other veterinary NSAIDs were available. The availability of diclofenac declined in all three countries, virtually disappearing from pharmacies in Nepal and Bangladesh, highlighting the advances made in these two countries to reduce this threat to vultures. In India, diclofenac still accounted for 10–46% of all NSAIDs offered for sale for livestock treatment in 2017, suggesting weak enforcement of existing regulations and a continued high risk to vultures. Availability of meloxicam increased in all countries and was the most common veterinary NSAID in Nepal (89.9% in 2017). Although the most widely available NSAID in India in 2017, meloxicam accounted for only 32% of products offered for sale. In Bangladesh, meloxicam was less commonly available than the vulture-toxic NSAID ketoprofen (28% and 66%, respectively, in 2018), despite the partial government ban on ketoprofen in 2016. Eleven different NSAIDs were recorded, several of which are known or suspected to be toxic to vultures. Conservation priorities should include awareness raising, stricter implementation of current bans, bans on other vulture-toxic veterinary NSAIDs, especially aceclofenac and nimesulide, and safety-testing of other NSAIDs on Gyps vultures to identify safe and toxic drugs.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Although their 5-year survival >90%, young patients with HL face tradeoffs between near-term disease control and risk of treatment-related adverse effects decades later, so we seek to understand what patients and clinicians value in HL treatment decisions. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Leveraging our access to large cohorts of physicians, HL patients/survivors, and caregivers, we will use adaptive choice-based conjoint analysis (ACBC) to elicit treatment preferences when offered scenarios that incorporate tradeoffs, e.g., would a patient rather live 20 years with 10% risk of second malignancy or live 40 years with 30% of second malignancy. To reduce survey fatigue, prior choice responses limit subsequent scenarios. Through ACBC, we will identify variations in preferences and the importance of disease outcomes, treatment characteristics, and late effects for HL by respondent type. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The goal is a final sample of 200 physicians and 200 patients/caregivers. We will collect demographics from physicians (age, type of physician, years practicing, type of practice, gender, and geography) and patients/caregivers (age at diagnosis, time since treatment, race, gender, smoker, education). We will ask questions about values of disease outcomes, late effects (second cancers, cardiac disease, chronic fatigue and neuropathy), and treatment characteristics (uncertainty of late effects, salvageability). Results will include utilities about participants views on disease-control and late effects. We anticipate participants to value disease control over late effects. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our study will elicit how physicians and patients/caregivers value treatment tradeoffs for HL. In an era of multiple treatment choices with varying short- and long-term benefits and harms, identifying values and preferences become critical for patient-centered treatment decisions.
Uttarakhand is an Indian state in the Himalayan foothills, a favored adventure destination in the country due to abundant natural beauty. However, the terrain has also conferred an increased risk of earthquakes, flash floods, and major road tragedies, resulting in as many as 8 major natural disasters in the state in the preceding 20 years. AIIMS Rishikesh, an autonomous central institute, has been entrusted to build a Level 1 Trauma Center in Uttarakhand, which would help improve the response, coordination, and hence outcome in mass casualty scenarios (MCSs).
As a step toward the achievement of this larger goal, a workshop on MCS and management was conducted by the Department of Trauma Surgery in collaboration with Rambam Hospital, Haifa. We hereby present our template for conducting MCS drills in low resource settings like ours and the lessons learnt.
Process, logistics, limitations, workforce, scheduling, overview, and report of the MCS drill conducted are discussed hereafter.
This template may be replicated by hospitals that intend to conduct similar MCS drills in low resource settings, realizing the real threat of MCS occurrence in our country at anytime.
This paper reports an integration of dual band microstrip antenna with thin film amorphous silicon solar cell which creates a wearable system to harvest microwave energy. The multiple layers in the encapsulation of the thin film solar cell are used as a substrate for microstrip antenna. The rectifier and matching circuit are designed on cotton jeans material and the whole system is mechanically supported by the foam of 5 mm thick. The performance of the antenna is studied for the mechanical bending condition. The device has maintained good power conversion efficiency. The efficiency of the voltage doubler is tested by varying radio frequency power levels from −30 to10 dBm. The voltage doubler conversion efficiency at 1.85 and 2.45 GHz are 58 and 43%, respectively, for a load of 7.5 kΩ for an input power level of −5 dBm.
Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak occurred in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India in 2018 with a case fatality rate of 91% (21/23). In 2019, a single case with full recovery occurred in Ernakulam district. We described the response and control measures by the Indian Council of Medical Research and Kerala State Government for the 2019 NiV outbreak. The establishment of Point of Care assays and monoclonal antibodies administration facility for early diagnosis, response and treatment, intensified contact tracing activities, bio-risk management and hospital infection control training of healthcare workers contributed to effective control and containment of NiV outbreak in Ernakulam.
To assess psychiatric comorbidity in patients of alcohol dependence.
All the patients of alcohol dependence attending alcohol and drug de-addiction OPD and adult psychiatry OPD on specific days were screened. Those fulfilling the selection criteria were included in the study. A detailed evaluation was done for socio-demographic variables and history of drug using semi-structured proforma especially prepared for the study. Diagnosis of alcohol dependence was made according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. The patients were seen for co-morbid psychiatric illness by applying Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR I & II (SCID I & II).
Out of 37 patients 24 (64.8%) were found to have comorbid psychiatric illness. Axis I and Axis II comorbidity was found in 64.8% and 5.4% of the samples, respectively. Patients of cluster A & B personality were equally distributed in the sample. Patients with more than one comorbidity accounted for 37.8% of the sample.
Psychiatric comorbidity in alcohol dependence is very high, other substance in particular. Number of comorbid diagnoses in a person may as high as three.
There are major health care implications of quality of life (QOL) in longstanding disorders such as Bipolar affective disorder (BD) for the patients and their caregivers.
The aim of the present study is to compare quality of life among bipolar disorder patients, their caregivers and to assess whether the level of depression correlates with the scores of quality of life in Bipolar Disorder patients.
We compared bipolar disorder (N = 40), their caregivers (N = 40) and no psychiatric illnesses (N = 150) on health related quality of life (HRQOL) which was assessed using the 26-item World Health Organization QOL instrument (WHOQOL-BREF Hindi version). All patients were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV. Within the group with bipolar disorder, we examined the relationship between HRQOL using WHOQOL BREF Hindi version and depression assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS).
Patients in bipolar disorder group had lower QOL on all the four domains compared to healthy controls, caregivers. The four domains of the WHOQOL scale correlated negatively with the HDRS.
Our findings suggest that bipolar depression and residual symptoms of depression are negatively correlated with QOL in BD patients.
Genetic diversity is a valuable asset for crop improvement. In this study, a total of 50 rice genotypes were screened for salinity tolerance at the reproductive stage using gravel-based hydroponics, soil, controlled mini-field and field methods. Different morpho-agronomic, physiological markers and tolerance indices were used to classify tolerant and susceptible genotypes. Our results showed high genetic variability in response of rice genotypes to salinity using different screening methods. The significant effect (P < 0.01) of salinity include increased Na+ sequestration in the flag leaf, increased unfilled grains (except for the field method) and reduced pollen fertility, total yield, panicle length and the average number of filled grains per panicle. Plant height (except for the soil method) and K+ ion concentration in the flag leaf were not significantly affected by salinity (P > 0.05). Genetic diversity analysis indicated that the germplasm evaluated exhibits moderate diversity (PIC
= 0.2085). Cluster analysis using single nucleotide polymorphisms showed that the genetic make-up of rice germplasm somehow did not necessarily indicate their over-all tolerance or susceptibility to salinity. This study proved that the controlled mini-field method is the most advantageous among the screening methods while geometric mean productivity, stress tolerance index and yield index are the tolerance indices that can be classified as better predictors of salinity tolerance considering the yield potentials of the genotypes. The genotypes Nona Bokra and Mushkan 41 can be used for breeding in the future through low Na+:K+ ratio while Damodar and Bhura Rata 4-10 for breeding salt-tolerant cultivars with higher yield potentials.
The present work describes a unique planar low-profile wideband circularly polarized Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna operating in the X-band, with pattern and polarization diversity over the entire axial-ratio bandwidth (ARBW). The design is unique in the sense that a simple grounded stub introduced between two linearly polarized monopole antennas has been used to realize wideband circular polarization, pattern diversity, and high isolation between antennas. The ARBW of the MIMO antenna is 2.45 GHz (8.11–10.56) 3 dB and its impedance matching bandwidth is 3.52 GHz (8.07–11.59). The isolation is better than 20 dB. The antenna can be easily adapted to operate other frequency bands by simple frequency scaling. It has been fabricated on an FR-4 substrate and its performance has been compared against several existing available antennas.
Data mining is a process of finding correlations and collecting and analysing a huge amount of data in a database to discover patterns or relationships. Flight delay creates significant problems in the present aviation system. Data mining techniques are desired for analysing the performance in which micro-level causes propagate to make system-level patterns of delay. Analysing flight delays is very difficult – both when looking from a historical view as well as when estimating delays with forecast demand. This paper proposes using Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayesian (NB), K-nearest neighbour (KNN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to study and analyse delays among aircrafts. The performance of different data mining methods is found in the different regions of the updated datasets on these classifiers. Finally, the result shows a significant variation in the performance of different data mining methods and feature selection for this problem. This paper aims to deal with how data mining techniques can be used to understand difficult aircraft system delays in aviation. Our aim is to develop a classification model for studying and reducing delay using different data mining methods and, in this manner, to show that DT has a greater classification accuracy. The different feature selectors are used in this study in order to reduce the number of initial attributes. Our results clearly demonstrate the value of DT for analysing and visualising how system-level effects happen from subsystem-level causes.
A cross-sectional study on six dairy farms was conducted to ascertain the occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli in calves. Two-hundred and seventy-nine isolates of E. coli were recovered from 90 faecal samples from apparently healthy (45) and diarrhoeal (45) calves. The isolates were screened for phenotypic susceptibility to carbapenems and production of metallo β-lactamase, as well as five carbapenemase resistance genes by PCR, and overexpression of efflux pumps. Eighty-one isolates (29.03%) were resistant to at least one of three carbapenem antibiotics [meropenem (23.30%), imipenem (2.15%) and ertapenem (1.43%)], and one isolate was positive for the blaVIM gene which was located on an Incl1 plasmid of a novel sequence type (ST 297) by multilocus sequence typing. The majority (83.95%) of isolates had an active efflux pump. Calves housed on concrete floors were approximately seven times more likely to acquire meropenem-resistant isolates than those housed on earthen floors (95% CI 1.27–41.54). In India, carbapenem drugs are not used in food animal treatment, hence carbapenem-resistant strains in calves possibly originate from the natural environment or human contact and is of public health importance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of blaVIM carbapenemases gene in calves from India.
We report evolution of the surface and wetting behavior of Barium fluoride (BaF2) thin films under the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation at different fluences. The analogy of this study may be used may be used for the development of dust resistant fabric technology for rural area. The ion irradiation has been performed at normal incidence on the films with Au ions having 100 MeV energy. Further, the wettability of irradiated surfaces is studied through contact angle of water droplet. The value of contact angle of droplet changes with irradiation, it increases from 111° to 123° with the increase in fluence from 5×1011 to 1×1013 ions/cm2. The mechanism of wettability of BaF2 is explained on the basis of increase in contact area of water droplet with surface. SHI irradiation deposits a huge amount of energy in materials due to extreme electronic excitation and it causes a large increase in the temperature of material around the ion track. Ion beam irradiation leads to the large ejection of atoms from the surface which is one of the major factors in increasing the roughness of the surface and thus for the change in contact angle.
In June 2012, the Botswana Ministry of Health and Wellness (MOHW; Gaborone, Botswana) initiated a national Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in response to significant morbidity and mortality associated with prehospital emergencies. The MOHW requested external expertise to train its developing workforce. Simulation-based training was planned to equip these health care providers with clinical knowledge, procedural skills, and communication techniques.
The objective of this study was to assess the educational needs of the pioneer Botswana MOHW EMS providers based on retrospective EMS logbook review and EMS provider feedback to guide development of a novel educational curriculum.
Data were abstracted from a representative sample of the Gaborone, Botswana MOHW EMS response log from 2013-2014 and were quantified into the five most common call types for both adults and children. Informal focus groups with health professionals and EMS staff, as well as surveys, were used to rank common response call types and self-perceived educational needs.
Based on 1,506 calls, the most common adult response calls were for obstetric emergencies, altered mental status, gastrointestinal/abdominal pain, trauma, gynecological emergencies, and cardiovascular and respiratory distress-related emergencies. The most common pediatric response calls were for respiratory distress, gastrointestinal complaints/dehydration, trauma and musculoskeletal injuries, newborn delivery, seizures, and toxic ingestion/exposure. The EMS providers identified these same chief complaints as priorities for training using the qualitative approach. A locally relevant, simulation-based curriculum for the Botswana MOHW EMS system was developed and implemented based on these data.
: Trauma, respiratory distress, gastrointestinal complaints, and puerperal/perinatal emergencies were common conditions for all age groups. Other age-specific conditions were also identified as educational needs based on epidemiologic data and provider feedback. This needs assessment may be useful when designing locally relevant EMS curricula in other low-income and middle-income countries.GlombNW, KosokoAA, DoughtyCB, RusMC, ShahMI, CoxM, GalapiC, ParkesPS, KumarS, LabaB.Needs Assessment for Simulation Training for Prehospital Providers in Botswana. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(6):621–626.
The grain boundary network of nanocrystalline Cu foils was modified by the application of cyclic loadings and elevated temperatures. Broadly, the changes to the boundary network were directly correlated with the applied temperature and accumulated strain, including a 300% increase in the twin length fraction. By independently varying each treatment variable, a matrix of grain boundary statistics was built to check the plausibility of hypothesized mechanisms against their expected temperature and stress/strain dependences. These comparisons allow the field of candidate mechanisms to be significantly narrowed. Most importantly, the effects of temperature and strain on twin length fraction were found to be strongly synergistic, with the combined effect being ∼150% that of the summed individual contributions. Looking beyond scalar metrics, an analysis of the grain boundary network showed that twin related domain formation favored larger sizes and repeated twin variant selection over the creation of many small domains with diverse variants.
This study was conducted to characterize new plant type (NPT) traits among 650 genetically diverse rice genotypes of tropical japonica and indica and to establish an initial core set for NPT traits. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits assessed except flag length and width and leaf angles. Dendrogram categorized the genotypes into five distinct duration groups. Genotypes viz., Pumphamah, IRGC5097, IRGC37015, IRGC43741, IRGC50448, IRGC53089, IRGC39111, IRGC18021, Haorei Machang, IRGC44069, IRGC8269, Thangmoi, IRGC33130 and IRGC29772 were identified as possessing strong culm. Long panicles with a length of more than 35 cm were found in IRGC8269, IRGC9147, IRGC14694, IRGC19642, IRGC27435, IRGC39111, IRGC31051, IRGC26011and IRGC25892. Ideal leaf angle of NPT genotypes of 5°, 10° and 20° of flag leaf, 1st and 2nd leaves was not found in any genotype but with a combination of 5°, 10° and 10° was observed in IRGC63102 and IRGC66644. NPT flag leaf length and width of 50 and 2 cm, respectively, was seen in ‘Kemenya Kepeu’ and ‘IRGC29772’. High grain number of more than 350 was observed in IRGC53089, IRGC31063 and Azhoghi. A total of 72 genotypes were found with a combination of one or more ideal plant type traits of which, hierarchical cluster analysis based on genetic distances selected 32 as NPT core set. This core set will serve as an ideal genetic resource for breeding programs aimed at NPT development.
The present study aimed to evaluate growth performance and meat quality of broiler chicken with respect to feeding of 100 g flaxseed meal (FM)/kg and increasing lysine levels in the broiler diet. The results revealed no effect of lysine and FM feeding on growth performance except for a negative effect of FM on feed efficiency of birds, which was countered by feeding 1.25 BIS lysine. Feeding FM improved the fatty acid profile of broiler chicken meat significantly, whereas no effect was observed for increasing lysine levels beyond BIS recommendation. FM significantly reduced meat cholesterol, fat, water-holding capacity (WHC), extract release volume (ERV) and antioxidant potential, whereas it increased the pH of fresh meat, drip loss and lipid peroxidation of broiler chicken meat. As compared with other lysine levels, generally 1.25 BIS lysine significantly increased the pH of refrigerated stored meat, WHC, ERV and antioxidant potential, whereas it significantly reduced cholesterol, fat, drip loss and lipid peroxidation of broiler chicken meat. Thus, the inclusion of 100 g FM/kg diet along with 1.25 BIS lysine in broiler ration was optimum for desirable broiler performance, fatty acid profile, oxidative stability and other functional properties of broiler chicken meat.