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Genetic diversity is a valuable asset for crop improvement. In this study, a total of 50 rice genotypes were screened for salinity tolerance at the reproductive stage using gravel-based hydroponics, soil, controlled mini-field and field methods. Different morpho-agronomic, physiological markers and tolerance indices were used to classify tolerant and susceptible genotypes. Our results showed high genetic variability in response of rice genotypes to salinity using different screening methods. The significant effect (P < 0.01) of salinity include increased Na+ sequestration in the flag leaf, increased unfilled grains (except for the field method) and reduced pollen fertility, total yield, panicle length and the average number of filled grains per panicle. Plant height (except for the soil method) and K+ ion concentration in the flag leaf were not significantly affected by salinity (P > 0.05). Genetic diversity analysis indicated that the germplasm evaluated exhibits moderate diversity (PIC
= 0.2085). Cluster analysis using single nucleotide polymorphisms showed that the genetic make-up of rice germplasm somehow did not necessarily indicate their over-all tolerance or susceptibility to salinity. This study proved that the controlled mini-field method is the most advantageous among the screening methods while geometric mean productivity, stress tolerance index and yield index are the tolerance indices that can be classified as better predictors of salinity tolerance considering the yield potentials of the genotypes. The genotypes Nona Bokra and Mushkan 41 can be used for breeding in the future through low Na+:K+ ratio while Damodar and Bhura Rata 4-10 for breeding salt-tolerant cultivars with higher yield potentials.
The present work describes a unique planar low-profile wideband circularly polarized Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna operating in the X-band, with pattern and polarization diversity over the entire axial-ratio bandwidth (ARBW). The design is unique in the sense that a simple grounded stub introduced between two linearly polarized monopole antennas has been used to realize wideband circular polarization, pattern diversity, and high isolation between antennas. The ARBW of the MIMO antenna is 2.45 GHz (8.11–10.56) 3 dB and its impedance matching bandwidth is 3.52 GHz (8.07–11.59). The isolation is better than 20 dB. The antenna can be easily adapted to operate other frequency bands by simple frequency scaling. It has been fabricated on an FR-4 substrate and its performance has been compared against several existing available antennas.
Data mining is a process of finding correlations and collecting and analysing a huge amount of data in a database to discover patterns or relationships. Flight delay creates significant problems in the present aviation system. Data mining techniques are desired for analysing the performance in which micro-level causes propagate to make system-level patterns of delay. Analysing flight delays is very difficult – both when looking from a historical view as well as when estimating delays with forecast demand. This paper proposes using Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayesian (NB), K-nearest neighbour (KNN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to study and analyse delays among aircrafts. The performance of different data mining methods is found in the different regions of the updated datasets on these classifiers. Finally, the result shows a significant variation in the performance of different data mining methods and feature selection for this problem. This paper aims to deal with how data mining techniques can be used to understand difficult aircraft system delays in aviation. Our aim is to develop a classification model for studying and reducing delay using different data mining methods and, in this manner, to show that DT has a greater classification accuracy. The different feature selectors are used in this study in order to reduce the number of initial attributes. Our results clearly demonstrate the value of DT for analysing and visualising how system-level effects happen from subsystem-level causes.
We report evolution of the surface and wetting behavior of Barium fluoride (BaF2) thin films under the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation at different fluences. The analogy of this study may be used may be used for the development of dust resistant fabric technology for rural area. The ion irradiation has been performed at normal incidence on the films with Au ions having 100 MeV energy. Further, the wettability of irradiated surfaces is studied through contact angle of water droplet. The value of contact angle of droplet changes with irradiation, it increases from 111° to 123° with the increase in fluence from 5×1011 to 1×1013 ions/cm2. The mechanism of wettability of BaF2 is explained on the basis of increase in contact area of water droplet with surface. SHI irradiation deposits a huge amount of energy in materials due to extreme electronic excitation and it causes a large increase in the temperature of material around the ion track. Ion beam irradiation leads to the large ejection of atoms from the surface which is one of the major factors in increasing the roughness of the surface and thus for the change in contact angle.
A cross-sectional study on six dairy farms was conducted to ascertain the occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli in calves. Two-hundred and seventy-nine isolates of E. coli were recovered from 90 faecal samples from apparently healthy (45) and diarrhoeal (45) calves. The isolates were screened for phenotypic susceptibility to carbapenems and production of metallo β-lactamase, as well as five carbapenemase resistance genes by PCR, and overexpression of efflux pumps. Eighty-one isolates (29.03%) were resistant to at least one of three carbapenem antibiotics [meropenem (23.30%), imipenem (2.15%) and ertapenem (1.43%)], and one isolate was positive for the blaVIM gene which was located on an Incl1 plasmid of a novel sequence type (ST 297) by multilocus sequence typing. The majority (83.95%) of isolates had an active efflux pump. Calves housed on concrete floors were approximately seven times more likely to acquire meropenem-resistant isolates than those housed on earthen floors (95% CI 1.27–41.54). In India, carbapenem drugs are not used in food animal treatment, hence carbapenem-resistant strains in calves possibly originate from the natural environment or human contact and is of public health importance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of blaVIM carbapenemases gene in calves from India.
In June 2012, the Botswana Ministry of Health and Wellness (MOHW; Gaborone, Botswana) initiated a national Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in response to significant morbidity and mortality associated with prehospital emergencies. The MOHW requested external expertise to train its developing workforce. Simulation-based training was planned to equip these health care providers with clinical knowledge, procedural skills, and communication techniques.
The objective of this study was to assess the educational needs of the pioneer Botswana MOHW EMS providers based on retrospective EMS logbook review and EMS provider feedback to guide development of a novel educational curriculum.
Data were abstracted from a representative sample of the Gaborone, Botswana MOHW EMS response log from 2013-2014 and were quantified into the five most common call types for both adults and children. Informal focus groups with health professionals and EMS staff, as well as surveys, were used to rank common response call types and self-perceived educational needs.
Based on 1,506 calls, the most common adult response calls were for obstetric emergencies, altered mental status, gastrointestinal/abdominal pain, trauma, gynecological emergencies, and cardiovascular and respiratory distress-related emergencies. The most common pediatric response calls were for respiratory distress, gastrointestinal complaints/dehydration, trauma and musculoskeletal injuries, newborn delivery, seizures, and toxic ingestion/exposure. The EMS providers identified these same chief complaints as priorities for training using the qualitative approach. A locally relevant, simulation-based curriculum for the Botswana MOHW EMS system was developed and implemented based on these data.
: Trauma, respiratory distress, gastrointestinal complaints, and puerperal/perinatal emergencies were common conditions for all age groups. Other age-specific conditions were also identified as educational needs based on epidemiologic data and provider feedback. This needs assessment may be useful when designing locally relevant EMS curricula in other low-income and middle-income countries.GlombNW, KosokoAA, DoughtyCB, RusMC, ShahMI, CoxM, GalapiC, ParkesPS, KumarS, LabaB.Needs Assessment for Simulation Training for Prehospital Providers in Botswana. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(6):621–626.
The grain boundary network of nanocrystalline Cu foils was modified by the application of cyclic loadings and elevated temperatures. Broadly, the changes to the boundary network were directly correlated with the applied temperature and accumulated strain, including a 300% increase in the twin length fraction. By independently varying each treatment variable, a matrix of grain boundary statistics was built to check the plausibility of hypothesized mechanisms against their expected temperature and stress/strain dependences. These comparisons allow the field of candidate mechanisms to be significantly narrowed. Most importantly, the effects of temperature and strain on twin length fraction were found to be strongly synergistic, with the combined effect being ∼150% that of the summed individual contributions. Looking beyond scalar metrics, an analysis of the grain boundary network showed that twin related domain formation favored larger sizes and repeated twin variant selection over the creation of many small domains with diverse variants.
A new target design is presented to model high-energy radiative accretion shocks in polars. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained on the GEKKO XII laser facility for the POLAR project. The experimental results are compared with 2D FCI2 simulations to characterize the dynamics and the structure of plasma flow before and after the collision. The good agreement between simulations and experimental data confirms the formation of a reverse shock where cooling losses start modifying the post-shock region. With the multi-material structure of the target, a hydrodynamic collimation is exhibited and a radiative structure coupled with the reverse shock is highlighted in both experimental data and simulations. The flexibility of the laser energy produced on GEKKO XII allowed us to produce high-velocity flows and study new and interesting radiation hydrodynamic regimes between those obtained on the LULI2000 and Orion laser facilities.
In this paper, we present a model characterizing the interaction of a radiative shock (RS) with a solid material, as described in a recent paper (Koenig et al., Phys. Plasmas, 24, 082707 (2017)), the new model is then related to recent experiments performed on the GEKKO XII laser facility. The RS generated in a xenon gas cell propagates towards a solid obstacle that is ablated by radiation coming from the shock front and the radiative precursor, mimicking processes occurring in astrophysical phenomena. The model presented here calculates the dynamics of the obstacle expansion, which depends on several parameters, notably the geometry and the temperature of the shock. All parameters required for the model have been obtained from experiments. Good agreement between experimental data and the model is found when spherical geometry is taken into account. As a consequence, this model is a useful and easy tool to infer parameters from experimental data (such as the shock temperature), and also to design future experiments.
This study was conducted to characterize new plant type (NPT) traits among 650 genetically diverse rice genotypes of tropical japonica and indica and to establish an initial core set for NPT traits. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits assessed except flag length and width and leaf angles. Dendrogram categorized the genotypes into five distinct duration groups. Genotypes viz., Pumphamah, IRGC5097, IRGC37015, IRGC43741, IRGC50448, IRGC53089, IRGC39111, IRGC18021, Haorei Machang, IRGC44069, IRGC8269, Thangmoi, IRGC33130 and IRGC29772 were identified as possessing strong culm. Long panicles with a length of more than 35 cm were found in IRGC8269, IRGC9147, IRGC14694, IRGC19642, IRGC27435, IRGC39111, IRGC31051, IRGC26011and IRGC25892. Ideal leaf angle of NPT genotypes of 5°, 10° and 20° of flag leaf, 1st and 2nd leaves was not found in any genotype but with a combination of 5°, 10° and 10° was observed in IRGC63102 and IRGC66644. NPT flag leaf length and width of 50 and 2 cm, respectively, was seen in ‘Kemenya Kepeu’ and ‘IRGC29772’. High grain number of more than 350 was observed in IRGC53089, IRGC31063 and Azhoghi. A total of 72 genotypes were found with a combination of one or more ideal plant type traits of which, hierarchical cluster analysis based on genetic distances selected 32 as NPT core set. This core set will serve as an ideal genetic resource for breeding programs aimed at NPT development.
The present study aimed to evaluate growth performance and meat quality of broiler chicken with respect to feeding of 100 g flaxseed meal (FM)/kg and increasing lysine levels in the broiler diet. The results revealed no effect of lysine and FM feeding on growth performance except for a negative effect of FM on feed efficiency of birds, which was countered by feeding 1.25 BIS lysine. Feeding FM improved the fatty acid profile of broiler chicken meat significantly, whereas no effect was observed for increasing lysine levels beyond BIS recommendation. FM significantly reduced meat cholesterol, fat, water-holding capacity (WHC), extract release volume (ERV) and antioxidant potential, whereas it increased the pH of fresh meat, drip loss and lipid peroxidation of broiler chicken meat. As compared with other lysine levels, generally 1.25 BIS lysine significantly increased the pH of refrigerated stored meat, WHC, ERV and antioxidant potential, whereas it significantly reduced cholesterol, fat, drip loss and lipid peroxidation of broiler chicken meat. Thus, the inclusion of 100 g FM/kg diet along with 1.25 BIS lysine in broiler ration was optimum for desirable broiler performance, fatty acid profile, oxidative stability and other functional properties of broiler chicken meat.
The cryptic nature and lack of consistent biological control of the stem fly, Melanagromyza sojae Zehntner, an emerging pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, necessitated the monitoring and assessment of the impact of the parasitoid complex on seasonal regulation of the pest population. In this paper, we measure and relate, using the host density as a predictor variable, the seasonal density dependence of M. sojae parasitoids and the level of parasitism in soybean fields. The results revealed density dependence of parasitioids. The populations built up concomitant with the host insect, reached their peak during the mid-season, and declined towards the end of the crop season. A complex of 10 species of hymenopteran parasitoids comprising six species from Pteromalidae and one species each from the families Eurytomitidae, Eucoilidae, Braconidae and Eulopidae had a significant impact on M. sojae populations with a peak parasitism of ~50%. The seasonality and relative abundance of parasitoids were explored. Eurytoma sp. (Eurytomitidae) and Gronotoma sp. (Eucoilidae) were the most prevalent parasitoids throughout the season, whereas the pteromalid Sphegigaster sp. was dominant during the mid-season. The modulation of management practices aimed at conservation of these bioagents could improve the biological control of M. sojae populations. We discuss the practicality of several management options aimed at achieving this goal.
This study estimates the symptomatology of attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult mental health services (AMHS) outpatient clinics.
All consecutive patients attending any of the outpatients’ clinics in Sligo/Leitrim AMHS were invited to participate. Participants completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) self-report. Clinical notes were reviewed to identify those with a pre-existing ADHD diagnosis.
From 822 attending the clinics, 62 did not meet inclusion criteria, 97 declined to participate and 29 had incomplete data in either of the screening scales, leaving 634 (77%) eligible for full study analysis. Mean age was 40.38 (s.d.: 12.85), and 326 (51.4%) were females. In total, 215 (33.9%) screened positive on the WURS for childhood onset ADHD and 219 (34.5%) participants scored positive on the ASRS. Applying a more stringent criteria of scoring above cut-offs on both scales, suggested 131 (20.7%) screened positive on both. Only three (2.3%) had a prior clinical diagnosis.
This preliminary study suggests the possibility of relatively higher rates of ADHD in a general AMHS than previously thought, however, given the possibility of overlapping symptoms with other major psychiatric disorders in adulthood and recall bias further research is needed before drawing firm conclusions.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: This research project envisions the integration of Homeless Management Information System (HMIS) and UI Health Cerner electronic medical record (EMR) system with the following goals: (1) enable sharing of data about the status of the housing insecure and homeless. (2) Identify and match patient record accurately. (3) Record housing insecurity or homelessness information with structured data elements in the EMR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We created a Master Person Index (MPI) of the homeless individuals from HMSI using OpenEMPI software package, which is an open source implementation of an Enterprise Master Patient Index (EMPI). An entity model was generated based on the selective data elements from HMIS database, which were relevant for the patient identity management and healthcare service management. An automated script was implemented to extract data from HMIS and load it into OpenEMPI to build the MPI. Once the MPI is setup, the Emergency Department users were able to perform patient identity matching and confirm housing insecure or homeless status of their patients by querying the index using the web-based tool. We developed structured data elements to record homelessness information, which will allow us to measure the prevalence of this risk among patients. We are also exploring the possibility to integrate the systems the using the IHE PIX/PDQ profile, which provides ways for healthcare applications to query a patient information server for a patient based on user-defined search criteria, and retrieve a patient’s information directly into the application. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We implemented a MPI of homeless individuals, which would allow the emergency department users to perform patient identity matching of housing insecure or homeless patients, without undue privacy intrusions. We are confident that IHE PIX/PDQ profile is able to support the integration of healthcare and housing and homeless services systems and enable the data sharing in an efficient way. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The project addressed the gap in the sharing of data about housing insecure or homeless persons between healthcare and housing and social services that will result in improvements in coordination of care, reduce the cycle time from recognition of risk to the referral to housing and services and improve health outcomes and residential stability. Successful completion of this integration project will give us a model that we can scale to many other communities.
We computationally investigate coupling of a nonlinear rotational dissipative element to a sprung circular cylinder allowed to undergo transverse vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in an incompressible flow. The dissipative element is a ‘nonlinear energy sink’ (NES), consisting of a mass rotating at fixed radius about the cylinder axis and a linear viscous damper that dissipates energy from the motion of the rotating mass. We consider the Reynolds number range
$20\leqslant Re\leqslant 120$
based on cylinder diameter and free-stream velocity, and the cylinder restricted to rectilinear motion transverse to the mean flow. Interaction of this NES with the flow is mediated by the cylinder, whose rectilinear motion is mechanically linked to rotational motion of the NES mass through nonlinear inertial coupling. The rotational NES provides significant ‘passive’ suppression of VIV. Beyond suppression however, the rotational NES gives rise to a range of qualitatively new behaviours not found in transverse VIV of a sprung cylinder without an NES, or one with a ‘rectilinear NES’, considered previously. Specifically, the NES can either stabilize or destabilize the steady, symmetric, motionless-cylinder solution and can induce conditions under which suppression of VIV (and concomitant reduction in lift and drag) is accompanied by a greatly elongated region of attached vorticity in the wake, as well as conditions in which the cylinder motion and flow are temporally chaotic at relatively low
Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar), commonly known as banana corm weevil, is an important economic pest in Asia that can cause severe yield loss depending upon the stage at which infestation occurs. In spite of its economic importance, little is known about the population structure of this pest in India. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were used to characterize the population genetic structure of C. sordidus collected from five hot spot locations in India. Nineteen RAPD primers and five selective AFLP primer combinations generated 147 and 304 amplification products, respectively. UPGMA dendrograms generated with both marker systems failed to reveal populations clustered based on geographic distance, which was confirmed by the Mantel test, which did not show a strong correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance. Values of indices of genetic identity showed that the populations were closely related. Though the gene flow estimate (Nm) between the populations was 0.469, suggesting restricted gene flow, the populations are not genetically distinct. These observations suggest that the range expansion of this banana pest in India has taken place through transport of infested corms and plant material, resulting in genetically close populations that are geographically distinct. These results provide important information on the population structure of this pest in India, which will aid in designing suitable strategies for its control and management, especially with respect to insecticide resistance.