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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Film growth in pulsed laser deposition (PLD) occurs from the energetic plume of material ejected from a solid target by pulsed laser ablation. The plume consists of a complex mixture of neutral and ionized atoms, molecules, and even small clusters with kinetic energies ranging from thermal to a few hundred eV. The extra kinetic energy provides a transient (nonequilibrium) enhancement of surface mobility and is believed to alter the nucleation and growth of thin films. However, the mechanisms by which the transient mobility enhancement affect the growth kinetics are not well understood. We use time-resolved surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) measurements with microsecond range resolution to study the role of nonequilibrium processes in PLD of SrTiO3. The use of x-ray diffraction greatly simplifies growth kinetics studies because in the kinematic limit the x-ray intensity changes correspond directly to coverage changes. Rather than using a transport model to fit the data, we instead analyze the intensity transients using an approach that allows direct determination of the transient surface coverages from the diffraction intensities . The initial change in the coverage shows the fraction of the pulse instantaneously forming on each layer, and the time evolution of the coverages shows the amount of material transferred from the top of the islands into the growing layer. This analysis reveals that the energy-enhanced interlayer transport occurs on a time scale of microseconds or less and it dominates layer filling in PLD growth. A much smaller fraction of material, which is governed by the dwell time between successive laser shots is transferred by slow, thermally driven interlayer transport processes.  J.Z. Tischler, Gyula Eres, B.C. Larson, C.M. Rouleau, P. Zschack, and D.H. Lowndes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 226104 (2006).
To examine consumers’ ability to correctly interpret front-of-package (FOP) ‘high in’ warnings in the presence of a voluntary claim for the same or a different nutrient.
A between-group experimental task assigned respondents to view food products labelled as ‘high in sodium’, with a ‘reduced sodium’ claim positioned next to the warning, away from the warning or absent. A second experiment assigned participants to view a food product labelled as ‘high in sugar’, with a ‘reduced fat’ claim positioned next to the warning, away from the warning or absent. For both tasks, respondents were asked to identify whether the products were high in the indicated nutrient.
Online survey (2016).
Canadians aged 16–32 years (n 1000) were recruited in person from five major cities in Canada.
Respondents were less likely to correctly identify a product as ‘high in sodium’ when packages also featured a voluntary ‘reduced sodium’ claim, with a stronger effect when the claim was positioned away from the FOP symbol (P<0·001). The number of correct responses was similar across conditions when the nutrient claim was for a different nutrient than the one featured in the FOP ‘high in’ warning.
The findings demonstrate that the presence of a voluntary nutrient claim can undermine the efficacy of mandated FOP labels for the same nutrient. Countries considering nutrient-specific FOP warnings, including Canada, should consider regulations that would prohibit claims for nutrients that exceed the threshold for nutrient-specific FOP warnings.
Rapeseed meal is a common protein supplement in ruminant diets that is characterized by high rumen protein degradability (Bertilsson et al., 1994; Vanhatalo et al., 1995). Appropriate treatment can however reduce ruminal protein degradability and increase the efficiency of protein utilization. RaPass (UM Feeds Marketing, Burton on Trent, Staffs, UK) is a commercial rapeseed meal product that made using the Maillard reaction. This is the non-enzymatic browning reaction between proteins and reducing sugars that protects protein from rumen degradation. Release of the protein at abomasal pH allows the peptide chains to be digested at an efficiency similar to that of untreated rapeseed meal (Moss et al 2000). Cows fed rapeseed meal that was treated to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) content have been reported to perform better than those fed untreated rapeseed meal (Bertilsson et al., 1994). This study evaluated the potential of using RaPass as a protein supplement in dairy cow rations.
The academic interdisciplinary study of law and religion is in a unique place, brimming with hope and promise. This constellation of scholars, conferences, journals, academic centers, books and book series, and public interest law firms has matured considerably since the “path-breaking” commencement of the movement, the publication of Harold Berman's 1974 short book, The Interaction of Law and Religion. No longer can the study of law and religion be solely identified with the study of the First Amendment's religion clauses. Scholars have explored topics both large scale and fine grain in history, church law, the intersection of religious ethics and law, religion and international human rights law, and in other subareas of the field.
To characterise and identify nationwide trends in suicide-related emergency department (ED) visits in the USA from 2006 to 2013.
We used data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from 2006 to 2013. E-codes were used to identify ED visits related to suicide attempts and self-inflicted injury. Visits were characterised by factors such as age, sex, US census region, calendar month, as well as injury severity and mechanism. Injury severity and mechanism were compared between age groups and sex by chi-square tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Population-based rates were computed using US Census data.
Between 2006 and 2013, a total of 3 567 084 suicide attempt-related ED visits were reported. The total number of visits was stable between 2006 and 2013, with a population-based rate ranging from 163.1 to 173.8 per 100 000 annually. The frequency of these visits peaks during ages 15–19 and plateaus during ages 35–45, with a mean age at presentation of 33.2 years. More visits were by females (57.4%) than by males (42.6%); however, the age patterns for males and females were similar. Visits peaked in late spring (8.9% of all visits occurred in May), with a smaller peak in the fall. The most common mechanism of injury was poisoning (66.5%), followed by cutting and piercing (22.1%). Males were 1.6 times more likely than females to use violent methods to attempt suicide (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.60–1.68; p < 0.001). The vast majority of patients (82.7%) had a concurrent mental disorder. Mood disorders were the most common (42.1%), followed by substance-related disorders (12.1%), alcohol-related disorders (8.9%) and anxiety disorders (6.4%).
The annual incidence of ED visits for attempted suicide and self-inflicted injury in the NEDS is comparable with figures previously reported from other national databases. We highlighted the value of the NEDS in allowing us to look in depth at age, sex, seasonal and mechanism patterns. Furthermore, using this large national database, we confirmed results from previous smaller studies, including a higher incidence of suicide attempts among women and individuals aged 15–19 years, a large seasonal peak in suicide attempts in the spring, a predominance of poisoning as the mechanism of injury for suicide attempts and a greater use of violent mechanisms in men, suggesting possible avenues for further research into strategies for prevention.
Background: Advances in surgical leads have been thought to potentially enable improved low-back pain relief using SCS. A recently introduced 32-contact surgical lead, which couples multiple independent current control and anatomically-based neural targeting stimulation algorithms, allows for patient-specific programming optimization. We present a real world study of this surgical lead. Methods: A multi-center, consecutive, observational study of a new 32-contact surgical lead was carried out, using the Precision Spectra SCS System (Boston Scientific) in 100 subjects out to 12 months post-implant. We examined procedural information, programming parameters, and clinical outcomes including pain reduction (NRS), activities of daily living, and change in pain medications. Results: Surgical lead placement distribution was between T7 and L2, with most at top of T9 (26%). A mean reduction of 5.1 points (SD 2.15, p<0.001) from 7.8 (baseline) to 2.6 in overall pain was observed. A subset of subjects reporting low-back pain only exhibited a mean decrease of 6.0 points (SD 2.12, p<0.001) from 8.3 (baseline) to 2.2. Of these, 83.1% of subjects showed ≥50% back pain reduction. Increases in activities of daily living and reduction in pain medication usage were also observed in majority of subjects. Conclusions: Subjects implanted with a 32-contact surgical lead using a neural targeting algorithm demonstrated significant low-back pain reduction.
Background: Clear cell chondrosarcoma (CCC) is a rare, low-grade, subtype of chondrosarcoma. It arises most commonly in the epiphyses of the certain longbones. Spinal involvement is extremely rare, but when present it most frequently involves the thoracic spine. Complete surgical resection is the best curative treatment, with radiation therapy being a consideration for inoperable tumours. Methods: We report a case of a 70-year-old gentleman with CCC of the T7-8 thoracic spine. Gross en-bloc spondylectomy of the T6-8 vertebral bodies with expandable cage reconstruction and T3-11 instrumented fusion were performed. Results: Histological examination revealed a cellular neoplasm composed of well-defined, round to oval cells with abundant clear cytoplasm embedded in a loose cartilaginous matrix with large numbers of admixed osteoclast-type giant cells and scattered bone trabeculae between the lesional cells. The patient experienced significant improvement in neurological function and was discharged from hospital in stable condition seven days after surgery. Conclusions: CCC is a rare variant of chondrosarcoma that rarely involves the osseous spine. In this location, treatment may be challenging given the presence of spinal cord and nerve roots. Given the lack of effective chemotherapy and radiation therapy for CCC, en-bloc resection of CCC involving the spine should be considered.
Background: The clinical identification of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is important in predicting surgical outcomes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In cases where gross hippocampal sclerosis is not identifiable clinically, a more detailed analysis of hippocampal subfields using ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may reveal areas of abnormality, which was the focus of our study. Methods: Patients (N=13) with drug-resistant TLE (9 no-HS, 4 HS) and 20 age-matched healthy controls were scanned and compared using a 7T MRI protocol. Using a manual segmentation scheme to delineate hippocampal subfields, subfield-specific volume changes were studied between the two groups. In addition, radiological patient assessment at 7T was correlated with measured subfield changes. Results: Volumetry of the hippocampus at 7T in HS patients revealed significant ipsilateral subfield losses in CA1 and CA4DG. Volumetry also uncovered subfield volume losses in 33% of no-HS patients, which had not been detected conventionally. Furthermore, 89% of no-HS patients showed abnormality (internal architecture or size) at 7T, identified by radiologists blinded to the patient’s initial classification. Conclusions: These preliminary findings indicate that hippocampal subfield volumetry assessed at 7T may be superior to conventional visual inspection by a neuroradiologist in the identification of hippocampal pathologies in TLE.
In view of the considerable ground covered by the Commission at its Paris meetings and the fairly complete record of the activities of institutes and observatories, etc. published in the Minutes, it has not been deemed profitable by the president to call for further reports in advance of the Stockholm meeting. At the Paris meeting it was agreed that such reports be printed independently before each meeting of the Union and that reprints of or references to the published reports be sent to the president. It is hoped that all such reports if ready will be made available before the Stockholm meeting so that they may be summarized by the representatives in attendance or by the president and recorded in the Minutes. With reference to the pronouncement at the Paris meeting “that it is eminently desirable that more attention be given to the development of accurate general perturbations and mean elements on the basis of accurate osculating elements”, the president has visited the Planeten-Institut at Frankfurt and the Rechen-Institut at Berlin and has been in correspondence with the Leningrad Institute. From these sources particularly valuable material has been received.
Edward Snowden, the systems analyst employed by a contractor for the United States National Security Agency, violated his contractual obligation to guard the nation's secrets and security procedures out of what he has argued was a higher obligation to preserve the privacy guaranteed to Americans by the United States Constitution and a conscientious objection to withholding information about violations of that privacy. Conscience can be conceived as a disposition of heart, mind, and will to act or refuse to act in the face of contravening authority, for what is a superior good in the mind of the actor, and always with the willingness to suffer for one's action or inaction. Snowden ultimately sought to divulge and disrupt programs of intelligence gathering and national security because of his convictions regarding nobler American ideals of liberty and privacy.
Background: It has been hypothesized that [18F]-sodium fluoride (NaF) uptake imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) binds to hydroxyapatite molecules expressed in regions with active calcification. Therefore, we aimed to validate NaF as a marker of hydroxyapatite expression in high-risk carotid plaque. Methods: Eleven patients (69 ± 5 years, 3 female) scheduled for carotid endarterectomy were prospectively recruited for NaF PET/CT. One patient received a second contralateral endarterectomy; two patients were excluded (intolerance to contrast media and PET/CT misalignment). The bifurcation of the common carotid was used as the reference point; NaF uptake (tissue to blood ratio - TBR) was measured at every PET slice extending 2 cm above and below the bifurcation. Excised plaque was immunostained with Goldner’s Trichrome and whole-slide digitized images were used to quantify hydroxyapatite expression. Pathology was co-registered with PET. Results: NaF uptake was related to the extent of hydroxyapatite expression (r=0.45, p<0.001). Upon classifying bilateral plaque for symptomatology, symptomatic plaque was associated with cerebrovascular events (3.75±1.1 TBR, n=9) and had greater NaF uptake than clinically silent asymptomatic plaque (2.79±0.6 TBR, n=11) (p=0.04). Conclusion: NaF uptake is related to hydroxyapatite expression and is increased in plaque associated with cerebrovascular events. NaF may serve as a novel biomarker of active calcification and plaque vulnerability.
Rapid population growth and economic change on the tropical islands of Mauritius have led to one of the highest rates of urban build-out in the world. Pressure on many of the island's natural features and resources increasingly risks further degradation to the environmental services that they provide to the country. Fourteen types of marine and terrestrial environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs) are critical to the nation's sustainable development. Twelve of these ESA types are currently at risk of degradation, owing to their spatial proximity to built-up areas (BUAs) and current use designation. There was a bimodal distribution in proximity; eight of the 12 ESA types analysed had an area-weighted modal peak < 500 m from the nearest BUA, and four ESAs had a modal peak 2–3 km from the nearest BUA. Six coastal and marine ESAs had limited protection from urban expansion and over-use. The Mauritian experience reflects trends that are emerging across many tropical developing countries, where the bulk of future global growth in urban area is expected to occur. The approach detailed in this case study is replicable and may be useful in assessing degradation risk as a result of urban expansion in other island countries.
A retrospective cohort study was performed following several reported cases of gastrointestinal illness after a catered event. The attack rate was 45/77 (58·4%) by clinical case definition, with four individuals confirmed to have Campylobacter. There was near universal exposure to most foodstuffs served; consumption of duck liver pâté [relative risk (RR) 2·53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·05–6·10], mixed leaf salad (RR 2·91, 95% CI 1·22–6·92) and table water (RR undefined, P < 0·01) were associated with illness in univariate analysis, with only the latter associated in the final multivariable model (P < 0·001). Samples of cooked duck liver pâté subsequently prepared using identical methods at the venue were contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli; water sampling was negative. Making inferences about causation in the presence of near universal exposures in this study required consideration of the limitations of statistical analysis, with the most compelling evidence of the causal role of inadequately prepared duck liver pâté provided by environmental investigation.
This study provides a detailed description of the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves over the first 12 months of age. GIT development was measured using a combination of computerised tomography (CT) scanning and traditional slaughter plus dissection techniques. Red deer calves of a known birth date were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. A group of five animals were repeatedly CT scanned at 31, 63, 92, 135, 207, 275 and 351 days of age to identify GIT organs and determine their volume. From a group of 20 animals, subsets of four individuals were also scanned at corresponding ages (except 135 days of age). They were immediately euthanised and dissected after CT scanning to compare CT-scanned results with actual anatomical measurements. Individual organ weights were compared with their respective organ volumes determined by CT scanning and were found to have a strong, positive relationship. The combined rumen and reticulum (RR) CT-scanned volume was compared with its volume determined by the water-displacement technique and this also showed good correlation between the two techniques (R = 0.92). The allometric growth rates of organs, relative to animal live weight gains, in descending order, were the rumen, omasum, reticulum, abomasum, caecum blind sac, kidneys, spleen and liver. The red deer GIT was continuing to grow and develop when the last measurement was taken at 351 days of age. The greatest growth of the RR, when expressed in terms of empty weight, was between 31 and 92 days of age. Compared with sheep and cattle, it appears that the red deer have a similar or greater rate of RR development up until approximately 60 to 90 days of age; however, the final increments of GIT maturity in deer may take longer to complete, with the empty weight of the RR gaining 7.5 g/day between 275 and 351 days of age. CT scanning was validated in this study as a viable technique to follow GIT development in the same animals over time, and it provided novel information on allometric organ growth. The success of CT scanning highlights the potential future use of diagnostic imaging for GIT development studies.