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This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign to measure thruster-relevant parameters for a high-power (180kW) inductive propulsion system utilising Ar,
as propellants. Results from the investigation show that inductive thrusters can make use of these propellants without the severe degradation seen in other electric propulsion systems. Furthermore, the collection of experimental data at powers greater than 100kW provides a reference of performance for the high-power electric propulsion devices intended for missions in the near future. Thrust and specific impulse in inductive systems can be improved by preferentially combining the chemical properties of atomic and molecular propellants. The maximum thrust recorded during these experiments was 7.9N, obtained using a combination of argon and oxygen (0.68 Ar + 0.32
). The combination of argon and molecular propellants also decreased thermal losses within the discharge volume. Specific impulse can be doubled for the same input electric power by combining propellants, and future modifications to the thruster geometry and acceleration mechanism can be used to further improve the performance of such systems.
Although the science of team science is no longer a new field, the measurement of team science and its standardization remain in relatively early stages of development. To describe the current state of team science assessment, we conducted an integrative review of measures of research collaboration quality and outcomes.
Collaboration measures were identified using both a literature review based on specific keywords and an environmental scan. Raters abstracted details about the measures using a standard tool. Measures related to collaborations with clinical care, education, and program delivery were excluded from this review.
We identified 44 measures of research collaboration quality, which included 35 measures with reliability and some form of statistical validity reported. Most scales focused on group dynamics. We identified 89 measures of research collaboration outcomes; 16 had reliability and 15 had a validity statistic. Outcome measures often only included simple counts of products; publications rarely defined how counts were delimited, obtained, or assessed for reliability. Most measures were tested in only one venue.
Although models of collaboration have been developed, in general, strong, reliable, and valid measurements of such collaborations have not been conducted or accepted into practice. This limitation makes it difficult to compare the characteristics and impacts of research teams across studies or to identify the most important areas for intervention. To advance the science of team science, we provide recommendations regarding the development and psychometric testing of measures of collaboration quality and outcomes that can be replicated and broadly applied across studies.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Introduction: Creatine kinase (CK) measurement, despite not being recommended for the diagnosis of a Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) is still routinely performed in the emergency department (ED) for the workup of NSTEMI. The diagnostic utility of CK among ED patients with suspected NSTEMI is still not well understood. The objectives of this study were to assess: the additional value of CK in NSTEMI diagnosis and the correlation between the highest CK/TNI values and ejection fraction (EF) on follow-up echocardiography among patients with suspected NSTEMI. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted at the Civic and General Campuses of The Ottawa Hospital from March 2014 to March 2016. We enrolled adults (18 years) for whom troponin (TNI) and CK were ordered for chest pain or non-chest pain symptoms within the past 24 hours concerning for NSTEMI and excluded those with suspected ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). Primary outcome was a 30-day NSTEMI adjudicated by two blinded physicians. Demographics, medical history, and ED CK/TNI values were collected. We used descriptive statistics and report test diagnostic characteristics. Results: Of the 1,663 patients enrolled, 84 patients (5.1%) suffered NSTEMI. The sensitivity and specificity of CK was 30.9% (95%CI 21.1, 40.8) and 91.4% (95%CI 90.0, 92.8) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of troponin was 96.4% (95%CI 92.4, 100) and 88.1% (95%CI 86.5, 89.7) respectively. Among 3 (0.2%) patients with missed NSTEMI diagnosis with TNI, CK measurements did not add value. The mean CK values were not significantly different between those with normal and abnormal EF on follow-up (132.4 U/L and 146.3 U/L respectively; p=0.44), whereas the mean TNI values were significantly different (0.5 µg/L and 1.3 µg/L respectively; p=0.046). Conclusion: CK measurements neither provide any additional value in the work-up of NSTEMI in the ED nor correlate with EF on follow-up. Discontinuing routine CK measurements would reduce overall costs and improve resource utilization in the ED, and streamline the management of patients in the ED with chest pain.
This study evaluated the annual prevalence of anogenital warts (AGW) caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and analysed the trend in annual per cent changes (APC) by using national claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment of Korea, 2007–2015. We also estimated the socio-economic burden and co-morbidities of AGW. All analyses were performed based on data for primary A63.0, the specific diagnosis code for AGW. The socio-economic cost of AGW was calculated based on the direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost and indirect cost. The overall AGW prevalence and socio-economic burden has increased during the last 9 years. However, the prevalence of AGW differed significantly by sex. The female prevalence increased until 2012, and decreased thereafter (APC + 3·6%). It would fall after the introduction of routine HPV vaccination, principally for females, in Korea. The male prevalence increased continuously over time (APC + 11·6%), especially in those aged 20–49 years. Referring to the increasing AGW prevalence and its disease burden, active HPV infection control surveillance and prevention in males are worth consideration.
Introduction: The acute onset of flashes and floaters is a common presentation to the emergency department (ED). The most emergent etiology is retinal detachment (RD), which requires prompt ophthalmologic assessment. Previous studies of point of care ultrasound (POCUS) have reported high sensitivity and specificity for RD, but are limited by small sample size, use of highly trained and experienced sonographers, and referral bias. Our primary objective was to assess the test characteristics of POCUS performed by a large heterogeneous group of emergency physicians (EPs) for the diagnosis of RD. Methods: This was a prospective diagnostic test assessment of POCUS performed by EPs with varying ultrasound experience on a convenience sample of ED patients presenting with the complaint of flashes or floaters in one or both eyes. Participating EPs completed a one hour didactic lecture and were expected to demonstrate appropriate performance of one practice scan before enrolling patients. After standard ED assessment, patients underwent an ocular POCUS scan targeted to detect RD. EPs recorded the presence or absence of RD on the data collection instrument based on their POCUS scan. After completing their ED visit, all patients were assessed by a retina specialist who was blinded to the results of the POCUS scan. We calculated sensitivity and specificity with associated exact binomial confidence intervals (CI) using the retina specialist’s determination of the final diagnosis as the criterion standard. Results: A total of 30 EPs, consisting of 21 staff physicians and 9 residents, participated in this study. These EPs performed a total of 128 POCUS scans. Of these scans, 13 were excluded. Of the remaining 115 enrolled patients, median age was 60 years, and 64% were female. The retina specialist diagnosed RD in 16 (14%) cases. The sensitivity and specificity of POCUS for detecting RD was 75% (95% CI 48% to 93%) and 94% (95% CI 87% to 98%), respectively. The positive likelihood ratio was 12.4 (95% CI 5.4 to 28.3), and negative likelihood ratio was 0.27 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.62). Conclusion: In a heterogeneous group of EPs with varying ultrasound experience, POCUS demonstrates high specificity but only intermediate sensitivity for the detection of RD. A negative POCUS scan is not sufficiently sensitive to rule out RD in a patient with new onset flashes or floaters.
Evidence suggests a relationship between exposure to trauma and higher levels of symptoms and poorer functional outcomes in early psychotic patients (EPP). However, the impact of the age at the time of exposure to trauma in this association is as yet unknown.
To examine the potential differential impact of trauma, according to age at the time of exposure, on the level of functioning and on the psychopathological profile of EPP followed-up prospectively.
Two hundred and fifty-five EPP aged 18–35 were followed-up prospectively over 36 months. Patients who had faced at least one experience of abuse or neglect were classified according to age at the time of first exposure (early-trauma: before age 12; late-trauma: between age 12 and 16), and then compared with unexposed patients (non-trauma). The level of symptoms was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. The level of functioning was assessed with the global assessment of functioning.
Comparisons over the 3 years of treatment with non-trauma patients revealed that:
– late-trauma patients only showed more negative symptoms (P = 0.029) as compared to non-trauma patients.
The age at the time of exposure to trauma has a modulating effect on its impact on symptoms and functional outcome in EPP and it should be systematically examined in clinical and experimental settings.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The mechanism linking childhood trauma (CT) to the functional deficits observed in early psychosis (EP) patients is as yet unknown.
To examine the potential mediating effect of depressive symptoms in this well-established association.
Two hundred nine EP subjects aged 18-35 were assessed for functioning and psychopathology after 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of treatment. Patients were classified into early-trauma if they had faced at least one experience of abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional) or neglect (physical or emotional) before age 12, and late-trauma if the exposure had occurred between ages 12 and 16. Psychopathology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Functioning was measured with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS). Mediation analyses were performed in order to study whether the relationship between CT and functioning was mediated by depressive symptoms.
When compared with nonexposed patients, early but not late trauma patients showed lower levels of GAF and SOFAS scores over all the time points, excepting after the first assessment. After 30 and 36 months, the effect of early trauma on functioning was completely mediated by depressive symptoms. No mediating effect of positive or negative symptoms was highlighted at those time points.
Mild depressive symptoms mediated the impact of early trauma on long-term functional outcome. Intensifying pharmacologic and/or psychotherapeutic treatment, focused on the depressive dimension, may help traumatized EP patients to improve their functioning.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset.
Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA.
Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (∆*CFI) < 0.01]. The structure of EPDS responses significantly differed between Europe and the USA (∆*CFI > 0.01), but not between European countries (∆*CFI < 0.01).
Investigators and clinicians should be aware of the potential differences in expression of phenotype of postpartum depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person's experiences and the context in which the research is conducted.
We recently demonstrated a sub-bandgap photoresponse with our wafer-scale
Au/TiO2 metallic-semiconductor photonic crystals (MSPhC). The
sub-bandgap energy with 590 nm peak could be absorbed in the form of hot
electron and injected to TiO2, which provides 5.28 times more energy
for photolysis than that of energy absorbed to flat TiO2. If the
solar energy already absorbed above 700 nm could be injected to the catalyst,
higher than 10 times improvement will be achieved, and above 20% solar to fuel
efficiency will be feasible with the robust but inefficient TiO2
catalyst. In order to achieve photocurrent near and above 700 nm spectrum, we
deposited gold nanorods on the surface of MSPhC to incur localized surface
plasmon (LSP) modes absorption and subsequent injection to the TiO2
catalyst. We used electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method to deposit nanorods on
the top, sidewall and bottom well surface of the photonic nanocavities. The
deposition of nanorods was achieved reasonably uniform and sparse not to block
the optical cavities of MSPhC. Flat gold surfaces were tested at 4 different
suspension densities to get the optimum gold nanorods density. Under 10V applied
electric field, positively charged gold nanorods at the concentration of
6.52×1013 #/mL could deposit MSPhC surface
with the density of 230 #/µm2, which was reasonably
uniform and sparse. Preliminary tests show an absorbance increase near 700 nm on
flat device coated with gold nanorods. Photocurrent measurement is under way to
demonstrate the enhanced hot electron transfer over full visible light and
near-infrared solar spectrum.
Many pest and beneficial insects overwinter as larvae in a state of diapause, with development resuming in the spring. In these cases, rates of post-diapause development of parasitoids must be synchronised with the vulnerable life stages of their hosts. Phenological asynchrony between introduced parasitoids and their targeted hosts has limited the success of some biological control efforts. Here, we assess the potential synchrony between Collyria catoptron Wahl (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a parasitoid of the Chinese wheat stem sawfly, Cephus fumipennis Eversmann (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), which is being considered as a biological control against a novel host species, Cephus cinctus Norton, in North America. We compared development timing and emergence patterns of both native and exotic species of sawflies with that of the parasitoid. We found that the mean number of days between termination of larval diapause and adult eclosion varied by less than one day across species, and patterns of emergence were also similar. The rate of development of this egg-larval parasitoid was within the range necessary to attack C. cinctus eggs. Furthermore, the development of C. cinctus from western Montana, United States of America most closely matched that of the parasitoid, suggesting western Montana as a possible release area.
Suicide is a devastating public health problem and very few biological treatments have been found to be effective for quickly reducing the intensity of suicidal ideation (SI). We have previously shown that a single dose of ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is associated with a rapid reduction in depressive symptom severity and SI in patients with treatment-resistant depression.
We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of ketamine in patients with mood and anxiety spectrum disorders who presented with clinically significant SI (n = 24). Patients received a single infusion of ketamine or midazolam (as an active placebo) in addition to standard of care. SI measured using the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSI) 24 h post-treatment represented the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale – Suicidal Ideation (MADRS-SI) score at 24 h and additional measures beyond the 24-h time-point.
The intervention was well tolerated and no dropouts occurred during the primary 7-day assessment period. BSI score was not different between the treatment groups at 24 h (p = 0.32); however, a significant difference emerged at 48 h (p = 0.047). MADRS-SI score was lower in the ketamine group compared to midazolam group at 24 h (p = 0.05). The treatment effect was no longer significant at the end of the 7-day assessment period.
The current findings provide initial support for the safety and tolerability of ketamine as an intervention for SI in patients who are at elevated risk for suicidal behavior. Larger, well-powered studies are warranted.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a new low-frequency interferometric radio telescope built in Western Australia at one of the locations of the future Square Kilometre Array. We describe the automated radio-frequency interference detection strategy implemented for the Murchison Widefield Array, which is based on the aoflagger platform, and present 72–231 MHz radio-frequency interference statistics from 10 observing nights. Radio-frequency interference detection removes 1.1% of the data. Radio-frequency interference from digital TV is observed 3% of the time due to occasional ionospheric or atmospheric propagation. After radio-frequency interference detection and excision, almost all data can be calibrated and imaged without further radio-frequency interference mitigation efforts, including observations within the FM and digital TV bands. The results are compared to a previously published Low-Frequency Array radio-frequency interference survey. The remote location of the Murchison Widefield Array results in a substantially cleaner radio-frequency interference environment compared to Low-Frequency Array’s radio environment, but adequate detection of radio-frequency interference is still required before data can be analysed. We include specific recommendations designed to make the Square Kilometre Array more robust to radio-frequency interference, including: the availability of sufficient computing power for radio-frequency interference detection; accounting for radio-frequency interference in the receiver design; a smooth band-pass response; and the capability of radio-frequency interference detection at high time and frequency resolution (second and kHz-scale respectively).
This study was conducted to investigate the angles and orientation of semicircular canals, and the coplanarity of functional canal pairs.
Fluid signals in semicircular canals were reconstructed with three-dimensional reconstruction software using 20 temporal bone magnetic resonance images of normal subjects. The angles between each pair of semicircular canals were measured.
The mean angles between the anterior and horizontal semicircular canal plane, the horizontal and posterior semicircular canal plane, and the anterior and posterior semicircular canal plane were 83.7°, 82.5° and 88.4°, respectively. Pairs of contralateral synergistic canal planes were formed 15.1° between the right and left horizontal semicircular canal planes, 21.2° between the right anterior and left posterior semicircular canal, and 21.7° between the left anterior and right posterior semicircular canal.
Each semicircular canal makes an almost right angle with other canals, but synergistically acting functional canal pairs of both ears do not lie in exactly the same plane.