Maternal adversity and fetal glucocorticoid exposure has long-term effects on cardiovascular, metabolic and behavioral systems in offspring that can persist throughout the lifespan. These data, along with other environmental exposure data, implicate epigenetic modifications as potential mechanisms for long-term effects of maternal exposures on adverse health outcomes in offspring. Advances in microarray, sequencing and bioinformatic approaches have enabled recent studies to examine the genome-wide epigenetic response to maternal adversity. Studies of maternal exposures to xenobiotics such as arsenic and smoking have been performed at birth to examine fetal epigenomic signatures in cord blood relating to adult health outcomes. However, there have been no epigenomic studies examining these effects in animal models. On the other hand, to date, only a few studies of the effects of maternal psychosocial stress have been performed in human infants, and the majority of animal studies have examined epigenomic outcomes in adulthood. In terms of maternal exposure to excess glucocorticoids by synthetic glucocorticoid treatment, there has been no epigenetic study performed in humans and only a few studies undertaken in animal models. This review emphasizes the importance of examining biomarkers of exposure to adversity throughout development to identify individuals at risk and to target interventions. Thus, research performed at birth will be reviewed. In addition, potential subject characteristics associated with epigenetic modifications, technical considerations, the selection of target tissues and combining human studies with animal models will be discussed in relation to the design of experiments in this field of study.