Emissive saturated colors are key components of new generations of lighting and display technologies. Quantum dots have evolved in the past two decades to fulfill many of the requirements of color purity, stability, and efficiency that are critical to transitioning these materials from the laboratory into these markets. A fundamental feature of quantum dots is the tunability of their emission color through precise control of their size and composition, giving access to UV, visible, and near-infrared wavelengths. Continuing improvements in engineering core–shell quantum dot structures, where a 1–10 nm binary, ternary, or alloyed semiconductor core particle is surrounded by a shell composed of one or more semiconductors of a wider bandgap, have resulted in materials with fluorescence quantum yields that approach unity, narrow symmetric spectral line shapes, and remarkable stabilities. In this article, we review progress in the development of highly luminescent core–shell quantum dots of different semiconductor families in view of their integration in light-emitting applications. CdSe-based quantum dots already fulfill many of the requirements of lighting and display applications in terms of fluorescence quantum yield, color purity, and stability.