Massive calcareous rocks and stones support lithobiont communities of bacteria, fungi, cyanobacteria, lichens, and phanerogams in most parts of Israel. The distribution of these communities is influenced by environmental conditions. Moisture regime of their substratum is the most important factor. Many of the lithobiont communities cause typical patterns of weathering that may be preserved on the rock surface or inside the rock for thousands of years. Knowing the climatic affinities of the lithobiont communities, one can use the uncovered in situ rocks and stones and those that were buried in the past as fossil climate recorders. With this method, the following deductions have been made about palaeoclimates in our area: (i) the wettest period ended 30,000 years BP; (ii) a period drier than the present took place sometime between 10,000 and 30,000 years BP; (iii) the Neolithic Period (9,000–10,000 years BP) was much wetter than the present; (iv) since the Chalcolithic Period (5,000 to 6,000 years BP) the climate of Israel has been similar to that of the present.