Clusters of galaxies are easily identifiable collections of galaxies, all at the same distance and all observed under similar conditions of galactic obscuration, etc. They are, therefore, very convenient samples with which to study the matter content of the universe. However, clusters are also very particular physical environments, and from this latter point of view it is their atypical character which is of interest. The differences in the contents of one cluster from another, and of each from the contents of small groups and the “field” can teach us much about how the properties of galaxies depend on the environments in which they were born and have evolved.
Because of the interrelatedness of these two points of view, one cannot really understand the galaxy populations of clusters until one also understands the populations of galaxies which are not in clusters. Therefore, while this review will concentrate on the contents of rich clusters of galaxies, it will also be necessary to discuss the properties of non-cluster galaxies.