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Little information is available on the association between gender nonconformity during adolescence and subsequent mental health. While the distress related to gender nonconformity may be socially produced rather than attributed to individual-level factors, further research is needed to better understand the role of psychosocial factors in this context.
We analyzed data from the Tokyo Teen Cohort, obtained through random sampling of adolescents born between 2002 and 2004. We used inverse probability weighting to examine the association of gender nonconformity at ages 12 and 14 as a time-varying variable with subsequent mental health at age 16, while accounting for time-fixed and time-varying confounders. Furthermore, we used a weighting approach to investigate the mediating role of modifiable psychosocial factors in this association, addressing exposure-mediator and mediator–mediator interactions.
A total of 3171 participants were analyzed. Persistent gender nonconforming behavior at ages 12 and 14 was associated with subsequent depression (β = 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85 to 3.19) and psychotic experiences (β = 0.33, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.52) at age 16. The results remained robust in sensitivity analyses. Approximately 30% of the association between gender nonconformity and depression was consistently mediated by a set of psychosocial factors, namely loneliness, bullying victimization, and relationships with mother, father, and friends.
Persistent gender nonconformity during adolescence is associated with subsequent mental health. Psychosocial factors play a vital mediating role in this association, highlighting the essential need for social intervention and change to reduce stigmatization and ameliorate mental health challenges.
The water retention curve (WRC), which shows the relationship between the volumetric liquid water content, θv, and suction, h, is a fundamental part of the characterization of hydraulic properties. Therefore, the formulation of the WRC as a function of snow characteristics is essential for establishing a model of water movement through the snow cover. In this study, we measured the WRC of several snow samples, which had different characteristics (grain size, bulk dry density and grain type), using a gravity drainage column experiment and then analysed these data using the Van Genuchten soil physics model (VG model). The shape of the WRC depended strongly on both the sample grain size, d, and bulk dry density, ρ. Therefore, we introduced the parameter ρ/d to model the WRC of snow. The relationships between the parameters α and n of the VG model and ρ/d change with grain type. For melt forms, α, which is related to the inverse value of the air-entry suction, increases quickly as ρ/d decreases, whereas n, which is related to the gradient of θv vs h, increases with ρ/d. Conversely, neither of these parameters of the VG model for rounded grains showed obvious dependence on ρ/d. These results suggest that water movement through snow cover can be modelled using grain size, bulk dry density and grain type based on the soil physics model.
Meteorological data from mountainous areas of Japan have been collected by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) for almost 20 years. The collected long-period data indicate that neither a notable increase in mean winter temperature nor a reduction in snow depth has occurred in these areas. The maximum snow depth, SDmax, and maximum snow water equivalent, SWEmax, show similar fluctuation trends, although with large year-to-year variations in value and a larger fluctuation range for SWEmax than for SDmax. This result suggests that monitoring of only SDmax in mountainous areas is not sufficient for understanding the quantitative fluctuation of water resources originating from snow. The SDmax fluctuation trends in mountainous areas sometimes differ from those in flatland areas because mountain SDmax depends more on winter precipitation than on mean winter air temperature, whereas the opposite is true for flatlands. In addition, the dependence ratio of SDmax on fluctuations in winter precipitation changes with altitude because the distributions of precipitation with air temperature change with altitude.
Interface states produced at the interface between an insulator and GaN semiconductor determine the performance of GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) field effect transistors. Therefore, it is important to know details of interface states characteristics to improve device performances. For above purpose, we have fabricated GaN MIS capacitors, then carried out capacitance-voltage (CV) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements, and analyzed the obtained results in detail.Wafers used in this study were n-type GaN grown on sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. A film of SiN was deposited as an insulating layer using electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma-assisted deposition at room temperature, then samples were annealed at 400, 600 or 800°C in N2 atmosphere for 10 min.CV measurements were performed for all the samples at various frequencies and bias sweep rates in the dark condition. CV curves of all the samples exhibited ledges in the curves. Here, ledge indicates a region of which capacitance is independent of applied bias. Although each sample was annealed at each different temperature, it was observed at the same surface potential for all the samples. This result indicates that the Fermi level of the GaN/SiN interface is pinned by a particular trap. In addition, the shape of the CV curve depended on both frequency and bias sweep rate, and it was not observed in the results obtained by a quasi-static capacitance voltage measurement. This can be explained that the shape of ledge is determined by the quasi-equilibrium between a filling rate of traps and a bias sweep rate or test frequency.
In the positive bias region of the ledge, a hysteresis window of the CV curve had some dependence on frequency but little dependence on bias sweep rate. On the other hand, in the negative bias region of the ledge, it had little dependence on frequency but obvious dependence on bias sweep rate. These dependences indicate two different traps and related to the ledge formation. The trap energy level related to the sweep rate dependence is estimated to be 0.34 eV by the temperature dependence of the width of hysteresis window.
Deep level transient spectroscopy measurements were carried out to characterize the trap levels observed in the CV curves. Trap levels with activation energies of 0.32 and 0.78 eV were observed . The former is almost equal to 0.34 eV obtained from the temperature dependence of the width of hysteresis window. The latter is similar to the interface trap reported by Nakano et al., which is considered to be originated from the complexes of Si and surface defect . E. Shibata et al., Ext. Abstracts 2008 IMFEDK, Osaka, pp.69-70. (2008). Y. Nakano and T. Jimbo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4756 (2002).
We have studied the temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties of amorphous InN thin films prepared by reactive radio-frequency sputtering. We fabricated 60-pair and 120-pair InN-chromel films, which were deposited on polyimide films. For the 120-pair device, the maximum open output voltage and the maximum output power were 210 mV and 65 nW, respectively, at temperature difference of 168 K.
The snow-cover model SNOWPACK was applied to the wet-snow areas of Japan. Simulated variations of snow type, snow depth and weight, profiles of snow density, temperature and liquid-water content were compared with snow-pit measurements. The snow-depth simulation during early winter agreed with the measurements, but the differences between the simulation and the measurements increased during the course of the melt season. These differences were caused by underestimation of the energy balance at the snow surface, mainly that regarding sensible-heat flux during the melt season. The underestimation was caused by the implicit numerical treatment of the heat-transport equation. Consistent with the underestimation of snowmelt, simulated metamorphosis of compacted particles into melt forms was slower than the change shown by the measurements, and faceted snow particles, which constitute a snow type not actually found in the study area, sometimes appeared in the model. The inaccurate melt treatment also influenced simulated densities, which were larger than the measurements at small densities, while they were smaller than the measurements at large densities. Greater accuracy was achieved when an empirical compressive viscosity formulation for wet snows in Japan was introduced. A new version of SNOWPACK, with an accurate treatment of melt processes, is available.
We investigated the mask-pattern and trimethylalminium (TMAl)-flow-rate dependence of the Al composition in AlGaN selective growth for novel InGaN multiple quantum well lasers having selectively grown ridge structures (RiS-type lasers). The Al composition decreased with increases of the local coverage ratio. This result was explained quantitatively by a simple model in which the Al is deposited as polycrystals on the mask without migration occurring and the Ga is concentrated into the window. Under a high TMAl flow-rate condition, this effect of lowering the Al composition was weakened by the high Ga consumption on the mask, and an desirable Al composition for GaN-based lasers was realized. The model can be used to control the composition of p-AlGaN layers for RiS-type lasers.
A buried tungsten (W) mask structure with GaN is successfully obtained by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) technique via low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (LP-MOVPE). The selectivity of GaN growth on the window region vs. the mask region is good. An underlying GaN with a striped W metal mask is easily decomposed above 500 °C by the W catalytic effect, by which radical hydrogen is reacted with GaN. It is difficult to bury the W mask because severe damage occurs in the GaN epilayer under the mask. It is found that an underlying AlGaN/GaN layer with a narrow W stripe mask width (mask/window = 2/2 μm) leads the ELO GaN layer to be free from damage, resulting in an excellent W-buried structure.
A buried tungsten (W) mask structure with GaN is successfully obtained by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) technique via low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (LP-MOVPE). The selectivity of GaN growth on the window region vs. the mask region is good. An underlying GaN with a striped W metal mask is easily decomposed above 500 °C by the W catalytic effect, by which radical hydrogen is reacted with GaN. It is difficult to bury the W mask because severe damage occurs in the GaN epilayer under the mask. It is found that an underlying AlGaN/GaN layer with a narrow W stripe mask width (mask/window = 2/2 νm) leads the ELO GaN layer to be free from damage, resulting in an excellent W-buried structure.
Formation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) was carried out by rf glow discharge method in the reactive gas systems of silane. By preliminary experiments on a-Si:H for helium dilution, a relatively high deposition rate up to 2–3 μm/hr was obtained. In order to investigate the opto-electronic properties on a-Si:H films due to different dilution of helium or hydrogen, measurements on optical band gap Eop, electric conductivity and FT-IR were done. Optical emission spectra were also observed. Optical band gap value Eop on a-Si:H film for SiH4 (10%) -He (90%) was nearly constant about 1.73 eV, while that for SiH4 (10%) -H2 (90%) was increased from 1.75 eV to 1.78 eV with increase of residence time of silane molecule and it was relatively high. From the experimental results of FT-IR, ratio of bonding mode of SiH to (SiH+SiH2) for hydrogen dilution was about 90% and higher than that for helium dilution, while hydrogen concentration in the film for SiH4 (10%) -H2 (90%) was less than 10% and that for SiH4 (10%) -He (90%) was 20–30%.
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