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The lattice matching condition encountered usually in the heteroepitaxial growth has been proved to be relaxed drastically, if one uses the interface having van der Waals nature. Such interface can be realized on a cleaved face of a layered material or a quasi-one dimensional material and on a surface of a dangling-bond-terminated three dimensional material. Various kinds of heterostructures, which cannot be made by conventional growth methods, can be fabricated by using a variety of layered transition metal dichalcogenides, in which there exist superconducting, metallic, semiconducting or insulating layered materials. Moreover those heterostructures have been found to be grown on such an ordinary three-dimensional material as GaAs, if the dangling bonds on its surface are terminated by suitable atoms.
RHEED intensity oscillations have been observed during the epitaxial growth of layered NbSe2, MoSe2 on GaAs(111) substrates. Monolayer- and bilayer- mode oscillations have been observed at different diffraction points. The existence of bilayer-mode oscillation is interpreted as showing the polytype of the grown films. The present report demonstrate the utility of RHEED oscillation for analyzing the structure of ultrathin films of layered materials. The epitaxial growth of TaSe2 on layered substrates is also reported.
Ultrathin film growth of vanadyl phthalocyanine was attempted on vicinal surfaces of hydrogen-terminated Si(111) in order to see the effect of regularly spaced steps to the growth feature. It has been observed that molecular arrangement was substantially affected when the terrace width was narrower than 2∼4 times of the molecular lattice constants. This result is probably due to the weakness of molecular interaction in the material and it accounts for the reason why ordinary graphoepitaxy has not been successful for the organic thin films.
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