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A before-after prospective surveillance study to assess the impact of a multidimensional infection control approach for the reduction of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rates.
Pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) of hospital members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) from 10 cities of the following 6 developing countries: Colombia, El Salvador, India, Mexico, Philippines, and Turkey.
We performed a prospective active surveillance to determine rates of CAUTI among 3,877 patients hospitalized in 10 PICUs for a total of 27,345 bed-days. The study was divided into a baseline period (phase 1) and an intervention period (phase 2). In phase 1, surveillance was performed without the implementation of the multidimensional approach. In phase 2, we implemented a multidimensional infection control approach that included outcome surveillance, process surveillance, feedback on CAUTI rates, feedback on performance, education, and a bundle of preventive measures. The rates of CAUTI obtained in phase 1 were compared with the rates obtained in phase 2, after interventions were implemented.
During the study period, we recorded 8,513 urinary catheter (UC) days, including 1,513 UC-days in phase 1 and 7,000 UC-days in phase 2. In phase 1, the CAUTI rate was 5.9 cases per 1,000 UC-days, and in phase 2, after implementing the multidimensional infection control approach for CAUTI prevention, the rate of CAUTI decreased to 2.6 cases per 1,000 UC-days (relative risk, 0.43 [95% confidence interval, 0.21–1.0]), indicating a rate reduction of 57%.
Our findings demonstrated that implementing a multidimensional infection control approach is associated with a significant reduction in the CAUTI rate of PICUs in developing countries.
To describe the incidence of device-associated nosocomial infections in medical-surgical intensive care units (MS ICUs) in a university hospital in Turkey and compare it with National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system rates.
Prospective surveillance study during a period of 27 months. Device utilization ratios and device-associated infection rates were calculated using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and NNIS definitions.
Two separate MS ICUs at Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey.
All patients were included who presented with no signs and symptoms of infection within the first 48 hours after admission.
Data on 1,985 patients with a total of 16,892 patient-days were analyzed. The mean overall infection rate per 100 patients was 29.1 infections, and the mean infection rate per 1,000 patient-days was 34.2 infections. The rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia was 20.76 infections per 1,000 ventilator-days, the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection was 13.63 infections per 1,000 urinary catheter–days, and the rate of catheter-associated bloodstream infection was 9.69 infections per 1,000 central line–days. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Pseudomonas species among patients with ventilator-associated pneumonias (35.8% of cases), Candida species among patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infections (37.1% of cases), and coagulase-negative staphylococci among patients with catheter-associated bloodstream infections (20.0% of cases).
We found both higher device-associated infection rates and higher device utilization ratios in our MS ICUs than those reported by the NNIS system. To reduce the rate of infection, implementation of infection control practices and comprehensive education are required, and an appropriate nationwide nosocomial infection and control system is needed in Turkey.
The hands of healthcare workers often transmit pathogens causing nosocomial infections. This study examined compliance with handwashing and glove use.
A university-affiliated hospital.
Compliance was observed covertly. Healthcare workers' demographics, hand hygiene facilities, indications for hand hygiene, compliance with handwashing and glove use in each procedure, and duration of handwashing were recorded.
Nine nurses and 33 assistant physicians were monitored during the study. One researcher recorded 1,400 potential opportunities for handwashing during 15-minute observation periods. The mean duration of handwashing was 10 + 2 seconds. Most healthcare workers (99.3%) used liquid soap during handwashing, but 79.8% did not dry their hands. For all indications, compliance with handwashing was 31.9% and compliance with glove use was 58.8%. Compliance with handwashing varied inversely with both the number of indications for hand hygiene and the number of patient beds in the hospital room. Compliance with handwashing was better in dirty high-risk situations.
Compliance with handwashing was low, suggesting the need for new motivational strategies such as supplying feedback regarding compliance rates.