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Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have drawn great attention owing to their potential applications in high-quality flat display panels and smart solid-state lighting. Over the last three decades, numerous approaches have been made on material design and device physics to achieve high-efficiency and long-lifespan. Herein, we report a novel tactic to employ solution-processed hybrid metal oxide, molybdenum trioxide-tungsten trioxide (MoO3:WO3), as an efficient and stable hole injection/transport (HIL/HTL) and electron blocking layer for efficient OLEDs. By using phosphorescent orange-red emitter tris(2-phenylquinoline)-iridium(III) Ir(2-phq)3, MoO3:WO3 HIL based OLED device exhibits a power efficiency of 27.7 lm W-1 and 22.9 lm W-1 at 100 and 1000 cd m-2, respectively, which are 89% and 157% higher than that of conventional OLED device consisting of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as an HIL. Moreover, the resulted device also displays 1.6 times lower turn-on voltage and 3.0 time higher brightness as compare to other counter part. The higher device performances of OLED device may be attributed to robust hole transporting ability, balanced charge carrier in the recombination zone and non-acidic nature of designed HIL. Our results demonstrate that a novel alternative approach based on transition metal oxide hybrid HIL/HTL as a substitute to PEDOT:PSS for high-efficiency solution process OLEDs.
Health care facilities are always seen as places of haven and protection for managing external incidents, but situations become difficult and challenging when such facilities themselves are affected by internal hazards. Such incidents are arguably more disruptive than external incidents, because patients are dependent on supportive measures and are neither in position to respond to such crisis situation nor do they know how to respond. Operating room fires are rare but potentially catastrophic, involving loss of costly resources and possibly lives. This case report details a true operating room fire incident in an emergency operating room and details the real-life challenges encountered by operating room staff in preserving both life and property. As a result of this work, precautionary measures may be implemented to mitigate such incidents. Careful coordination, continuous training, and fire drill exercises can improve the overall outcomes and minimize the possibility of these potentially fatal problems, thereby making a safer health care environment for every worker and patient.
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted huge concern because of their intrinsic characteristics and ability to reach the pinnacle in the field of high-quality flat-panel displays and energy-efficient solid-state lighting. High-efficiency is always a key crux for OLED devices being energy-saving and longer life-span. OLEDs have encountered enormous difficulties in meeting the requirements for large-sized devices due to a major limitation in vacuum thermal evaporation technology. In multilayered OLED devices, the characteristics of the charge injection/transport layer is a crucial factor for the operating-voltage, power-efficiency and stability of the device. Transition metal oxides have shown great potential owing to their wide range of possible energy level alignments, balanced charge injection, and improvement of carrier mobilities. In this study, we report a solution-processed blend V2O5-PEDOT:PSS hole-injection/hole-transport layer (HIL/HTL) for efficient orange phosphorescent OLEDs. The electroluminescent characteristics of blend V2O5-PEDOT:PSS based devices were studied with the structure ITO/V2O5-PEDOT:PSS/CBP:Ir(2-phq)3/TPBi/LiF/Al. The V2O5-PEDOT:PSS based OLEDs displayed relatively higher device performance and low roll-off than that of the counter PEDOT:PSS device in terms of a maximum luminance of 17,670 cd m-2, power efficiency of 19.4 lm W-1, external quantum efficiency of 8.7%, and more importantly, low turn-on voltage. These results demonstrate an alternative approach based on metal oxide/organic blend HIL/HTL as a substitute of PEDOT:PSS for high-efficiency solution process OLEDs.
Introduction: Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons for an emergency department (ED) visit. Most cases are functional and no therapy has proven effective. Our objective was to determine if hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) (BuscopanTM) is effective for children who present to the ED with functional abdominal pain. Methods: We conducted a randomized, blinded, superiority trial comparing HBB 10 mg plus acetaminophen placebo to oral acetaminophen 15 mg/kg (max 975 mg) plus HBB placebo using a double-dummy approach. We included children 8-17 years presenting to the ED at London Health Sciences Centre with colicky abdominal pain rated >40 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS). The primary outcome was VAS pain score at 80 minutes post-administration. Secondary outcomes included adverse effects; caregiver satisfaction with pain management using a five-item Likert scale; recidivism and missed surgical diagnoses within 24-hours of discharge. Analysis was based on intention to treat. Results: We analyzed 225 participants (112 acetaminophen; 113 HBB). The mean (SD) age was 12.4 (3.0) years and 148/225 (65.8%) were females. Prior to enrollment, the median (IQR) duration of pain prior was 2 (4.5) hours and analgesia was provided to 101/225 (44.9%) of participants. The mean (SD) pre-intervention pain scores in the acetaminophen and HBB groups were 62.7 (15.9) mm and 60.3 (17.3) mm, respectively. At 80 minutes, the mean (SD) pain scores in the acetaminophen and HBB groups were 30.1 (28.8) mm and 29.4 (26.4) mm, respectively and there were no significant differences adjusting for pre-intervention scores (p = 0.96). The median (IQR) caregiver satisfaction was high in the acetaminophen [5 (2)] and HBB [5 (1)] groups (p = 0.79). The median (IQR) length of stay between acetaminophen [235 (101)] and HBB [234 (103)] was not significantly different (p = 0.53). The proportion of participants with a return visit for abdominal pain was 4/112 (3.5%) in the acetaminophen group and 6/113 (5.3%) in the HBB group. The most common adverse effect was nausea (9% in each group) and there were no significant differences in adverse effects between acetaminophen (26/112, 23.2%) and HBB (31/113, 27.4%) (p = 0.52). There were no missed surgical diagnoses. Conclusion: For children with presumed functional abdominal pain who present to the ED, both acetaminophen and HBB produce a clinically important (VAS < 30 mm) reduction in pain and should be routinely considered in this clinical setting.
The photostability of two glycine molecules has been investigated using quantum mechanical methods i.e. at CASSCF/NEVPT2 level theory. It is found that the molecule in water shows vast photostability as a comparison to vacuum. The energies are calculated around HOMO and LUMO orbital. The NEVPT2 computed energies are reasonably matched with experimental results. The study shows that the molecule returns from higher electronically excited states to ground state through CI and AC crossings and these crossings provide a minimum energy path along derivative coupling and gradient differences vector.
Nano-sized BiFeO3 were synthesized by sol-gel auto combustion method and report the effect of different annealing temperature (400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C) on phase formation, morphology, magnetic and dielectric properties of synthesized bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) nanoparticles. The phase formation of BFO nanoparticles were confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern. Further, significant increment in particle size with increasing annealing temperature was estimated by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM). Magnetization curve showed the soft ferromagnetic behavior of the samples annealed at 400 OC and 500 OC that was explained on the basis of disturbance of spiral modulated long range antiferromagnetic order of bulk BFO. Dielectric response revealed decrease in dielectric constant with increasing annealing temperature. BFO is a room-temperature multiferroic material so it is potential candidate for various applications viz. Water waste treatment, gas sensors and photovoltaic cells in rural areas.
Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in captive wild animal species in India is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of different Salmonella serotypes, antimicrobial resistance patterns and genotypic relatedness of recovered isolates. A total of 370 samples including faecal (n = 314), feed and water (n = 26) and caretakers stool swabs (n = 30) were collected from 40 different wild animal species in captivity, their caretakers, feed and water in four zoological gardens and wildlife enclosures in India. Salmonellae were isolated using conventional culture methods and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility with the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. Salmonella isolates were serotyped and genotyping was performed using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. Animal faecal samples were also subjected to direct PCR assay. Salmonella was detected in 10 of 314 (3.1%) faecal samples by isolation and 18 of 314 (5.7%) samples by direct PCR assay; one of 26 (3.8%) feed and water samples and five of 30 (16.7%) caretakers stool swabs by isolation. Salmonella was more commonly isolated in faecal samples from golden pheasants (25%; 2/8) and leopard (10%; 2/20). Salmonella enterica serotypes of known public health significance including S. Typhimurium (37.5%; 6/14), S. Kentucky (28.5%; 4/14) and S. Enteritidis (14.3%; 2/14) were identified. While the majority of the Salmonella isolates were pan-susceptible to the commonly used antibiotics. Seven (43.7%; 7/16) of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and one isolate each among them exhibited penta and tetra multidrug-resistant types. Three S. Kentucky serotype were identified in a same golden pheasants cage, two from the birds and one from the feed. This serotype was also isolated from its caretaker. Similarly, one isolate each of S. Typhimurium were recovered from ostrich and its caretaker. These isolates were found to be clonally related suggesting that wildlife may serve as reservoir for infections to humans and vice versa. These results emphasise the transmission of Salmonella among hosts via environmental contamination of feces to workers, visitors and other wildlife.
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have progressively attracted generous attention because of their versatile applications in solid state lighting and full color displays. High-efficiency is crucial for OLED devices being energy saving and to have a longer lifespan. Numerous approaches have been attempted to attain high-efficiency OLEDs via newly synthesized organic materials, light-extraction structure design and energy-efficient device architectures. The organic materials used in optoelectronic devices have inherently low dielectric constant. In this work, we demonstrate a comprehensive model to quantitatively investigate the role of dielectric constant of the electron transporting material on the electric field distribution, charge drift and exciton recombination probability across the emissive layer (EML) and electron transport layer (ETL) in organic light-emitting diode via commercialized electrical simulation package SETFOS.
Recently, photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting using semiconductor photoanode has received great attention due production of hydrogen through clean energy. The alpha hematite (α Fe2O3) is one of the candidate amongst photoanodic materials, which is chemically stable, abundant in nature with a band gap of 2.0-2. 2eV allowing to be harvesting in the visible light. However, it has also drawn back due to high recombination rate of electron–hole pair revealing the low concentration of charges and lower device performance. In common with α-Fe2O3, the titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been known as one of the most explored photoanode electrode material due to its physical and chemical stability in aqueous and non-toxicity. However, TiO2 has large bandgap (3.0-3.2 eV) that results in absorbing UV light and very small part of visible region. Incorporation of TiO2 in α-Fe2O3 could achieve better efficiencies as photoanode materials by enhancing the electric conductivity, limited hole diffusion length, and both materials can absorb light in both UV and visible spectrum range. However, the photoanodic properties of α-Fe2O3 with different concentrations of TiO2 are mostly unknown. Under this work, α-Fe2O3-TiO2 nanomaterial was synthesized using a hydrothermal method. The α-Fe2O3-TiO2 nanomaterials containing different weight percentage (2.5, 5, 16, 25, and 50) of TiO2 to α-Fe2O3 were characterized using SEM, XRD, UV-Vis, FTIR and Raman techniques, respectively. The electrochemical properties of α-Fe2O3-TiO2 nanomaterials were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques, respectively.
To examine whether a new no-smoking policy in an in-patient mental health setting had any effects outside of smoking cessation. Our hypothesis stated that a forced smoking ban for in-patients may result in an increased susceptibility for clinical incidents, aggression and lower admission rates. All patients admitted to adult in-patient mental health services in Coventry and Warwickshire Partnership NHS Trust were included in the analysis. Data 6 months post-implementation of the smoking policy (1 July 2015 to 1 January 2016) were compared with the same period 1 year prior (1 July 2014 to 1 January 2015). Patient demographics, admission rates, ward occupancy, average lengths of stay, numbers of reported incidents and use of the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA) were compared.
We analysed 4223 admissions. We found a significantly increased number of admissions under the MHA (P = 0.007), a significantly greater number of reported smoking-related incidents (P < 0.001) and aggression-related incidents in the psychiatric intensive care unit (P < 0.001). However, we found no significant difference in capacity of in-patient wards (P = 0.39), admission length (P = 0.34) or total aggression-related incidents (P = 0.86).
Although further comparisons over longer time periods are necessary, our results suggest that enforced smoking cessation on acutely unwell psychiatric patients admitted to the most restricted environments may have some negative effects. Nicotine replacement therapy should be offered to all patients to minimise the risk of clinical incident.
A one-dimensional avalanche dynamics model accounting for vertical density and velocity distributions is presented. Mass and momentum flux distribution factors are derived to incorporate the effect of density and velocity variations within the framework of depth-integrated models. Using experiments of avalanche flows on an inclined snow chute at Dhundhi, Manali, India, we conceptualize snow flow rheology as a Voellmy fluid where the distribution of internal shearing is given by a Newtonian fluid (NF) or Criminale–Ericksen–Filbey fluid (CEFF). Then the generalized mass and momentum distribution factors are computed for these two fluid models for different density stratifications. Numerical solutions are obtained using a total variation diminishing Lax–Friedrichs (TVDLF) finite-difference method. The model is validated with the experimental results. We find that the flow features of the chute experiments are simulated well by the model. The velocities and runout distances are obtained for the Voellmy model with both NF and CEFF extensions for various input volumes, and the optimum values of the model parameters, namely, coefficients of dynamic and turbulent friction, are determined.
Information on density and abundance of globally threatened species such as tigers Panthera tigris is essential for effective conservation as well as to evaluate the success of conservation programmes. We monitored tigers in Parsa Widlife Reserve, Nepal, using camera traps, in 2013, 2014 and 2016. Once believed to be a sink for tigers from adjacent Chitwan National Park, Parsa now provides a new hope for tigers. Spatially explicit capture–recapture analysis over 3 survey years revealed an increase in tiger density from 0.78 to 1.38 individuals per 100 km2 from 2013 to 2016. The tiger abundance was estimated to be seven (6–13), 11 (10–16) and 17 (17–20) in 2013, 2014 and 2016, respectively. Resettlement of communities from the core area, reduced anthropogenic pressure, and improved security have made Parsa Wildlife Reserve a suitable habitat for tigers. Tiger abundance increased considerably within a 5 km radius of the evacuated village sites, from two in 2013 to eight in 2014 and 10 in 2016. Population turnover has remained moderate (< 30% per year), with persistence of individuals in multiple years. Dispersing tigers from Chitwan's source population accounted for a large portion (c. 40%) of the tigers detected in Parsa. Conservation efforts along with annual monitoring should be continued in Parsa to sustain the increase and monitor the persistence of tigers. The Chitwan–Parsa complex should be managed as a single ecological unit for conserving the Endangered tiger and other wide-ranging species.
The present experiment was undertaken to validate a probiotic of canine origin for its potential use in dogs. A total of fifteen adult female Labrador dogs were allocated to three equal groups and fed a basal diet without probiotic (control) or with probiotic of either canine (Lactobacillus johnsonii CPN23; cPRO) or dairy (L. acidophilus NCDC 15; dPRO) origin for 9 weeks. The digestibility of most macronutrients remained similar among the groups; however, fibre digestibility was improved (P = 0·034) in dogs receiving cPRO. The faecal fermentative metabolites ammonia (P< 0·05) and lactate (P = 0·094) were altered favourably, indicating a positive influence of both probiotics. Faecal concentrations of acetate, propionate and butyrate were increased (P< 0·01) in both probiotic groups. However, improvements were higher in cPRO v. dPRO. The delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to intradermal inoculation of phytohaemagglutinin-P was higher (P = 0·053) in cPRO as compared with control. The antibody response to sheep erythrocytes was, however, similar across the three groups. Overall, in dogs, the canine-origin probiotic was superior when compared with the dairy-origin probiotic.
This contribution reports the synthesis and characterization of La-based perovskites which can be used for the production of syngas via solar thermochemical splitting of H2O/CO2. The La-based perovskites were synthesized using a solution combustion synthesis approach. The derived perovskites were analyzed using powder X-ray diffractometer (PXRD), BET surface area analyzer (BET), and scanning/transmission electron microscope (SEM/TEM). The results associated with the synthesis and characterization of La-based perovskites is reported in detail.
Bioclastic carbonate deposits that formed because of a combination of nearshore marine, fluvial, and aeolian processes, occur along the Saurashtra coast and in the adjacent interior regions of western India. Whether these carbonates formed by marine or aeolian processes has been debated for many decades. The presence of these deposits inland poses questions as to whether they are climate controlled or attributable to postdepositional tectonic uplift. In particular, the debate centres on chronologic issues including (1) appropriate sampling strategies and (2) the use of 230Th/234U and 14C ages on the bulk carbonates. Using traces (<1%) of quartz grains trapped in carbonate matrices, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz grains, deposited along with the carbonate grains, provides ages for the most recent deposition events. The OSL ages range from >165 to 44 ka for the shell limestones, 75–17 ka for the fluvially reworked sheet deposits, and 80–11 ka for miliolites deposited by aeolian processes. These are younger than the 230Th/234U and 14C ages and suggest that the inland carbonate deposits were reworked from older carbonate sediments that were transported during more arid phases.
Astronomical constants such as the length of the solar year, sidereal and synodic periods of revolutions of the Moon and five brighter planets have been computed using the system of astronomy in ancient and mediaeval India and a comparison made with their modern values. The modern values of the Moon’s inequalities have been compared with that of the earlier Hindu astronomical reckonings. Also, the Equation of the Centre of the Sun as determined in the period 500 A.D. to 1150 A.D. has been discussed in relation to corresponding modern values.
Recently, molybdenum oxide (MoO2) has been found to be a chemically
stable and relatively inexpensive material for the application as the anode in a
lithium ion battery [1-5]. We believe the use of MoO2 in battery
applications has been hindered due to a long, complicated, and multistep
synthesis process. We present a simple one-pot hydrothermal technique to
synthesize MoO2 nanoparticles directly onto a copper (Cu) substrate.
We believe this is a first report of the synthesis of MoO2 directly
onto a Cu substrate, and could lead to the ability to both fabricate other
materials in a similar manner as well as depositing MoO2 onto other
substrates. This technique can reduce anode production time by eliminating the
coating process, and also decrease the total amount of chemicals used when
compared to a typical powder synthesis and coating processes. The
MoO2 coated Cu electrode was characterized using Raman Spectroscopy,
Grazing Incident X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) and scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) techniques to confirm the composition, crystallinity and structure of the
synthesized MoO2 nanomaterial.
A self-guided Gaussian laser pulse propagating in a non-uniform plasma channel is unstable to a plasma wave perturbation co-moving with the laser with its group velocity. The plasma wave amplitude has a maximum radial profile along the laser propagation axis. As the plasma wave propagates through a non-uniform plasma channel, the plasma wave perturbation causes focusing in the part of the laser that propagates with the electron density trough and defocusing in the part moving with the crest. This yields an axial gradient in the intensity of the laser and produces a ponderomotive force on the electrons. The ponderomotive force drives the plasma wave, which in turn makes the modulational instability grow. The growth rate of the modulational instability becomes larger with the increase in non-uniformity of a shallow plasma channel. In a deep cavitated plasma channel the growth rate of the modulational instability increases with the laser pulse amplitude.