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Rural communities in developing countries extract provisioning ecosystem services from the natural environment to meet their subsistence needs, generate cash income and create employment opportunities. Caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis, known as yartsagunbu in Tibet and in the literature on this subject, is a medicinal resource extracted by the mountain communities of the Himalaya. Studies of the contribution of the fungus to local livelihoods in the Indian Himalaya are scarce. We investigated trade and harvest and analysed the contribution of caterpillar fungus to household economies in 32 villages in Dhauliganga Valley, Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, in the Western Himalaya. Caterpillar fungus harvesting has become an integral part of local livelihoods in the study area, and on average contributes c. 74% of household cash income. The majority of harvesters perceived that harvesting had become more difficult during 2010–2015 as a result of competition and a decline in abundance of the species. The mean annual per capita harvest declined by 54 pieces during 2011–2015. Increasing harvesting and trade, coupled with the dependency of local communities on the fungus, may result in greater extraction of the resource for short-term economic benefits, and could eventually lead to depletion and ecological damage. Harvesting of the fungus has already created environmental, legal and social challenges, although it has become a lucrative livelihood opportunity. The ongoing decline of the fungus threatens local livelihoods. Good governance and livelihood security should be integrated with biodiversity conservation when devising government policies and plans for sustainable management of the caterpillar fungus.
Hardy’s uncertainty principle for the Gabor transform is proved for locally compact abelian groups having noncompact identity component and groups of the form
is a compact group having irreducible representations of bounded dimension. We also show that Hardy’s theorem fails for a connected nilpotent Lie group
which admits a square integrable irreducible representation. Further, a similar conclusion is made for groups of the form
is a discrete group.
GLP-1 (abnormal germline proliferation) is a Notch-like receptor protein that plays an essential role in pharyngeal development. In this study, an orthologue of Caenorhabditis elegans glp-1 was identified in Meloidogyne incognita. A computational analysis revealed that the orthologue contained almost all the domains present in the C. elegans gene: specifically, the LIN-12/Notch repeat, the ankyrin repeat, a transmembrane domain and different ligand-binding motifs were present in orthologue, but the epidermal growth factor-like motif was not observed. An expression analysis showed differential expression of glp-1 throughout the life cycle of M. incognita, with relatively higher expression in the egg stage. To evaluate the silencing efficacy of Mi-glp-1, transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying double-stranded RNA constructs of glp-1 were generated, and infection of these plants with M. incognita resulted in a 47–50% reduction in the numbers of galls, females and egg masses. Females obtained from the transgenic RNAi lines exhibited 40–60% reductions in the transcript levels of the targeted glp-1 gene compared with females isolated from the control plants. Second-generation juveniles (J2s), which were descendants of the infected females from the transgenic lines, showed aberrant phenotypes. These J2s exhibited a significant decrease in the overall distance from the stylet to the metacorpus region, and this effect was accompanied by disruption around the metacorporeal bulb of the pharynx. The present study suggests a role for this gene in organ (pharynx) development during embryogenesis in M. incognita and its potential use as a target in the management of nematode infestations in plants.
A miniaturized dual-band CPW-fed metamaterial antenna is presented and developed in this paper. Zeroth-order mode is originated by realizing open-ended composite right/left-handed transmission line. A dual split ring resonator is introduced to obtain another mode. The antenna is operated in the frequency region 1.60–1.64 and 2.76–2.79 GHz. Shunt inductance is offered by means of thin stripline connecting ground planes. It is demonstrated that by applying metamaterial loading (thin stripline) proposed antenna is capable to achieve 51.9% miniaturization with respect to the antenna without metamaterial loading. The presented antenna has an electrical size of 0.162 λ0 × 0.108 λ0 × 0.008 λ0 at f0 = 1.62 GHz. The antenna exhibits simulated gain of 1.05 and 2.59 dB in the broadside directions at 1.62 and 2.78 GHz, respectively. Beside that this antenna offers dipolar-type pattern and omnidirectional pattern in the xz-and yz-planes respectively at both bands, which is beneficial to be used in modern wireless applications. The design methodology of the proposed antenna is described with the help of current distributions and parametric analysis.
This study aimed to identify the determinants of nutritional status of children in India with a special focus on dietary diversity at the state level. Household-level consumption data from three rounds of the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the National Sample Survey Organization (1993–2012) were used. Information on the nutritional status of children was taken from the National Family Health Survey (2005–06). Dietary diversity indices were constructed at the state level to examine diversity in quantity of food consumed and food expenditure. Multilevel regression analysis was applied to examine the association of state-level dietary diversity and other socioeconomic factors with the nutritional status of children. It was observed that significant variation in childhood stunting, wasting and underweight could be explained by community- and state-level factors. The results indicate that dietary diversity has increased in India over time, and that dietary diversity at the state level is significantly associated with the nutritional status of children. Moreover, percentage of households with a regular salaried income in a state, percentage of educated mothers and mothers receiving antenatal care in a community are important factors for improving the nutritional status of children. Diversity in complementary child feeding is another significant determinant of nutritional status of children. The study thus concludes that increasing dietary diversity at the state level is an effective measure to reduce childhood malnutrition in India.
A compact coplanar waveguide (CPW)-fed wideband metamaterial-inspired antenna is designed and developed in this paper. The proposed structure is an asymmetric structure in which three rectangular stubs are employed between signal patch and CPW ground plane. It is demonstrated that these stubs provides lumped parameters of conventional epsilon-negative transmission line (ENG-TL). As an advantage of these stubs proposed antenna operates on 1.67–2.76 GHz with −10 dB impedance bandwidth of 49.2%. The proposed antenna having small electrical size of 0.17λ0 × 0.35λ0 × 0.01λ0 at fo = 2.21 GHz. The simulated average gain and radiation efficiency of the proposed antenna is 1.61 dB and 96.33% respectively throughout the bandwidth. Properties such as smaller electrical size, simpler design, consistent radiation characteristics, and ease of fabrication are making this antenna suitable for GSM, WLAN/Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and WiMAX applications.
To assess General Dental Practitioners’ (GDPs) in India willingness to participate in disaster management and their previous training pertaining to disaster management, and to assess GDP objective knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding disaster management.
Materials and Methods
This study was a cross-sectional survey conducted on all GDPs of Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. Willingness to participate, perceived knowledge, perceived effectiveness, objective knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding disaster management were assessed through questionnaire method. Information also was collected regarding age, gender, religion, and residence.
A total of 142 out of 180 GDPs participated in the study, representing a response rate of 79%. A majority (85%) of respondents were willing to participate in disaster management. Mean score for knowledge was 12.21%, for attitude was 33.56%, for behavior was 14.50%, and for perceived effectiveness was 9.08%. Significant correlations were observed between qualification and perceived effectiveness (P=.003), and between attitude and years of practice (P=.04). Willingness to participate in disaster management and age showed significant association (P=.000).
High willingness and attitude to participate in disaster management was observed among respondents. Low knowledge and behavior scores were observed among GDPs.
ChhabraKG, RajeshG, ChhabraC, BinnalA, SharmaA, PachoriY. Disaster Management and General Dental Practitioners in India: An Overlooked Resource. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(6):569–573.
Level set methods have been used for Solid phase epitaxial regrowth, etching and deposition.This study is to model the growth of nickel silicide accurately using the level set method. NiSi growth has been observed to follow a linear-parabolic law which takes into account both diffusion and interfacial reaction. This linear-parabolic system is very similar to the Deal and Grove model of SiO2 growth. This model uses similar diffusion transport and reaction rate equations. This simulation models the growth of silicide coupling diffusion solutions to level-set techniques. Dual level sets have been used for top and bottom interface propagation of silicide; velocities were estimated based on nickel concentrations at both interfaces as well as diffusivity and reaction rate of nickel. This is important to predict precise shape of silicide that will allow current crowding and field focusing effects to be modeled in transport out of the intrinsic device into the contacting layers. These simulation models can be used for latest technology nodes at 45, 32, 22nm and special devices such as FinFET’s etc. The level set method is successfully implemented and verified in Florida Object Oriented Process Simulator and growth shapes matches well with the literature Transmission Electron Microscopy data.
Optimization of the cultivation conditions and medium components for folate production by the highest folate producing Streptococcus thermophilus strain RD102 was carried out using a 23 central composite design and surface modelling method of response surface methodology. As folate production was observed to be growth-associated, hence the desired responses selected for the optimization were both folate production and growth. The selected factors based on preliminary investigations were incubation period, concentrations of p-amino benzoic acid (PABA) the growth precursor, and lactose as carbon source. The optimum concentrations of PABA and lactose were found to be 300 μm and 3% respectively at 72 h incubation. The optimized conditions resulted in an increase in folate production by 26% compared with control conditions (0% PABA and lactose at 37°C). Using the method of experimental factorial design and response surface analysis, it was possible to determine optimal operating conditions to obtain a higher folate production by Strep. thermophilus. Therefore, this study constitutes a step in developing strategies to modulate the folate level to a higher level.
This paper deals with the design and implementation of a visual kinematic control scheme for a redundant manipulator. The inverse kinematic map for a redundant manipulator is a one-to-many relation problem; i.e. for each Cartesian position, multiple joint angle vectors are associated. When this inverse kinematic relation is learnt using existing learning schemes, a single inverse kinematic solution is achieved, although the manipulator is redundant. Thus a new redundancy preserving network based on the self-organizing map (SOM) has been proposed to learn the one-to-many relation using sub-clustering in joint angle space. The SOM network resolves redundancy using three criteria, namely lazy arm movement, minimum angle norm and minimum condition number of image Jacobian matrix. The proposed scheme is able to guide the manipulator end-effector towards the desired target within 1-mm positioning accuracy without exceeding physical joint angle limits. A new concept of neighbourhood has been introduced to enable the manipulator to follow any continuous trajectory. The proposed scheme has been implemented on a seven-degree-of-freedom (7DOF) PowerCube robot manipulator successfully with visual position feedback only. The positioning accuracy of the redundant manipulator using the proposed scheme outperforms existing SOM-based algorithms.