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To analyze the use of YouTube videos as educational tools for four physical examinations of the shoulder: the Neer, Hawkins, empty can, and drop arm tests.
Video-based education, which is accompanied by text-based education, can be an effective education method, especially in learning medical skills. Medical students and doctors in training often use YouTube videos to share medical education materials, and more systematic review of the reliability of these videos is required.
A search of YouTube was conducted using four keywords: ‘Neer test,’ ‘Hawkins test,’ ‘empty can test,’ and ‘drop arm test.’ Two physicians reviewed each video and recorded a variety of characteristics (date uploaded, number of views, likes and dislikes, and upload source). In addition, they scored and categorized the videos into four groups: ‘very useful,’ ‘somewhat useful,’ ‘not useful,’ and ‘misleading.’ Videos containing inappropriate content were classified as ‘misleading.’ Finally, the correlations of each video’s usefulness with viewers’ preferences and the upload source were analyzed.
A total of 400 videos were assessed and 200 videos were adopted which yield eligible criteria. Out of 200 videos, 51 videos were very useful and 32 were misleading. Significant correlations were observed between the video’s usefulness and the uploaded source, as well as between the video’s usefulness and viewers’ preferences, such as the number of views, views per day, and number of likes. The proportion of videos classified as ‘very useful’ was highest (58.6%) among those uploaded by physicians and lowest (12.7%) among those uploaded by individuals. Videos uploaded by individuals had significantly lower values reflecting viewer preferences than did videos uploaded by physicians.
YouTube videos could be used as learning sources for shoulder physical examinations after the application of appropriate filtering processes, such as review of the upload source and viewers’ preferences.
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