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There is no widely used prognostic model for delirium in patients with advanced cancer. The present study aimed to develop a decision tree prediction model for a short-term outcome.
This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter and prospective observational study conducted at 9 psycho-oncology consultation services and 14 inpatient palliative care units in Japan. We used records of patients with advanced cancer receiving pharmacological interventions with a baseline Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98) severity score of ≥10. A DRS-R98 severity score of <10 on day 3 was defined as the study outcome. The dataset was randomly split into the training and test dataset. A decision tree model was developed using the training dataset and potential predictors. The area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve was measured both in 5-fold cross-validation and in the independent test dataset. Finally, the model was visualized using the whole dataset.
Altogether, 668 records were included, of which 141 had a DRS-R98 severity score of <10 on day 3. The model achieved an average AUC of 0.698 in 5-fold cross-validation and 0.718 (95% confidence interval, 0.627–0.810) in the test dataset. The baseline DRS-R98 severity score (cutoff of 15), hypoxia, and dehydration were the important predictors, in this order.
Significance of results
We developed an easy-to-use prediction model for the short-term outcome of delirium in patients with advanced cancer receiving pharmacological interventions. The baseline severity of delirium and precipitating factors of delirium were important for prediction.
In April 2016, the Japanese government introduced an additional benefit for dementia care in acute care hospitals (dementia care benefit) into the universal benefit schedule of public healthcare insurance program. The benefit includes a financial disincentive to use physical restraint. The present study investigated the association between the dementia care benefit and the use of physical restraint among inpatients with dementia in general acute care settings.
A national cross-sectional study design was used. Eight types of care units from acute care hospitals under the public healthcare insurance program were invited to participate in this study. A total of 23,539 inpatients with dementia from 2,355 care units in 937 hospitals were included for the analysis. Dementia diagnosis or symptoms included any signs of cognitive impairment. The primary outcome measure was “use of physical restraint.”
Among patients, the point prevalence of physical restraint was 44.5% (n = 10,480). Controlling for patient, unit, and hospital characteristics, patients in units with dementia care benefit had significantly lower percentage of physical restraint than those in any other units (42.0% vs. 47.1%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.76; 95% confident interval [0.63, 0.92]).
The financial incentive may have reduced the risk of physical restraint among patients with dementia in acute care hospitals. However, use of physical restraint was still common among patients with dementia in units with the dementia care benefit. An educational package to guide dementia care approach including the avoidance of physical restraint by healthcare professionals in acute care hospitals is recommended.
The purpose of this study is to identify psychiatric disorders and stress factors experienced by staff members in cancer hospitals who were referred to psychiatric consultation service, and to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and stress factors.
A retrospective descriptive study using clinical practice data on staff members referred to psychiatric consultation service, obtained for 8 years, was conducted at two National Cancer Center Hospitals in Japan. Psychiatric disorders were identified according to DSM-IV. Stress factors were extracted from a chief complaint at the initial visit in medical charts, using a coding approach, and grouped as job stress or personal stress. The frequencies of the stress factors were determined by two coders who were unaware of the categorized procedure. Fisher's exact test was used to determine the association between psychiatric disorders and stress factors.
Of 8077 psychiatric consultations, 65 (1%) staff members were referred. The most common psychiatric disorder was adjustment disorder (n = 26, 40%), followed by major depression (n = 17, 26%). Eight stress factors were identified from 76 meaning units and were grouped into five job stresses and three personal stresses. Of the five job stresses, four were most frequently experienced in adjustment disorders, and “failure to adapt to job environmental change” was significantly associated (p = 0.014). Two of the three personal stresses were most frequently experienced in psychiatric disorders other than major depressive disorder and adjustment disorders, and “suffering from mental disease” was significantly associated (p = 0.001).
Significance of results:
We found that very few staff members were provided with psychiatric consultation service. A comprehensive support system for job stress might be needed to prevent adjustment disorders, as those are suggested to be the most common psychiatric disorders among staff members in cancer hospitals.
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