Seven coral reef-associated and deep-water fish species were found in a local fish market on Samal Island in the Davao Gulf, constituting the first records for the Philippine archipelago. The specific geographical distributions of Eumegistus illustris (Bramidae), Paracaesio kusakarii (Lutjanidae) and Saloptia powelli (Serranidae) are greatly enlarged by these observations. The first records of Ariomma brevimanum (Ariommatidae), Brama orcini (Bramidae), Aulacocephalus temminckii (Serranidae) and Pseudanthias fasciatus (Serranidae) confirm the Indo-Pacific-wide distributions of these species. In contrast to the other records, A. brevimanum and B. orcini were encountered regularly and length–weight relationships, not earlier provided in the scientific literature, were calculated. We also measured the largest specimen ever for B. orcini (total length of 420 mm). These observations substantiate the uniqueness of the poorly-studied fauna of the southern Philippines and underline the importance of marine Philippine fauna within the Coral Triangle.