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There is strong evidence that foods containing dietary fibre protect against colorectal cancer, resulting at least in part from its anti-proliferative properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of supplementation with two non-digestible carbohydrates, resistant starch (RS) and polydextrose (PD), on crypt cell proliferative state (CCPS) in the macroscopically normal rectal mucosa of healthy individuals. We also investigated relationships between expression of regulators of apoptosis and of the cell cycle on markers of CCPS. Seventy-five healthy participants were supplemented with RS and/or PD or placebo for 50 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (the Dietary Intervention, Stem cells and Colorectal Cancer (DISC) Study). CCPS was assessed, and the expression of regulators of the cell cycle and of apoptosis was measured by quantitative PCR in rectal mucosal biopsies. SCFA concentrations were quantified in faecal samples collected pre- and post-intervention. Supplementation with RS increased the total number of mitotic cells within the crypt by 60 % (P = 0·001) compared with placebo. This effect was limited to older participants (aged ≥50 years). No other differences were observed for the treatments with PD or RS as compared with their respective controls. PD did not influence any of the measured variables. RS, however, increased cell proliferation in the crypts of the macroscopically-normal rectum of older adults. Our findings suggest that the effects of RS on CCPS are not only dose, type of RS and health status-specific but are also influenced by age.
The American Heart Association (AHA; Dallas, Texas USA) and European Resuscitation Council (Niel, Belgium) cardiac arrest (CA) guidelines recommend the intraosseous (IO) route when intravenous (IV) access cannot be obtained. Vasopressin has been used as an alternative to epinephrine to treat ventricular fibrillation (VF).
Limited data exist on the pharmacokinetics and resuscitative effects of vasopressin administered by the humeral IO (HIO) route for treatment of VF. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of HIO and IV vasopressin, on the occurrence, odds, and time of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and pharmacokinetic measures in a swine model of VF.
Twenty-seven Yorkshire-cross swine (60 to 80 kg) were assigned randomly to three groups: HIO (n=9), IV (n=9), and a control group (n=9). Ventricular fibrillation was induced and untreated for two minutes. Chest compressions began at two minutes post-arrest and vasopressin (40 U) administered at four minutes post-arrest. Serial blood specimens were collected for four minutes, then the swine were resuscitated until ROSC or 29 post-arrest minutes elapsed.
Fisher’s Exact test determined ROSC was significantly higher in the HIO 5/7 (71.5%) and IV 8/11 (72.7%) groups compared to the control 0/9 (0.0%; P=.001). Odds ratios of ROSC indicated no significant difference between the treatment groups (P=.68) but significant differences between the HIO and control, and the IV and control groups (P=.03 and .01, respectively). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated the mean time to ROSC for HIO and IV was 621.20 seconds (SD=204.21 seconds) and 554.50 seconds (SD=213.96 seconds), respectively, with no significant difference between the groups (U=11; P=.22). Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) revealed the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and time to maximum concentration (Tmax) of vasopressin in the HIO and IV groups was 71753.9 pg/mL (SD=26744.58 pg/mL) and 61853.7 pg/mL (SD=22745.04 pg/mL); 111.42 seconds (SD=51.3 seconds) and 114.55 seconds (SD=55.02 seconds), respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated no significant difference in plasma vasopressin concentrations between the treatment groups over four minutes (P=.48).
The HIO route delivered vasopressin effectively in a swine model of VF. Occurrence, time, and odds of ROSC, as well as pharmacokinetic measurements of HIO vasopressin, were comparable to IV.
BurgertJM, JohnsonAD, Garcia-BlancoJ, FultonLV, LoughrenMJ. The Resuscitative and Pharmacokinetic Effects of Humeral Intraosseous Vasopressin in a Swine Model of Ventricular Fibrillation. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):305–310.
Obtaining intravenous (IV) access in patients in hemorrhagic shock is often difficult and prolonged. Failed IV attempts delay life-saving treatment. Intraosseous (IO) access may often be obtained faster than IV access. Albumin (5%) is an option for prehospital volume expansion because of the absence of interference with coagulation and platelet function.
There are limited data comparing the performance of IO and IV administered 5% albumin. The aims of this study were to compare the effects of tibial IO (TIO) and IV administration of 500 mL of 5% albumin on infusion time and hemodynamic measurements of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), and stroke volume (SV) in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock.
Sixteen male swine were divided into two groups: TIO and IV. All subjects were anesthetized and a Class III hemorrhage was achieved by exsanguination of 31% of estimated blood volume (EBV) from a femoral artery catheter. Following exsanguination, 500 mL of 5% albumin was administered under pressurized infusion (300 mmHg) by the TIO or IV route and infusion time was recorded. Hemodynamic measurements of HR, MAP, CO, and SV were collected before and after exsanguination and every 20 seconds for 180 seconds during 5% albumin infusion.
An independent t-test determined that IV 5% albumin infusion was significantly faster compared to IO (P=.01). Mean infusion time for TIO was seven minutes 35 seconds (SD=two minutes 44 seconds) compared to four minutes 32 seconds (SD=one minute 08 seconds) in the IV group. Multivariate Analysis of Variance was performed on hemodynamic data collected during the 5% albumin infusion. Analyses indicated there were no significant differences between the TIO and IV groups relative to MAP, CO, HR, or SV (P>.05).
While significantly longer to infuse 5% albumin by the TIO route, the longer TIO infusion time may be negated as IO devices can be placed more quickly compared to repeated IV attempts. The lack of significant difference between the TIO and IV routes relative to hemodynamic measures indicate the TIO route is a viable route for the infusion of 5% albumin in a swine model of Class III hemorrhage.
MuirSL, SheppardLB, Maika-WilsonA, BurgertJM, Garcia-BlancoJ, JohnsonAD, CoynerJL. A Comparison of the Effects of Intraosseous and Intravenous 5% Albumin on Infusion Time and Hemodynamic Measures in a Swine Model of Hemorrhagic Shock. Prehosp Disaster Med.2016;31(4):436–442.
An energy resource is the first step in the chain that supplies energy services (for a definition of energy services, see Chapter 1). Energy services are largely ignorant of the particular resource that supplies them; however, often the infrastructures, technologies, and fuels along the delivery chain are highly dependent on a particular type of resource. The availability and costs of bringing energy resources to the market place are key determinants to affordable and accessible energy services.
Energy resources pose no inherent limitation to meeting the rapidly growing global energy demand as long as adequate upstream investment is forthcoming – for exhaustible resources in exploration, production technology, and capacity (mining and field development) and, by analogy, for renewables in conversion technologies.
Hydrocarbons and Nuclear
Occurrences of hydrocarbons and fissile materials in the Earth's crust are plentiful – yet they are finite. The extent of the ultimately recoverable oil, natural gas, coal, or uranium is the subject of numerous reviews, yet still the range of values in the literature is large (Table 7.1). For example, the range for conventional oil is between 4900 exajoules (EJ) for reserves to 13,700 EJ (reserves plus resources) – a range that sustains continued debate and controversy. The large range is the result of varying boundaries of what is included in the analysis of a finite stock of an exhaustible resource, e.g., conventional oil only or conventional oil plus unconventional occurrences, such as oil shale, tar sands, and extra-heavy oils.
Three-dimensional (3D) battery architectures have emerged as a new direction for powering microelectromechanical systems and other small autonomous devices. Although there are few examples to date of fully functioning 3D batteries, these power sources have the potential to achieve high power density and high energy density in a small footprint. This overview highlights the various architectures proposed for 3D batteries, the advances made in the fabrication of components designed for these devices, and the remaining technical challenges. Efforts directed at establishing design rules for 3D architectures and modeling are providing insight concerning the energy density and current uniformity achievable with these architectures. The significant progress made on the fabrication of electrodes and electrolytes designed for 3D batteries is an indication that a number of these battery architectures will be successfully demonstrated within the next few years.
Kochia poses a challenge to vegetation management in both agricultural and noncrop areas. This species has developed widespread resistance to several herbicides with differing modes of action, including acetolactate synthase inhibitors and photosynthesis inhibitors. Resistance is also beginning to appear against the synthetic auxins and glycines. Therefore, alternative PRE and POST herbicides are needed for effective kochia management, especially in roadside bare-ground zones. Both PRE and POST herbicides were screened on rights-of-way in Pennsylvania. Mixtures containing diuron, flumioxazin, sulfentrazone, pendimethalin, prodiamine, and bromacil were evaluated for PRE activity in combination with glyphosate. POST kochia control was assessed for 15 noncrop herbicides. Results from all trials varied with kochia size and vigor at time of treatment. Although diuron is the current industry standard for PRE control in tank mixes, sulfentrazone appeared to have the most POST activity against vigorously growing kochia. All PRE herbicides evaluated performed better than the standard, sulfometuron plus chlorsulfuron alone. Dicamba, dicamba plus diflufenzopyr, fluroxypyr, and glyphosate performed best against kochia when applied POST. The recently available chemistries saflufenacil and aminocyclopyrachlor require further evaluation of application timing and use rates, respectively, for POST activity on kochia.
Accurate reconstruction of the biomass, structure, and productivity of ancient forests from their fossilized remnants remains an interesting challenge in paleoecology. In well-preserved Tertiary fossil Metasequoia forests of Canada's Arctic, in situ stumps and fragments of stems, treetops, and branches contain substantial information about tree dimensions that can be used to determine tree height, stand biomass, and other characteristics such as canopy depth and structure, and the history of stand development. To validate a method for reconstructing the biomass of the Eocene floodplain Metasequoia forests of Axel Heiberg Island, we measured stump diameters and spacing, and stem, branch, and treetop characteristics in living Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Chamaecyparis thyoides stands in ways that simulate the limited measurements that can be made in well-preserved fossil forests in Canada and probably elsewhere. We used those limited measurements to estimate tree height and volume, branch and foliar dry weights, and tree biomass. The estimates derived from the limited data set are usually within 15% of the estimates derived from the methods currently used in forest ecology for determining those metrics in modern forests. Under appropriate conditions, the biomass of ancient forests can be estimated with reasonable confidence.
Abundant fossil plant remains are preserved in the high-latitude middle Eocene deposits of the Buchanan Lake Formation on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut Territory, Canada. Intact leaf litter, logs, and stumps preserved in situ as mummified remains offer an opportunity to determine the structure, biomass, and productivity of two Taxodiaceae-dominated forests that grew north of the Arctic Circle (paleolatitude 75–80°N). We excavated fossil tree trunks and treetops to develop equations that describe the height, structure, and mass of the aboveground components of Eocene-age Metasequoia trees. We combined those data with surveys of in situ stumps to determine the structure, biomass, and productivity of two fossil forests, “N” and “HR.” We calculated a canopy height of 40 ± 3 m for the N forest and 25 m ± 2 m for the HR forest. Buried knots in dissected logs and abundant branch-free bole wood indicate that these were tall, closed-canopy forests. Stem tapers indicate that the overstory was of uniform height. Stem volume equaled 2095 m3 ha−1 and stem biomass was 628 Mg ha−1 in the N forest. Volume and biomass in the HR forest were much smaller, 211 m3 ha−1 and 63.3 Mg ha−1, respectively. We estimated understory tree biomass to be 40 Mg ha−1 in the N forest and 3.5 Mg ha−1 in the HR forest. Recovery of seven fossil treetops with exposed branch stubs enabled us to make estimates of branchwood and foliar biomass using allometric equations derived from modern, plantation-grown Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Estimated stand-level branch biomass was 13 and 6.7 Mg ha−1 in the N and HR forests, respectively. Standing foliar biomass was estimated to be 3.2 and 2.1 Mg ha−1 in the N and HR forests, respectively. Using annual ring widths, the reconstructed parabolic stems, and wood density of modern Metasequoia, we calculated annual wood production to be 2.3 Mg ha−1 yr−1 for the N forest and 0.55 Mg ha−1 yr−1 for the HR forest Assuming that the ancient Metasequoia were deciduous like their living relatives, annual aboveground net primary productivity was 5.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1 for the N forest and 2.8 Mg ha−1 yr−1 for the HR forest. Our estimated biomass and productivity values for N are similar to those of modern old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest of the United States and old-growth coastal Cordillera forests of southern Chile.
Major league baseball, unlike other professional sports in the
United States, has been exempt from antitrust laws for nearly
a century. The reason lies with early state and federal court
decisions, of which the most frequently cited is the Supreme
Court's Federal Baseball Club of Baltimore v. National League
opinion, authored by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes in 1922.
Baseball's legal status has been the subject of numerous law
review articles and commentaries, historical narratives, and
scholarly analyses. Nevertheless, Jerold Duquette claims that
there has been no integrated and comprehensive examination
of "baseball's unregulated monopoly."
Recently, there has been much interest in creating new layered transition metal oxides. Vanadium oxides may be used as sorbents, catalysts, and cathodes in lithium batteries. The modified sol-gel technique allows for some control towards the final structure of the compound. Using this technique, a new layered vanadium oxide phosphate material, containing the surfactant dodecylphosphate, has been synthesized. The compound was analyzed using powder XRD, TGA, SEM, FTIR, TEM, and solid state NMR for both 51V and 31P. V2O3(PO4C12H25)3Na2−xKx(H2O)3.2 is the general formula of the layered product with an interlayer spacing of 36.6 Å The initial compound is composed of a vanadium oxide phosphate layer sandwiched between two hydrocarbon layers. The synthesis, composition, and structure of the initial compound will be discussed. Interestingly, when this compound is calcined to 400°C, the structure changes and is possibly hexagonal. Preliminary results are presented on this calcined material.
Several temporal and event classifications are used for the Quaternary glacial and interglacial record in the Great Lakes region of North America. Although based on contrasting principles, the classifications, as practiced, are similar to one another in most respects and they differ little from the classification proposed by Chamberlin a century ago. All are based on stratigraphic units having time-transgressive boundaries; thus the associated time spans and events are diachronous. Where application of geochronologic classification based on isochronous boundaries is not practical or useful, we advocate the use of diachronic principles to establish local and regional temporal and event classifications. Diachronic and event classifications based on such principles are proposed herein for the Great Lakes region. Well-established names, including Wisconsin, Sangamon, and Illinois, are used at the episode (or glaciation/interglaciation) rank without significant redefinition. The Hudson Episode (Interglaciation) is introduced for postglacial time, the current interglacial interval. The Wisconsin Episode is divided into the Ontario, Elgin, and Michigan Subepisodes in the eastern and northern parts of the Great Lakes region and into the Athens and Michigan Subepisodes in the southern and western parts of the Great Lakes region.
Theory has made great progress during recent years in calculating the fundamental properties of monatomic hydrogen in crystalline silicon. By applying the DLTS and DDLTS method we use the hydrogen-carbon complex which consists of an electronically inactive carbon atom on a substitutional lattice site and a hydrogen atom near the bond-center position to detect theoretically predicted properties of hydrogen in silicon. The results of two independent experiments show that there exists a coupling of the electronic and structural properties of monatomic hydrogen, as predicted by theory.
Bulk and surface recombination are the main material parameters that determine the performance of crystalline silicon solar cells. We present a new method for the nondestructive, simultaneous mapping of the diffusion length and the surface recombination velocity of a silicon wafer. The method uses the hardware of the electrolytical metal tracer (ELYMAT). The separation between bulk and surface recombination is achieved by illuminating the sample with laser beams of two different colors. By solving the diffusion equation for both laser penetration depths the diffusion length and the surface recombination velocity can be calculated from the measured diffusion currents. First experiments are presented which show the basic feasibility of the method.