Ramalina europaea Gasparyan, Sipman & Lücking and R. labiosorediata Gasparyan, Sipman & Lücking, two species of the R. pollinaria group, are described here as new to science. Ramalina europaea, widely distributed in Europe, can be distinguished by small, punctiform, often terminal soralia starting out on small, spine-like branchlets, whereas R. labiosorediata from North America differs from R. pollinaria s. str. and R. europaea in the almost exclusively terminal soralia formed on the tips of normal lobes, originating from the underside and becoming irregularly labriform. Morphological characters, chemistry, ecology and geographical distribution are discussed and a key to the species of the Ramalina pollinaria group is provided. The topology of a maximum likelihood tree based on ITS shows the presence of three well-supported clades, corresponding to the morphological differences of the three species. The status of several historical names variously placed in synonymy with or described as infraspecific entities of R. pollinaria is reassessed and a new neotype and an epitype are designated for Lichen pollinarius, a neotype for L. squarrosus, making it a synonym of R. farinacea, and lectotypes for R. pollinaria var. elatior, making it a synonym of R. pollinaria s. str., and for var. humilis, a taxon of yet unknown affinity.