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Studies conducted in tertiary care hospitals of different European countries and the United States have shown incidence rates of candidemia ranging from 0.17 to 0.76 and 0.28 to 0.96 per 1,000 admissions, respectively. So far, only 1 study has evaluated the incidence rates of candidemia in tertiary care hospitals in Latin American countries.
To evaluate the epidemiology of candidemia in 4 tertiary care hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil.
Multicenter, laboratory-based surveillance of candidemia.
A total of 7,038 episodes of bloodstream infection were identified, and Candida species accounted for 282 cases (4%). The incidence rate of candidemia was 1.66 candidemic episodes per 1,000 hospital admissions. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated Candida species in all hospitals, but Candida species other than C. albicans accounted for 62% of isolates, including predominantly Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. Azole resistance was restricted to only 2% of all Candida isolates (1 isolate of Candida glabrata and 4 isolates of Candida rugosa). Candidemia was mostly documented in surgical patients with long durations of hospital stay. The crude mortality rate was 61%, and advanced age and high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score were both conditions independently associated with risk of death.
We observed in our series a higher incidence rate of candidemia than that reported in European countries and the United States. Advanced age and a high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score were factors associated with a higher probability of death in candidemic patients. Fluconazole-resistant Candida strains are still a rare finding in our case-based study of candidemia.
To analyze possible risk factors for death among patients with nosocomial candidemia. To identify risk factors for death in patients with candidemia, we analyzed demographic, clinical, and microbiological data.
Six tertiary hospitals in Brazil.
A cohort of 145 patients with candidemia.
26 possible risk factors for death, including age, underlying disease, signs of deep-seated infection, neutropenia, number of positive blood cultures, removal of a central venous catheter, etiologic agent of the candidemia, susceptibility pattern of the isolate to amphotericin B, and antifungal treatment were evaluated by univariate stepwise logistic regression analysis.
Non-albicans species accounted for 63.4% of the candidemias. Risk factors for death in univariate analysis were older age, catheter retention, poor performance status, candidemia due to species other than Candida parapsilosis, hypotension, candidemia due to species other than Candida parapsilosis, and no antifungal treatment. In multivariate analysis, older age and non-removal of a central venous catheter were the only factors associated with an increased risk for death.
These data suggest that patients with candidemia and a central venous catheter should have the catheter removed.
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