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To determine if a patient’s breast size accurately correlates with the breast volume measured in the computed tomography (CT) scan, and to determine which sizes correspond to a volume >750 cc; in order to predict which patients will benefit from breast irradiation in the prone position.
Breast size was calculated as the difference between the thoracic (band) and breast (bust) circumferences. Breast volume was contoured by a radiation oncologist and measured on the simulation CT scan. Pearson’s coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between both variables. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the optimal cut-off point to predict which differences between band and bust would be associated with a volume ≥750 cc.
Fifty-nine patients were included in this study. Mean breast volume was 851·8 cc and mean size difference was 4·7 inches. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0·61 (p<0·001). The ROC analysis determined that a difference of 5 inches between the band and bust circumferences was the optimal cut-off point to determine a breast volume of 750 cc.
A significant correlation between breast size as measured in the clinical practice and breast volume measured in the CT scan was found. Among other characteristics, a 5-inch difference between breast band and bust will be the cut-off point to decide if a patient will be treated prone at our institution.
Using Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations is possible to study the homogeneity of deformation in the Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) process. In this work an investigation about the influence of a modified die on strain distribution in an ecaped Al6060 alloy was carried out. Due to that, tensile stress occurs in the vicinity of upper surface of the specimen in the severe plastic deformation zone, which increases the cracking and fracture tendency of the specimen and impedes further ECAP processing, the conventional ECAP die was modified to eliminate the tensile stress and enhance the compressive stress in the severe plastic deformation zone and reducing the cracking and fracture tendency of the specimen. Finite element analysis demonstrated that the stress state changes from tensile to strongly compressive when using the modified die. The aim of this study is to evaluate the advantages/disadvantages of the modified ECAP die and processing conditions.
Lenticular galaxies (S0s) are more likely to host anti-truncated (Type III) stellar discs than galaxies of later Hubble types. Previous work on Type-III S0s at z = 0 revealed that the characteristic parameters of the breaks obey tight scaling relations (Borlaff et al. 2014). These relation are similar in both S0’s and spirals, in optical and NIR, and for barred and non-barred galaxies (Eliche-Moral et al. 2015). We have analysed 3DHST images (Brammer et al. 2012) of S0 galaxies from the SHARDS survey (Pérez-González et al. 2013) in order to investigate if E/S0 and S0 galaxies with anti-truncated stellar profiles up to z ~ 0.6 follow similar scaling relations compared to the local sample. We find that the characteristic photometric parameters of Type-III S0s at 0.4 < z < 0.6 obey analogous scaling relations to those observed in their local counterparts, lying on top of the extrapolations of the local trends towards brighter magnitudes in several photometric diagrams and sharing similar trends and values in the hi – RbrkIII, ho – RbrkIII and hi – ho diagrams. We have measured the offsets in magnitudes between two subsets of the z ~ 0.5 and z = 0 samples with similar masses (log 10M/M⊙ ~ 10.7). The median offsets are: ΔμbrkIII = − 2.23+0.46−0.62, Δμ0, i = − 2.61+0.31−0.26 and Δμ0, o = − 2.31+0.57−0.78 mag arcsec-2. We find that PSF corrections in our images do not significantly affect the scaling relations obtained in our 0.2 < z < 0.6 sample. In conclusion, the existence of similar scaling relations in Type-III S0 discs since z ~ 0.6 implies that the structures of the inner and outer discs in anti-truncated S0s have been similarly linked in the last ~ 6 Gyr, posing strong constraints to the processes proposed to explain their formation.
Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed coats are a rich source of natural compounds with potential beneficial effects on human health. Beans exert hypolipidaemic activity; however, this effect has not been attributed to any particular component, and the underlying mechanisms of action and protein targets remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify primary saponins and flavonoids extracted from black bean seed coats, and to study their effects on lipid metabolism in primary rat hepatocytes and C57BL/6 mice. The methanol extract of black bean seed coats, characterised by a HPLC system with a UV–visible detector and an evaporative light-scattering detector and HPLC–time-of-flight/MS, contained quercetin 3-O-glucoside and soyasaponin Af as the primary flavonoid and saponin, respectively. The extract significantly reduced the expression of SREBP1c, FAS and HMGCR, and stimulated the expression of the reverse cholesterol transporters ABCG5/ABCG8 and CYP7A1 in the liver. In addition, there was an increase in the expression of hepatic PPAR-α. Consequently, there was a decrease in hepatic lipid depots and a significant increase in bile acid secretion. Furthermore, the ingestion of this extract modulated the proportion of lipids that was used as a substrate for energy generation. Thus, the results suggest that the extract of black bean seed coats may decrease hepatic lipogenesis and stimulate cholesterol excretion, in part, via bile acid synthesis.
Several studies using different animal models have demonstrated that the consumption of soya protein (SP) reduces serum cholesterol concentrations by increasing the excretion of bile acids (BA). However, the mechanism by which SP enhances BA excretion is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the consumption of SP regulates the expression of key enzymes involved in hepatic BA synthesis and the transporters involved in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) via fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) and/or small heterodimer protein (SHP) in rats. To achieve this aim, four groups of rats were fed experimental diets containing 20 % casein (C) or SP with or without the addition of 0·2 % cholesterol and the expression of hepatic genes involved in BA synthesis and the ileal and hepatic RCT was measured. Rats fed the SP diet had higher concentrations of ileal FGF15 and hepatic FGF15 receptor (FGFR4) and increased expression of SHP and liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH1) than those fed the C diet; as a result, the excretion of faecal BA was greater. The addition of cholesterol to the diet repressed the protein abundance of FGF15 and FGFR4; however, SP increased the expression of SHP and LRH1 to a lesser extent. Nonetheless, the expression of ABCG5/8 was increased in the intestine of rats fed the SP diet, and the effect was enhanced by the addition of cholesterol to the diet. In conclusion, SP in the presence of cholesterol increases BA synthesis via the repressions of FGF15 and SHP and accelerates BA excretion to prevent cholesterol overload in the enterocytes by increasing RCT.
The Digital Micromirror Device™ (DMD™) developed at Texas Instruments is a spatial light modulator composed of 500,000 to 1.3 million movable micromachined aluminum mirrors. The DMD™ serves as the engine for the current generation of computer-driven slide and video projectors, and for next generation devices in digital television and movie projectors. The unique architecture and applications of the device present several packaging and test challenges. This paper provides a description of package humidity modeling and verification testing, as well as an overview of the automated optical testing and test equipment that have been developed to support manufacturing of the DMD™.
The purpose of this work is to explore the capability of Fourier Thermal Analysis (FTA) to detect differences in solidification kinetics between unmodified and Sr modified eutectic Al-Si alloy obtained from the same base alloy. Experimental melts are produced in silicon carbide crucibles using an electrical resistance furnace and burdens of A356 alloy and commercial purity Si. The addition of strontium to the melts is accomplished using Al-10 pct Sr master alloy rod. Chemical composition is controlled using spark emission spectrometry. The changes in microstructure are characterized using optical microscopy. Thermal analysis are performed in cylindrical stainless steel cups coated with a thin layer of boron nitride, using two type-K thermocouples connected to a data acquisition system. Experimental cooling curves are numerically processed using FTA. Results show changes in solidification kinetics of eutectic Al-Si alloy with different Sr content. These changes, measured at the beginning and during solidification of the probes, can be related to the changes in nucleation and growth causing the differences detected during microstructural characterization of the probes.
Indium sulphide (In2S3) is a very promising semiconductor material for window layers in solar cell devices. It is currently being investigated for high efficiency solar cell based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2-In2S3 heterostructures. The chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique is one of the most convenient methods to obtain In2S3 films because of its simplicity, low cost and some other advantages. Amorphous and polycrystalline In2S3 films on glass substrates have been obtained by the CBD technique. Like in many others CBD processes, the deposition mechanism and kinetic growth of In2S3 films on glass substrates is not very well understood [1-6]. In this work we have chemically deposited In2S3 films for different times from 6 up to 39 hours, in order to study by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the formation of the films on glass substrates. The AFM measurements were performed in a liquid medium in which the cantilever tip and the sample are completely immersed in the liquid. A specially designed AFM cell is composed of a tip attached to a circular transparent window, the liquid level is between the upper and lower surface of the window, and a circular meniscus is established around the window, preventing the tip could be affected or destroyed by the surface tension of the liquid. By using this liquid AFM technique, we can at real-time observe the thin film forming process, and thereby clearly reveal the growing mechanism. It is an ideal and more practical tool for in situ investigation of samples which are normally found in liquid environments.
Coba represents a major Classic period Maya urban center. Archaeological investigations have suggested a complex socioeconomic integration apparent in the heterogeneity of the size, shape, and quality of architecture while demonstrating a clear demarcation between commoner and elite compounds in addition to a complex system of raised roads (sacbeob). Results of the 1974–1976 mapping efforts at Coba revealed a generalized concentric settlement pattern with elite compounds concentrated at the core. In their analysis of the settlement patterns at Tikal, Guatemala, Arnold and Ford challenged this concentric model. Their analysis of labor investment in structures within the 9 km2 core area of Tikal suggested, in contrast to Coba, a scattered rather than a concentric pattern of high-status architecture. Using a geographic information system (GIS), we tested our concentric model hypothesis for Coba by applying Arnold and Ford's work investment parameters. Our results confirmed the presence of a concentric pattern of high-status architecture at Coba closest to the core that differed from Arnold and Ford's findings of a scattered pattern in Tikal. These unique and discrete findings suggest that all major cities in the Maya area may not possess identical settlement patterns. To support our findings indicating urbanism, we also make a detailed analysis of the Coba and Calakmul demographics focusing on the Late Classic period.
We update the joint estimation of revealed and stated preference data of previously published research to allow for joint estimation of the Travel Cost Method (TCM) portion using count data models. The TCM estimation also corrects for truncation and endogenous stratification as well as overdispersion. The joint estimation allows for testing consistency of behavior between revealed and stated preference data rather than imposing it. We find little gain in estimation efficiency, but our joint estimation might make a significant improvement in estimation efficiency when the contingent valuation scenarios involve major changes in site quality not reflected in the TCM data.
The effect of policosanol, a mixture of high-molecular-weight aliphatic alcohols isolated from sugar-cane wax, on casein-induced hypercholesterolaemia in rabbits was studied. When policosanol was administered by the oral route once daily for 30 d (50mg/kg) the increases in plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDC-C) were significantly reduced when compared with the control group. The incorporation of 3H2O into sterols in the liver was significantly depressed, suggesting inhibition of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis. The oral administration of policosanol raised the rate of removal of 125l-labelled LDL from serum. Kinetic parameters calculated following injection of [125I]LDL showed than in casein-fed rabbits, the terminal half-life (t½) was significantly decreased after policosanol treatment. The hepatic LDL-binding activity was increased after policosanol administration which suggested that the enhanced clearance was due, at least in part, to increased receptor-mediated uptake of LDL by the liver. Considered together, these results suggest that policosanol can significantly reduce the increase of plasma LDL-C in rabbits fed on a wheat starch-casein diet by reducing cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver. Such an effect could account for the enhancement of LDL catabolism through the receptor-mediated pathway.
A combined telephone contact-mail booklet-telephone interview of California and New England households regarding their willingness to pay for fire management in California and Oregon's old-growth forests was performed to test hypotheses regarding the spatial extent of the public goods market. Using a multiple-bounded contingent valuation question, the study found that New England households' annual willingness to pay for the California and Oregon programs was statistically different from zero. This analysis points out that households receive benefits from fire protection of old-growth forests in states other than their own. In this case study, limiting the survey sample to state residents where the National Forest is located would reflect about 20% of the national benefits. However, using resident values as a proxy for nonresidents would overstate the national benefits by 75%, since the values per household are significantly different. This finding suggests more emphasis in future surveys on selecting an institutionally and economically relevant sample frame rather than an expedient one.