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Three suspected resistant (R1, R2, and R3) corn marigold populations collected from winter cereal fields located in central Greece were studied to confirm and elucidate the mechanisms of resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors and their competitive ability against barley. Whole-plant dose–response assays proved that the three suspected R populations were highly cross-resistant to the ALS inhibitors tribenuron, pyroxsulam + florasulam, and imazamox, whereas their control with synthetic auxin plus ALS inhibitors co-formulated mixtures was increased in the order of tritosulfuron + dicamba < florasulam + clopyralid < tribenuron + mecoprop-P < florasulam + aminopyralid. The ALS gene sequence revealed a point mutation in 11 plants of the R1, R2, and R3 populations, which resulted in the substitution of Pro-197-Thr or Trp-574-Leu. By contrast, all three sequenced plants of the susceptible (S) population were found with the wild-type allele encoding Pro-197 and Trp-574. This is the first report of ALS-inhibitor resistance in corn marigold. The competition study between barley and four densities of the S, R2, or R3 populations indicated similar biomass rates for all three populations, suggesting lack of association between the competitive ability of the R populations and the target-site resistance mechanism, which was also confirmed by the similar biomass reduction rates of barley grown in competition with S or R populations.
Five johnsongrass populations collected from corn grown in northern Greece were studied to elucidate the levels and mechanisms of resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)- and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides. Whole-plant response assays indicated that two populations were highly cross-resistant to all ALS inhibitors tested (foramsulfuron, nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron, and imazamox) but were effectively controlled by the recommended rate of the ACCase-inhibiting herbicides propaquizafop and clethodim. The ALS gene sequence revealed a point mutation that resulted in the substitution of Trp574 by Leu in the ALS enzyme, suggesting that the resistance mechanism is target-site mediated. These findings highlight a serious threat against the sustainable use of the ALS-inhibiting herbicides in controlling johnsongrass and other grass weeds in cornfields, suggesting rotational use of herbicides with different modes of action, along with the use of nonchemical methods, for viable Johnsongrass management.
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