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A low intake of fruit and vegetables is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the size of the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) of a low intake and to investigate possible sex differences. In this regard, this study used a longitudinal data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort located in Sweden, collected in 2010 and 2014. The analysis included 14 718 men and 20 589 women aged 25 to 84 years. Fruit and vegetable intake, separately <2 servings/d or combined <4 servings/d (one serving corresponding to 100 g) was set as a cut-point for low intake. The sex difference at baseline was examined. Sex-stratified logistic regression was performed with onset of T2D as the outcome and fruit and vegetable intake at baseline as the exposure with adjustment for other known risk factors. Results indicate that men consumed significantly (P < 0⋅001) less fruit and vegetables compared with women. A 62 % higher risk to develop T2D over the 4-year period was observed in men who had low vegetable intake compared with high intake after adjusting for age, education, BMI, smoking, alcohol and physical activity (OR 1⋅62; 95 % CI 1⋅00, 2⋅63). In women, a significantly higher risk of T2D was also observed with a low intake of vegetables, but not after adjustment. The present study suggests that higher consumption of vegetables seems to be protective for the onset of T2D in men. Thus, increasing the intake of vegetables in men should be a public health priority.
Is the analysis of religion best conducted in terms of the beliefs of its practitioners? I describe a Wittgenstein-inspired approach to belief on which it is dubious that religious practices satisfy the criteria for the attribution of belief. I defend this more moderate and plausible version of Needham's thesis against two natural reasons to think religious belief widespread.
Newcomb's problem is a controversial paradox of decision theory. It is easily explained and easily understood, and there is a strong chance that most of us have actually faced it in some form or other. And yet it has proven as thorny and intractable a puzzle as much older and better-known philosophical problems of consciousness, scepticism and fatalism. It brings into very sharp and focused disagreement several long-standing philosophical theories on practical rationality, on the nature of free will, and on the direction and analysis of causation. This volume introduces readers to the nature of Newcomb's problem, and ten chapters by leading scholars present the most recent debates around the problem and analyse its ramifications for decision theory, metaphysics, philosophical psychology and political science. Their chapters highlight the status of Newcomb's problem as a live and continuing issue in modern philosophy.
A novel low profile dual band patch antenna is presented. It consists of a composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH TL) unit cell gap coupled with the radiating edge of a rectangular patch antenna. The dual band behavior is achieved by coupling the zeroth order resonance mode of CRLH TL and TM10 mode of the patch antenna. It is shown that frequency ratio can be changed by varying the gap between the patch and CRLH TL unit cell. The proposed configuration enables frequency reconfigurability by changing the CRLH TL unit cell using a switch. A prototype of the antenna having frequency ratio f2/f1 = 1.08 is designed and fabricated. The proposed antenna shows measured S11 ≤ −10 dB bandwidth of 100 and 50 MHz at resonance frequencies of f1 = 4.84 and f2 = 5.22 GHz, respectively. A 2 × 2 dual band CRLH TL coupled patch array is also presented, showing more than 12.7 dBi gain at both resonance frequencies.
The restricted use of antibiotics in the poultry sector has greatly enhanced the search for environment-friendly alternatives and complementary therapeutic approaches to manage infectious diseases in poultry. Cytokines, as natural immune-modulators, offer alternatives to conventional chemical-based therapeutics. Cytokine usage is becoming more feasible in poultry due to recent advancements in the field of immunology and vaccination, leading to the identification and cloning of avian cytokine genes. Existing adjuvants for poultry vaccines can have deleterious side-effects on the health and products of poultry and a subsequent reduction in profits. Therefore, alternative adjuvants must be developed to enhance the impact of vaccination. The use of cloned cytokines as adjuvants in poultry is attracting attention after the identification of new cytokine genes in chicken. Hence, cytokines may be used as therapeutics and vaccine adjuvants for enhancing immune response during infection and vaccination. This review focuses on the recent advancements in the application of avian cytokines as therapeutics or vaccine adjuvants.
This paper summarizes a study initiated by the Turkish General Directorate of Agricultural Research and ICARDA/CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program on the adoption of five new winter and spring wheat varieties developed and released by the Turkish national breeding program and through international collaboration in the past 10 years. The study results are based on a survey of 781 households selected randomly in the Adana, Ankara, Diyarbakir, Edirne, and Konya provinces of Turkey. The five new wheat varieties are compared to old improved varieties released prior to 1995 that are also still grown by farmers. Technical and biological indicators of impacts including crop productivity are measured to determine the impact of these varieties. Yield stability is assessed by comparing average yields in normal, good and dry years and by comparing the coefficients of variation of yields by variety. Profitability is measured by the gross margin generated per unit of land. Household income from wheat and for all economic activities are estimated and compared between adopters and non-adopters. Adopters of the new varieties have higher per-capita income than non-adopters as compared to the same group using old varieties. However, the overall impact of the improved varieties is generally low, mainly due to their low adoption levels. Farmers’ knowledge and perception of certain variety characteristics and unavailability of adequate and timely seed are the main reasons. Increasing adoption has the potential to improve household income and this requires revising wheat impact pathway to achieve the expected impact.