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This article documents the development of a community-based drug intervention for low- to mild-risk drug users who surrendered as part of the Philippine government's anti-drug campaign. It highlights the importance of developing evidence-informed drug recovery interventions that are appropriate to the Asian culture and to developing economies. Interviews and consultations with users and community stakeholders reveal the need for an intervention that would improve the drug recovery skills and life skills of users. Evidence-based interventions were adapted using McKleroy and colleagues’ (2006) Map of Adaptation Process (MAP) framework. The resulting intervention reflected the country's collectivist culture, relational values, propensity for indirect and non-verbal communication, and interdependent self-construal. The use of small groups, interactive and creative methodologies, and the incorporation of music and prayer also recognised the importance of these in the Philippine culture.
In the plethora of international research on smoking relapse there are findings that suggest distinct ethnocultural differences in relapse predictors. This study aimed to uncover cognitive and affective factors that contribute to relapse in a sample of Filipino adult smokers (N = 115). Using discriminant function analysis, results suggest that self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, craving and the subdomains of motivation to change contemplation and action are accurate relapse predictors, whereas negative emotional states are not. An integrative framework was used in the discussion to account for inconsistencies in the results. Implications for understanding the relapse cycle, the connection between smoking relapse and substance use, as well as suggestions for future studies on smoking relapse, are also discussed.
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