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Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early stages in schizophrenia. However, the extent to which antipsychotic (AP) have a deleterious effect on cognitive performance remains under debate. We aim to investigate whether anticholinergic loadings and dose of AP drugs in first episode of psychosis (FEP) in advanced phase of remission are associated with cognitive impairment and the differences between premorbid intellectual quotient (IQ) subgroups.
Two hundred and sixty-six patients participated. The primary outcomes were cognitive dimensions, dopaminergic/anticholinergic load of AP [in chlorpromazine equivalents (Eq-CPZ) and the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), respectively].
Impairments in processing speed, verbal memory and global cognition were significantly associated with high Eq-CPZ and verbal impairment with high ARS score. Moreover, this effect was higher in the low IQ subgroup.
Clinicians should be aware of the potential cognitive impairment associated with AP in advanced remission FEP, particularly in lower premorbid IQ patients.
This paper addresses the formation processes at an unparalleled Bronze Age settlement in the Iberian Meseta. The site of El Cerro (Burgos, Spain) presents a series of challenging features: the simultaneous inhumation of three subadults alongside a dwelling quarter and adjacent pits, some of them filled with apparent formality, including such anachronistic elements as Neolithic and Beaker items and several placed deposits, such as a leg of a cow. A critical evaluation of the contextual dataset, a re-fitting operation, and an assessment of the abrasion and size of a ceramic sample were carried out. The archaeological peculiarities of the site are explained as a contextually specific cultural response to a grievous and traumatic episode: the death of three young siblings, which entailed the abandonment of the settlement through prescribed practices. Some depositions are a product of recognizable intentionality, while others are regarded as unintended cumulative outcomes.
Objective: To longitudinally analyze the course of cognitive dimensions in schizophrenic women over a period of 31 years. Method: Accidental sampling. Developmental longitudinal design. Diagnosis according to the ICD-10. Thirty institutionalized women were evaluated using the WAIS on three separate occasions (in 1981, 1997, and 2012). The data were analyzed using a repeated measures split-plot method. Results: Patients scored one to two standard deviations below the average on the WAIS. At all three evaluation times, they scored consistently, significantly worse on Performance IQ scales than on Verbal IQ in the following sequence: Processing Speed (PS) < Perceptual Organization (PO) < Working Memory (WM) < Verbal Comprehension (VC). Longitudinally, there was a significant, linear average trend that was stable between the first and second assessments, with a significant drop in scores at the third evaluation on Performance IQ (η2 = .586) and Verbal IQ scales (η2 = .299). The same trend was observed in PS (η2 = .655) and WM (η2 = .438), while PO decreased across the three evaluations (η2 = .509) and no difference in VC was found (η2 = .126). Conclusion: Patients with schizophrenia presented with a low cognitive level. Longitudinally, they had a stable, differential profile of WAIS factors until late life, when performance dropped significantly.
Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are widespread in nature, and consumed as part of the human diet in significant amounts. The aim of the present study was to test the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of apigenin K, a soluble form of apigenin, in two models of rat colitis, namely the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model and the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model. Apigenin K (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg; by the oral route; n 4–6 per group) was administered as a pre-treatment to rats with TNBS and DSS colitis, and colonic status was checked by macroscopic and biochemical examination. Apigenin K pre-treatment resulted in the amelioration of morphological signs and biochemical markers in the TNBS model. The results demonstrated a reduction in the inflamed area, as well as lower values of score and colonic weight:length ratio compared with the TNBS group. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was reduced by 30 % (P< 0·05). Moreover, apigenin K pre-treatment ameliorated morphological signs and biochemical markers in the DSS model. Thus, macroscopic damage was significantly reduced and the colonic weight:length ratio was lowered by approximately 10 %, while colonic MPO and alkaline phosphatase activities were decreased by 35 and 21 %, respectively (P< 0·05). Apigenin K pre-treatment also tended to normalise the expression of a number of colonic inflammatory markers (e.g. TNF-α, transforming growth factor-β, IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 or chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2). In conclusion, apigenin K is found to have anti-inflammatory effects in two preclinical models of inflammatory bowel disease.
Local people's involvement in the management of conservation initiatives is central to ongoing debates on the relative merits of distinct biodiversity conservation models. Since different governance models provide distinct opportunities for local people to participate in the management of protected areas, their knowledge of these governance models and motivation to collaborate will vary. This paper analyses cognisance and participation in (1) government-imposed biosphere reserves and (2) community conservation areas, in which ecotourism projects take place. Qualitative and quantitative data (n = 205) were gathered in two indigenous communities in Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Whereas local cognisance of community-driven conservation initiatives is not always greater than cognisance of government-imposed Biosphere Reserves, local participation is always greater. Cognisance of and participation in conservation initiatives depend on the management approach, extent of external resource support, and a community's social organization. Gender and land holding status influence access to information about conservation initiatives, since men with land rights had more access than other people. More participatory mechanisms for decision-making and direct communication strategies between managers and local people are required to improve communities’ involvement in conservation.
Milk κ-casein-derived bovine glycomacropeptide (GMP) exerts immunomodulatory effects. It exhibits intestinal anti-inflammatory activity in chemically induced models of colitis. However, to validate its clinical usefulness as a nutraceutical, it is important to assess its effects in a model with a closer pathophysiological connection with human inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, in the present study, we used the lymphocyte-transfer model of colitis in mice and compared the effects of GMP in this model with those obtained in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model. GMP (15 mg/d) resulted in higher body-weight gain and a reduction of the colonic damage score and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in Rag1− / − mice with colitis induced by the transfer of naïve T cells. The colonic and ileal weight:length ratio was decreased by approximately 25 %, albeit non-significantly. GMP treatment reduced the percentage of CD4+ interferon (IFN)-γ+ cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). The basal production of IL-6 by MLN obtained from the GMP-treated mice ex vivo was augmented. However, concanavalin A-evoked production was similar. The colonic expression of regenerating islet-derived protein 3γ, S100A8, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 and IL-1β was unaffected by GMP, while that of TNF-α and especially IFN-γ was paradoxically increased. In the DSS model, GMP also reduced the activity of colonic MPO, but it failed to alter weight gain or intestinal weight:length ratio. GMP augmented the production of IL-10 by MLN cells and was neutral towards other cytokines, except exhibiting a trend towards increasing the production of IL-6. The lower effect was attributed to the lack of the effect of GMP on epithelial cells. In conclusion, GMP exerts intestinal anti-inflammatory effects in lymphocyte-driven colitis.
Cucú cave is a small cavity, 1600 m above sea level on the southern slope of Sierra de María (Almería Province, SE Spain), where current mean annual precipitation is < 450 mm. Fossils and palynomorphs contained within a sedimentary sequence, up to 9 m in depth, allow us to consider the prevailing climatic conditions, and the timing of cavern development. The lithological sequence is dominated by clast-supported detrital material with no evidence of alluvial transport. These sediments were formed by freeze-cracking during periglacial conditions, causing further cave enlargement after initial solutional development. The clastic sequence formed during cold climates is covered by a flowstone that was deposited during a period of warmer, wetter conditions. This provides a minimum U–Th isochron age of 40.2±4.5 ka for the timing of periglacial action. Micromammal fossil species indicate a chronology between 140 and 80 ka. Paleoecological data based on the structure of the mammal community indicates that cold conditions prevailed at the time of deposit. In the studied sequence the presence of anthropogenic components has not been documented. The pollen assemblages identified are a common feature of Pleistocene cold stages that are in semi-arid regions.
Epidemiological studies show that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) increases longevity; however, few studies are restricted to Mediterranean populations or explore the effect of a MD pattern that directly incorporates olive oil. Therefore the relationship between adherence to the MD and mortality was studied within the the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain). The EPIC-Spain analysis included 40 622 participants (37·7 % males) aged 29–69 years who were recruited from five Spanish regions in 1992–1996. During a mean follow-up of 13·4 years, 1855 deaths were documented: 913 from cancer, 399 from CVD, 425 from other causes and 118 from unknown causes of death. Risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality was assessed according to the level of adherence to a relative MD (rMED) score, measured using an 18-unit scale incorporating nine selected dietary components. A high compared with a low rMED score was associated with a significant reduction in mortality from all causes (hazard ratio (HR) 0·79; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·91), from CVD (HR 0·66; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·89), but not from overall cancer (HR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·75, 1·12). A 2-unit increase in rMED score was associated with a 6 % (P < 0·001) decreased risk of all-cause mortality. A high olive oil intake and moderate alcohol consumption contributed most to this association. In this Spanish cohort, following an olive oil-rich MD was related to a significant reduction in all-cause mortality, and reduced the risk of mortality from CVD. These results support the important role that the MD pattern has on reducing mortality in Mediterranean countries.
We have prepared organic-inorganic hybrid materials (OIHM), incorporating an organic phase in the inorganic precursor sol, using high power ultrasound for assistance with agitation. A sono-ormosil results after gelation. Colloidal silica particles have been added to these hybrids to enable network porous volume and pore radius to be tailored to specific requirements. Finally, in vitro bioactivity of this material has been promoted by adding calcium to the initial sol. The structure and bioactivity of these materials have been subjected to preliminary study, including their mechanical behaviour. These materials have a very fine structure especially after colloidal silica particles have been included. When immersed in a solution simulating blood plasma, they are bioactive, and the sample with colloid particles presents a better behaviour in vitro
To study the incidence of sepsis in the Valencian Community (Spain) during a period of 10 years (1995–2004).
We downloaded data on discharge diagnoses of septicemia in all 26 public hospitals in the Valencian Community during the 10-year study period, as well as the additional discharge diagnoses of each patient.
We identified 33,767 cases of sepsis during the study period. The age-standardized incidence rates among men increased from 64.11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 60.37–67.85) cases per 100,000 population in 1995 to 114.02 (95% CI, 109.02–118.50) cases per 100,000 population in 2004 (P < .001), and those among women increased from 45.08 (95% CI, 42.01–48.15) cases per 100,000 population in 1995 to 83.62 (95% CI, 79.85–87.39) cases per 100,000 population in 2004 (P < .001). Gram-negative bacteria were the most frequently involved microorganisms (in 21.4% of cases), and there was a significant increase in the number of sepsis cases caused by these organisms from 1999 onward. The mortality rate was approximately 42.5% among patients hospitalized for sepsis, and mortality was associated with organ failure. In addition, mortality was associated with the microorganism responsible not being known, with infection due to fungi, and with polymicrobial sepsis.
The rates of hospitalization both for sepsis overall and for severe sepsis in the Valencian Community (Spain) are lower than those in other countries but are increasing, by 5% each year. The increase in the number of cases in which gram-negative bacteria are the cause of sepsis is notable.
The distribution and abundance of Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila adalberti populations between 1974 and 2004 were determined using information from national censuses. Its breeding area occupies the south-western quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) and is composed of 13 nuclei and 5 subpopulations. Since 1974, population levels in all nuclei, except the one in Doñana, have expanded. The non-breeding dispersion area, according to sightings of juvenile and immature individuals in quadrants of 10 x 10 km, coincided with that of the breeding area. Bibliographical information showed that halfway through the 19th century the Spanish Imperial Eagle was considered abundant, at least locally; and most cited breeding areas were in relatively human-occupied plains. Towards the end of the 19th century the population became scarce; remaining so for most of the 20th century, with remote mountain ranges being the most cited breeding habitats. The comparison between the data from the first census, in 1974, that located 38 territorial pairs, and the 2004 census that located 198 pairs, shows that: 1) percentages of pairs in plains have increased, while those in mountains have decreased; 2) the trophic quality of the habitat, based on rabbit abundance, has decreased, and 3) numbers of nests in both protected areas and on private ground have increased significantly. The type of land ownership did not seem to affect breeding performance. Populations have increased more outside protected areas than within, despite the availability of potential habitat. In the past century, legal protection and attitude changes towards this eagle seem to have been influential in preventing its extinction. At present, habitat management seems also to be an important factor in its continuing recovery.
The analysis of 267 records of non-natural mortality of the Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti over a 16-year period (1989-2004) shows an annual rate of 15.1 individuals found dead per year and that electrocution (47.7%) and poisoning (30.7%) were the most frequent causes of mortality. Most cases (91.7%) were of human origin, and of those 92.3% were accidental. Just over half (50.2%) were related to the transmission of electricity and human activity (collisions and electrocution), and 40.7% related to game practices and livestock protection (control of predators). No differences between sexes were found but subadults were electrocuted more frequently than expected whilst adults were poisoned more frequently. In breeding areas poison was the most frequent cause of mortality, whereas electrocution was the most common cause of death in dispersal areas. Poisoning occurred more frequently than expected in the Northern and Southern regions compared to the West-Central region. Electrocution was significantly more frequent in the West-Central region, and less common in the Southern region. The increase in electrocutions over the last few years is associated with previous non-permanent corrections on electricity power lines, whilst the increase in the cases of poisoning appears to be associated with the use of illegal poison in predator control by small game practices and for livestock protection. Permanent corrections in power lines and more research and awareness effort in the small game sector are recommended to reduce human-induced mortality in this Vulnerable species.
To conduct a comprehensive assessment of dietary intakes of nitrites and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA).
Subjects and setting
A study was conducted within the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to assess the intake and food sources of these compounds in Spanish adults. The study included 41 446 health volunteers, aged 29–69 years, from Northern and Southern regions. Usual food intake was estimated by in-person interviews using a computerised dietary questionnaire.
The estimated geometric mean was 0.994 mg day−1 for nitrites and 0.114 μg day−1 for NDMA. For both compounds a positive trend in consumption with increasing energy intake was observed. Dietary NDMA was related to age and sex after energy adjustment, while nitrite consumption increased with higher intakes of vitamin C (P < 0.001). The food groups that contributed most to intakes were meat products, cereals, vegetables and fruits for nitrites, and processed meat, beer, cheese and broiled fish for NDMA. Current and past smokers, who had high levels of NDMA from tobacco exposure, were also identified as the highest consumers of dietary NDMA. Furthermore, smokers had low intakes of vitamin C (an inhibitor of endogenous nitrosation).
Intake levels of NDMA and nitrites in a Mediterranean cohort are currently relatively lower than those previously reported, although processed meat, beer and cured cheese still are the most important contributors to NDMA intake.
The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) concept outlines a software environment for searching, obtaining and analyzing data from archives of solar data that are distributed at many different observatories around the world (Hill 2006, in this volume). The VSO, however, not only provides fast and reliable access to the existing data of Solar Active Regions, but also represents a powerful and unique tool to perform numerical simulations of the evolution and present state of solar phenomena. Two centers at UNAM, the Institute of Astronomy (IA) and the Supercomputer Center (DGSCA), along with the Sonora University, are working together to create the Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory (MVSO) that will be part of a wider national effort.
In this work, the effect of a sol-gel ZrO2–3 mol% Y2O3 thin film on the fracture properties of a variety of brittle substrates was investigated. The results suggest that the film does not have any appreciable influence on the fracture behavior of crystalline substrates but dramatically affects the fracture properties of amorphous layers. In particular, a significant reduction of average fracture strength and a major increase of the Weibull modulus were observed on coated glassy slides. The origin of such variations is attributed to the generation of a homogeneous flaw population in the vitreous substrates, and the possible mechanisms for the production of flaws are analyzed. Implications of these results for the practical use of coated glassy layers are discussed.
A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition to assess the principal food sources of vitamin C, vitamin E, α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin in an adult Spanish population. The study included 41 446 healthy volunteers (25 812 women and 15 634 men), aged 29–69 years, from three Spanish regions in the north (Asturias, Navarra and Guipúzcoa) and two in the south (Murcia and Granada). Usual food intake was estimated by personal interview through a computerized version of a dietary history questionnaire. Foods that provided at least two-thirds of the studied nutrients were: fruits (mainly oranges) (51 %) and fruiting vegetables (mainly tomato and sweet pepper) (20 %) for vitamin C; vegetable oils (sunflower and olive) (40 %), non-citrus fruits (10 %), and nuts and seeds (8 %) for vitamin E; root vegetables (carrots) (82 %) for α-carotene; green leafy (28 %), root (24 %) and fruiting vegetables (22 %) for β-carotene; fruiting vegetables (fresh tomato) (72 %) for lycopene; green leafy vegetables (64 %) for lutein; citrus fruits (68 %) for β-cryptoxanthin; citrus fruits (43 %) and green leafy vegetables (20 %) for zeaxanthin. In conclusion, the main food sources of nutrients with redox properties have been identified in a Mediterranean country. This could provide an insight into the interpretation of epidemiological studies investigating the role of diet in health and disease.
Slope Water anticyclonic Oceanic eDDIES (SWODDIES) are typical mesoscale features of open-ocean waters of the southern Bay of Biscay which usually develop in winter by shedding from the seasonal poleward current flowing along the northern Spanish slope. These eddies have been intensively studied from the physical perspective. However, their effect on the distribution of biological properties and on the functioning of the pelagic ecosystem has not been assessed so far. To this aim, a sea-truth, multidisciplinary and comprehensive study of a SWODDY was carried out in summer 1998. The eddy, radius of ≈50 km, was initially centred at 45·5°N 6·0°W, being characterized by a relatively homogeneous core of water in the centre of the eddy extending from 80 to about 200 dbar. In the central region of the core, temperature (12·55–12·75°C) and salinity (≈35·70) values were higher than outside the eddy. The optical properties of the eddy also differed from those of the surrounding waters. A distinct biological signature was found associated with the eddy. Depth-integrated chlorophyll-a concentrations were 25% higher at the eddy centre where upward doming of the seasonal pycnocline (up to 30 dbar) occurred. Enhanced phytoplankton biomass was related to a higher contribution of >10 μm cells, mainly represented by diatoms and chrysophyceans. Phytoplankton and mesozooplankton species composition in and outside the eddy differed significantly reflecting the coastal origin of the water parcel trapped by the eddy. The sharp modification of the planktonic community composition, biomass and associated size-structure caused by slope water oceanic eddies are likely to exert a significant effect upon the upper trophic levels of the pelagic ecosystem of the southern Bay of Biscay.
The effect of ZrO2–3 mol/ Y2O3 sol-gel thin coatings on the fracture of soda-lime glass is investigated. For this purpose, a recently developed strength measurement procedure—based on making a brittle material flex on top of a soft substrate by applying a load with a spherical indenter to the top surface of the system—is used. Results suggest significant variation of both the average fracture strength and the Weibull modulus on coated glass slides. It is suggested that the origin of such variations can be attributed to a certain chemical degradation of the glass during the coating process. This chemical attack produces a highly homogeneous flaw population on the glass surface which governs its fracture behavior. Implications of this work for the practical use of coated glass layers are discussed.
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